%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 18 0 R 20 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20141220023458+00'00') /ModDate (D:20141220023458+00'00') /Title (The Jesuits and the Monarchy: Catholic Reform and Political Authority in France \(1590?1615\)) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4134 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(The Jesuits and the Monarchy: Catholic Reform and Political )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Authority in France \(1590?1615\))] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As popular television and film insists on reminding us, Jesuits were infamous in the early-modern period for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(plotting the deaths of monarchs. Shekhar Kapur?s portrayal of Edmund Campion in )] TJ ET BT 438.968 223.427 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Elizabeth)] TJ ET BT 484.304 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1998\), )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cloaked and dagger in hand, is a case in point. Eric Nelson?s book )] TJ ET BT 354.956 209.171 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Jesuits and the Monarchy)] TJ ET BT 499.604 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( will do )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(much to dispel this misconception, and much more. Nowhere, outside the British Isles, were the Jesuits more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reviled than in France: they were an integral part of the Catholic black legend until at least the separation of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Church and State just over a century ago. This tradition was invented during the French Wars of Religion, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 152.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not by Protestants, as we might have expected, but by the Gallican clergy and magistracy who were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(otherwise staunchly orthodox in their beliefs. In spite \(or because\) of this opposition from the French-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Catholic establishment, the fortunes of the French Jesuits were thrown in with those of the first Bourbon )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(monarch, Henri IV, however unlikely this may seem.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 83.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Eric Nelson admirably demonstrates that, with the inventiveness and adaptability that characterized his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reign, Henri IV sided with the Jesuits when they were at their most controversial and won their trust. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jesuits in return proved to be bulwarks of royal authority throughout the seventeenth century and contributed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(593)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Tuesday, 1 May, 2007)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Eric Nelson)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780754638889)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2005)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(55.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(290pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ashgate)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(https://www.ashgate.com/default.aspx?page=637&calcTitle=1&title_id=5236&edition_id=7506)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Aldershot)] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.195 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Luc Racaut)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 6073 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to the emergence of absolutism. This is a historiographical tour de force as, until recently, discussions of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(French Jesuits focused almost exclusively on the issues of papal authority in France and the controversy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(surrounding their expulsion and subsequent reinstatement with little understanding of the Gallican context. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In this sense )] TJ ET BT 96.344 753.701 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Jesuits and the Monarchy)] TJ ET BT 240.992 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is in good company with a number of other groundbreaking )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(works that have sought in the past ten years to refine our understanding of French Catholicism. I must )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(acknowledge here the contribution that was made by Alain Tallon, )] TJ ET BT 356.960 725.189 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(La France et le Concile de Trente)] TJ ET BT 519.608 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Paris, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1997\) and Thierry Wanegffelen, )] TJ ET BT 192.296 710.933 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Ni Rome Ni Genve)] TJ ET BT 287.276 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Paris, 1997\), in works that, sadly, remain untranslated, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and, more recently and in English, Jotham Parsons, )] TJ ET BT 282.992 696.677 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Church in the Republic)] TJ ET BT 415.652 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Washington, 2004\). These )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(works have done justice, in different ways, to the ambiguity and complexity of the French Catholic Church?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(involvement in the Reformations and Wars of Religion.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As in so many other respects, the idiosyncratic French response to the Reformations, both Catholic and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Protestant, conditioned the establishment, expulsion, and reinstatement of the Jesuits in France in ways that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have largely been ignored until now. With painstaking analysis of archival and printed sources, Nelson has )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reconstructed the Jesuits? legal battles with the parlement of Paris, fought in the last decade of the sixteenth )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the first two decades of the seventeenth centuries. There were a number of reasons why the presence of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Society of Jesus in France was problematic, too numerous to be gone into here, but they largely )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(congregate around the contested issue of papal supremacy in France. Indeed, the liberties of the Gallican )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Church, as this nebulous body of medieval legal precedents was called, denied some of the pope?s privileges )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that had been uncontested in other parts of pre-Reformation Europe. Thanks to Francis I?s victories in Italy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(against the Emperor at the beginning of the sixteenth century, some of these liberties were reclaimed by the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(king as part of a settlement with the pope known as the Concordat of Bologna \(1516\). The Church in France, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(imprecisely referred to as the Gallican Church, was thus already in much turmoil before the advent of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Reformation, torn as it was between the rival \(but sometimes joined-up\) claims of royal and papal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(supremacy. It is in the context of Gallican law that the controversy surrounding the Jesuits? oath of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(allegiance to the pope must be understood, and it was on this ground that the Paris parlement fought to keep )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(them out of the kingdom.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Eric Nelson?s book opens at the end of the French Wars of Religion, at a time when a great many of these )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(legal battles, although already fought and won by the Jesuits, were becoming controversial once more as the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prospects of religious peace loomed ever larger. It could be argued that the presence of the Jesuits had been )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tolerated by the Gallican authorities as the two formed a marriage of convenience for the purpose of fighting )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(heresy. After the Catholic League had overtaken the Protestant heresy as a ?clear and present danger? to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(political and religious stability in France, however, Gallican clergy and magistracy returned to their pet hate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and blamed the Jesuits for all the excesses of the League. By blaming the Jesuits as an external influence for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the demise of concord in France, the Gallican lawyers played the royal card of reconciliation between )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Protestant and Catholic former enemies as bon franais. Indeed, as Nelson has shown in his contribution to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Religion and Superstition in Reformation Europe)] TJ ET BT 270.356 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. Naphy and Parish \(Manchester, 2003\), the Jesuits )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(came to be portrayed as foreign agents of papal and Spanish interests which made them a convenient ?other? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(against whom Protestant and Catholic Frenchmen could make common cause.)] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 7405 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This solved a particularly difficult conundrum for the politiques: how to gain the trust of the king?s Catholic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(subjects without antagonizing former allies? Henri?s conversion and reconciliation with the pope was crucial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(if he was to pacify former Leaguers who had made it clear that they would not disband unless Henri )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(converted. But although they agreed that Henri should convert, the politiques did not want him to become a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(puppet of the pope. The Gallican magistracy therefore singled out the Jesuits as champions of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ultramontanism, the expulsion of whom would mollify the moderates. This placed Henri IV in a very )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(awkward position vis--vis the pope at a time when he was still trying to have an excommunication lifted. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Eric Nelson sheds light on this problematic issue in the context of an attempt on the king?s life in 1594. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Until that point, Henri IV had succeeded in preventing the expulsion of the Jesuits, but this time the Gallican )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lawyers were able to point the finger at them using circumstantial evidence: namely that the assassination of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Henri III in 1589 could be blamed on their advocacy of regicide. For the first time the Jesuits? reputation as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dispatchers of crowned heads was brought to bear to effect their expulsion from the kingdom.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The second chapter of )] TJ ET BT 143.312 601.397 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Jesuits and the Monarchy)] TJ ET BT 287.960 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( deals with the recall of the Jesuits at the king?s own )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(request in 1603, and contains, in my view, the monograph?s most original contribution to scholarship. As )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nelson articulates very lucidly, the king?s involvement in this particular episode of the Jesuits? fortunes in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(France had repercussions for the entire seventeenth century and the style of government that his successors )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(would adopt with the support of the Jesuits as newfound allies. As Henri IV had occasion to discover, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Gallican lawyers, although staunch defenders of royal supremacy, could be just as troublesome as his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Leaguer enemies or former Huguenot allies. Nelson demonstrates admirably how Henri IV used the Jesuits )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as pawns to placate the pope, along with his most vocal Catholic subjects, while chastising his critics within )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the parlement of Paris. It is ironic that this effectively turns on its head the Protestant myth of Jesuit generals )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(using Catholic monarchs as puppets.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Because of their oath of allegiance to the pope the Jesuits were free from entanglement in Gallican politics, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and this made them ideal candidates to help in the pursuit of an idiosyncratic royal campaign of Catholic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reform. Henri IV articulated the justification of his recall of the Jesuits using the same principle that had )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(allowed him to reconcile himself with Leaguer enemies and former Huguenot allies: clemency. Recourse to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this concept created a precedent on which successive Bourbon monarchs could fall back when legal or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(theological justifications failed them. The royal goodwill was inscrutable, unjustifiable, and yet at the heart )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of Henri?s style of government. Here I have to point out the success with which the first Bourbon king )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(propagandized his self-image as the ?good king Henri IV?, which was still echoing in French classrooms in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this reviewer?s lifetime. But this strategy was far cleverer than posterity has let on, as it made the Jesuits )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(indebted to the king and made them dependent on his protection which could be mitigated by no text of law )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(or recourse to theological argument.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In return, French Jesuits moved further away from their counterparts outside France in accommodating their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rule to the specific demands of Gallican law. For instance, Jesuits emphasized their credentials as ?good )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Frenchmen? to distance themselves from the accusations of colluding with Spain or Rome that had )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(flourished during the League. This might infringe on the principle of strict obedience to the pope, sometimes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(without the knowledge of their Father General, provoking the anger and outrage of the papal nuncio. In this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(respect, Nelson shows us, the Jesuits were no different from other religious orders that had accommodated )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their rule to the specific demands of Gallicanism in the course of the medieval and early-modern periods. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The example of the Franciscan order can be evoked here, as shown in a recent monograph by Megan )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Armstrong: )] TJ ET BT 92.348 163.973 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Politics of Piety: Franciscan Preachers during the Wars of Religion, 1560?1600)] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Rochester, 2004\). Here is another particular strongpoint of Nelson?s monograph: in no way were the Jesuits )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unique with respect to their response to Gallicanism. Aside from their black legend, gleefully replicated in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(later centuries by polemicists and historians alike, Jesuits were like any other order that had accommodated )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(its rule to the strictures imposed by Gallicanism. What is different here is what the king, Henri IV, made of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(these difficulties and how he used them to his advantage.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It is no coincidence that Jesuits became the favourite confessors of the Bourbons and that Henri IV endowed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the order with land and money for the building of a flagship Jesuit College at La Flche in 1603. The subject )] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 7809 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the third chapter is the expansion of the Society of Jesus under the auspices of the new alliance struck )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(between Henri and the Jesuits. The terms of this alliance were couched in a legal document known as the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Edict of Rouen \(1603\), drafted for the purpose of placating the objections of the Gallican lawyers in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(parlement of Paris. This document required a measure of compliance with Gallican principles which directly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contradicted the Jesuits? first rule of direct obedience to the pope. Moreover, it was reminiscent of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(strictures that had been placed on foreign regular clergy by Philip the Fair with the Pragmatic Sanction of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bourges in 1438 at the inception of the ?liberties of the Gallican Church?. It also limited the foundation of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(further Jesuit colleges, seen as unfair competition by the Gallican clergy, except at the direct behest of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(king himself, exemplified by the spectacular foundation of the Collge de La Flche. This strengthened the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(king?s hold on the Society, as it placed it beyond the reach of both the Gallican magistracy and clergy, but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(firmly at the mercy of the king?s pleasure or displeasure. Not unlike the Edict of Nantes, the Edict of Rouen )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was a carefully worded piece of legal finessing that at once placated Gallican criticism within the parlement )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the Sorbonne while clearly placing the Jesuits in the king?s debt.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The Jesuits were instrumental in a deliberate royal policy of Catholic reform and education of the French )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nobility?s sons which bore its fruits during the reigns of both Louis XIII and XIV. This is Nelson?s most )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(provocative and valuable contention: the crown?s alliance with the Jesuits in the face of Gallicanism )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(coincided with the Bourbons? move towards absolutism. Gallicanism, with its reliance on medieval )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(precedents and theoretical independence from Rome, no longer squared with the political needs of post-civil-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(war France and had become a thorn in the side of the crown. Thanks to the caveat that the king had skilfully )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(inserted in the Edict of Rouen, Jesuit foundations flourished under the direct patronage of Henri IV. In the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(meantime, the suspicion of regicide and collusion with foreign powers that had characterized anti-Jesuit )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(polemics leading up to their expulsion had declined. Although the Edict of Rouen limited membership of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Society of Jesus to Frenchmen, foreign Jesuits were reinstated in 1608 to remedy the shortage of vocations )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the kingdom. When Henri IV was stabbed to death in 1610, the fortunes of the French Jesuits fell into the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hands of the Gallicans who, under the regency of Marie de Mdicis, were able to apply the letter rather than )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the spirit of the Edict of Rouen.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The fourth and penultimate chapter of )] TJ ET BT 219.308 401.813 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Jesuits and the Monarchy)] TJ ET BT 363.956 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is devoted to the renewal of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jesuits?s troubles after the regicide of Henri IV that the judges were keen to pin on them. The Gallican )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lawyers were no more successful in linking Ravaillac to the Jesuits than they had been with Chastel who had )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(been the author of the previous attempt in 1594. The context, however, was different from that of 1594 when )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the parlement had nonetheless obtained the order?s expulsion: by 1610 the Jesuits had estranged themselves )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(enough from contentious arguments to thwart Gallican efforts to expel them again. This did not deter )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Gallican jurists from renewing their polemical war against the Society, using against it the defences of papal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(supremacy and treatises advocating regicide that had been penned by foreign Jesuits. It led to further )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tinkering with the Jesuit rule to accommodate Gallican principles expressed in the Edict of Rouen. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Interestingly, in this case the most vocal protestations did not emanate from the Jesuit Father General or the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(papal nuncio, but from members of the Gallican clergy itself. The bishop of Paris, for instance, protested at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the parlement?s infringement on his jurisdiction over theological works published in Paris, albeit by foreign )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jesuits. This highlights the relevance of much deeper divisions within the Gallican establishment that took )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(precedence, Nelson argues, over the wider issue of the Jesuits? presence in France.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It is necessary here to question Nelson?s insistence on using Jotham Parsons?s terminology, ?erudite )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Gallicanism?, to describe objections that lawyers of the parlement of Paris made to the Jesuits? presence in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the kingdom. Gallicanism is a complex concept, and there are perhaps as many interpretations of the so-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(called ?liberties of the Gallican Church? as they were Gallican lawyers and theologians. The term ?erudite )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Gallicanism? is used by Jotham Parsons in chapter three of )] TJ ET BT 319.976 133.205 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Church in the Republic)] TJ ET BT 452.636 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( to describe a form of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(humanist \(by opposition to medieval\) Gallicanism that emerged during the French Wars of Religion. I have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(suggested above a distinction, borrowed from Alain Tallon, )] TJ ET BT 323.312 104.693 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Conscience nationale et sentiment religieux en )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(France au XVIe sicle)] TJ ET BT 140.984 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Paris, 2002\), between ecclesiastical and judicial Gallicanism which nuances a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(monolithic understanding of this phenomenon; although it too fails to summarize with any precision the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(variety of views that Gallicanism encompassed during this period. )] TJ ET BT 354.644 61.925 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Jesuits and the Monarchy)] TJ ET endstream endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 22 0 R ] /Contents 21 0 R >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Length 5268 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(demonstrates a keen understanding of these ambiguities that is incompatible, in my view, with the use of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(term ?erudite Gallicanism? which is neither descriptive nor useful in the context of a much shorter )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chronological span than Parsons?s )] TJ ET BT 201.992 767.957 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Church in the Republic)] TJ ET BT 334.652 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In the end, the French Jesuits agreed to swear an oath in 1612, carefully worded to allow enough room for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interpretation, disavowing the writing of non-French Jesuits on royal supremacy and even sanctioning the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sorbonne?s Gallican theology. By then, Jesuits had found unlikely allies in the shape of a syndic of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(University of Paris and even a president of the parlement who had become sensitive to the role that Jesuits )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(could play in a new Catholic establishment. One of the many shades of Gallicanism included one that was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not averse to defending papal supremacy in the face of a strict judicial understanding of the Gallican )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(liberties, especially with respect to the Council of Trent. Nelson only mentions in passing the Gallican )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(arguments that conflated the Jesuits with Spain and the pope in denouncing the Council of Trent as forming )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(part of an elaborate foreign conspiracy hatched in Rome. It seems to me that the eventual registering of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(canons of the Council of Trent by the parlement, and the normalization of the Jesuits?s presence in France, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have a parallel history. That Nelson chose not to address the wider context of the Gallican response to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Council of Trent, if only to summarize Tallon?s conclusions, is regrettable as in the minds of many )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Gallicans the two topics were indistinguishable.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nelson?s fifth and final chapter describes the final stages of the neutering of the Jesuits?s specificity and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(removal of the last obstacle to their full incorporation in the French Church. On the eve of the majority of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Louis XIII, advocates of papal supremacy were more likely to be found within the ranks of the Gallican )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(clergy than amongst the Jesuits who, by then, had become bulwarks of royal supremacy against the writings )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of their foreign counterparts. Eric Nelson successfully argues in )] TJ ET BT 343.280 487.349 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Jesuits and the Monarchy)] TJ ET BT 487.928 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( that the Jesuit )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(order was turned, in spite of itself, into a political weapon that was wielded by Henri IV against those who )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(challenged his authority as rightful king of France. Counter-intuitively this book argues that rather than )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(being the Catholic firebrands and advocates of ultramontanism that they were made out to be, the French )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jesuits had carefully weaved their way through the intricacies of Gallican politics to the point where their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(presence was no longer challenged. Although credit for this lies squarely at the feet of Henri IV, their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(accommodation with the constraints of French law eventually earned them a key role in the Catholic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Reformation and rise of absolutism that marked the seventeenth century. Nelson?s book raises some )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(important research questions and is, in this respect, in good company with works that have transformed our )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(understanding of French Catholicism in the past ten years.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 313.807 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 296.027 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 296.027 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/593)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 294.633 m 322.316 294.633 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 269.656 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 255.256 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/4002)] TJ ET BT 34.016 240.856 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 23 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 294.9475 322.3157 306.8275 ] >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/593) >> endobj xref 0 24 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000349 00000 n 0000000386 00000 n 0000000603 00000 n 0000000685 00000 n 0000004871 00000 n 0000004980 00000 n 0000005090 00000 n 0000005199 00000 n 0000008760 00000 n 0000008888 00000 n 0000008972 00000 n 0000009037 00000 n 0000015163 00000 n 0000015228 00000 n 0000022686 00000 n 0000022751 00000 n 0000030613 00000 n 0000030697 00000 n 0000036018 00000 n 0000036146 00000 n trailer << /Size 24 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 36241 %%EOF