%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 24 0 R 28 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140818082645+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140818082645+01'00') /Title (The Cambridge Companion to the Age of Justinian) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 3991 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(The Cambridge Companion to the Age of Justinian)] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Whether or not Michael Maas is right that ?many excellent studies of Justinian and his age? exist \(p. 23, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(n.1\), there is certainly now an excellent introduction to the ?long sixth century??from the Council of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chalcedon \(451\) and the passing of the western empire \(476\), to setting the scene for the rise of Islam in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mid-seventh century?which can be recommended both to beginning and more advanced students. \(Here I )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(must declare an interest: Professor Maas kindly sent me a pre-publication copy during the last stages of my )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(DPhil; I found it invaluable; I have learnt still more from it in preparing this review.\) It is attractively )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(produced; well illustrated, annotated and indexed; with a guide to the main Latin and Greek sources?though )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(these are so varied and problematic that a separate chapter would have helped?and with a generous )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bibliography not confined to publications in English. It is, moreover, wide ranging, covering the whole )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mediterranean region; easy to read; avoids foreign languages; and is produced by well-known scholars, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(including Maas himself.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Its twenty chapters fall into four parts: the first and longest entitled ?Structures and Ideologies of Empire?. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 75.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Its strengths?we will come to the weaknesses?lie in its detailed characterization of a sophisticated pre-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(industrial state which, at Justinian?s death in 565, comprised the whole Mediterranean basin, bar Francia and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(594)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Tuesday, 1 May, 2007)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Editor:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Michael Maas)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780521817462)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2005)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(55.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(672pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cambridge University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.cambridge.org/uk/catalogue/catalogue.asp?isbn=9780521817462)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cambridge)] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.579 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Peter Bell)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7249 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Northern Spain. This was mutating, as Maas puts it, in his panoramic, scene-setting introduction \(?Roman )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Questions; Byzantine Answers?, pp. 3?27\), from an ancient to a medieval society, and into an ever more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(intensely Christian, ?Byzantine?, autocracy, ?whose focal point ... [was] the city of Constantinople and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(emperor who dominated its life? \(p. 21\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(John Haldon \(?Economy and Administration?, pp. 28?59\) then sketches in the society, economy, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(government of the empire, with its complex social hierarchies and the economic?and political?predominance )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of its upper, landowning classes; its ?immensely complex pattern of intersecting local, regional, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(supraregional networks of exchange, focussed around the shores and major ports of the Mediterranean, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Adriatic and the Aegean ...? \(p. 37\); and whose bureaucratic structure is illustrated through organization )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(charts?a joy to a former civil servant like me. But notwithstanding these strengths, Justinian?s ambitious )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(policies led to what we now would call ?imperial overstretch?.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Brian Croke \(?Justinian?s Constantinople?, pp. 60?86\) imaginatively makes the reader visualize Justinian?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(procession through the capital on Monday 11 August 559, of which a contemporary account survives, as he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(returned to the palace from an extended visit to Selymbria \(modern Silivri\), and comments on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(significance of the buildings that the emperor passed, whom he met, and what he did, including praying at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the tomb of his late wife, Theodora. This leads into a more systematic account of Justinian?s colossal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(building activity?whether of charitable institutions, churches, palaces, or simply monuments?and how it had )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(become a spectacular and symbolically-charged backdrop for the ever more intensely theatrical, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(religious, self-projection of the emperor.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(But other cities are not ignored. Kenneth Holum \(?The Classical City in the Sixth Century?, pp. 87?112\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(meets current controversies about their importance head on by showing )] TJ ET BT 379.952 475.349 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(both)] TJ ET BT 401.288 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( their continuing economic and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(administrative centrality?many remained large and flourishing?in the empire?s life; )] TJ ET BT 437.612 461.093 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(and)] TJ ET BT 455.612 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( also recognizing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that they had changed with, for example, the increasing loss of local political autonomy and institutions, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the rise of the churches and the bishop as major local economic and political players, along with the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dominance of unaccountable local notables. Cities even looked different as their classical design was slowly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(superseded by something less formal.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The two closely-related papers by Caroline Humfress \(?Law and Legal Practice in the Age of Justinian?, pp. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(161?84\) and Charles Padzernik \(?Justinianic Ideology and the Power of the Past?, pp. 185?214\) are among )] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the highlights of the collection. They would provide a tiro with a first-class \(and well-sourced\) introduction )] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to the central, politically important, legal innovations of the age, to which the emperor attached, as Padzernik )] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(shows, enormous ideological importance, but which so often are left, in rebarbative texts, to Roman Law )] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(specialists. Humfress provides an exemplary exegesis of the structure and execution of Justinian?s legal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(programme: how?in ideological terms?it both Christianized a legal system centred on the emperor as never )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(before, but also how it worked throughout the empire and was capable of exploitation, at least in principle, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by humbler members of society. Padzernik illuminates in greater detail, also following closely his legal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sources, the ideological logic of these reforms and, in particular, how Justinian strove to reconcile a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(traditional concept of Roman Law as something which even emperors ought to respect with Justinian?s own )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(vision of the emperor as, under God, both the sole source of law and a source of innovation - which entailed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(departing from that tradition. He does so the more effectively by analysing the contrasting views of law and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(empire in Ammianus Marcellinus \(fourth century\) and two-sixth century writers, the anonymous )] TJ ET BT 500.948 192.485 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(On )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Political Science)] TJ ET BT 115.004 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and John Lydus. He may have gone too far, however, in seeing John as more supportive of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the emperor, as opposed to his ministers, than he was?but dared not say.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This section comprises two further essays: A D Lee, ?The Empire at War? \(pp. 113?33\), and Peregrine )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hordern, ?Mediterranean Plague in the Age of Justinian? \(pp. 139-60\). The former spares us detailed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(military history, focussing instead on both the military infrastructure?including the dependence on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?barbarian? allies, the continuing importance of infantry, and finance?and on the army?s effectiveness, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(whose successes in the field, he claims?while, however, passing over the traumatic fall of Antioch in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(540?were not wholly matched in siegecraft or in dealing with irregular forces.)] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 18 0 R 20 0 R 22 0 R ] /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 8746 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For Hordern, the ?Early Medieval Pandemic \(EMP\)?, first recorded in 542, remains a scholarly ?black hole )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(... it absorbs a great deal of our energy. It gives very little out? \(p.157\). Indeed, most of his chapter is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(devoted to explaining how little we do know, including whether it was bubonic plague at all! Whether or not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his scepticism is overdone?some recent work plausibly relates the disease to Byzantine trading links with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(East Africa where a plague-infected rat population apparently existed close to the coast?he might usefully )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have dedicated more of his limited space to assessing the disputed impact of the EMP, whatever it was, in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(religious and cultural as well as in economic terms \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 284.312 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 284.312 697.539 m 290.312 697.539 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 290.312 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 672.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(My reservations, therefore, about this key, initial section do not derive from what the contributors say, but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 658.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(what they either ignore or underplay. The picture presented here of the late empire?the same holds of later )] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contributions?is largely confined to the surfaces of imperial life. Examples make this clearer. This section is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(explicitly about ?ideology?. Padzernik?s definition of the concept, however, shows what is lacking. He )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(defines ideology as ?an articulated and disseminated vision of "the way things ought to be?? \(p. 188\). But )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this omits how ideologies ?reflect and advance )] TJ ET BT 261.644 601.397 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(the aims and interests of significant social groups)] TJ ET BT 500.660 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( with the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(aims of justifying, contesting, or changing social and political arrangements? \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 410.636 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 410.636 585.747 m 416.636 585.747 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 416.636 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\). Thus Maas and Padzernik, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for instance, are not wrong in the motivations that they ascribe to Justinian?s policies, but they do not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(systematically address the equally salient and complementary issues of what deeper conflicts and struggles )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(those policies )] TJ ET BT 102.680 544.373 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(also)] TJ ET BT 122.684 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( addressed. These included, as we can see from the narrative of the Nika Riots \(p. 532\), )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(much senatorial disaffection \(combined with popular resentments\), and the rise of ever-richer notables )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(during our period, whose social position was buttressed by the operations of the monetary system. It also )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(passes over the intense conflicts in the provinces. Haldon, all too briefly, mentions agricultural )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exploitation?but you would not guess of the existence of what, with a little pardonable exaggeration perhaps, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the distinguished French scholar, Kaplan \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 237.320 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 237.320 471.699 m 243.320 471.699 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 243.320 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\), described as l?anarchie justinienne. For this we have copious )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(evidence in, for example, )] TJ ET BT 158.648 458.837 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Novels)] TJ ET BT 191.312 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( 24, 25, 27, 28, 29, 30, and 31 dealing with military and administrative )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reform in Asia Minor alone. Here the mischiefs addressed include landowners preying on smaller )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(landowners, imperial estates, the church, and everyone else; ?big villages? resisting tax-collectors; and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(widespread banditry. Also official corruption was so serious in, for instance, Egypt \(the richest province of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the empire\) that, following military intervention there in the late 530s, the emperor could describe it as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?threatening the very cohesion of our state? \()] TJ ET BT 250.292 387.557 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Edict)] TJ ET BT 275.624 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( 13\). The emperor had, as a minimum, to restore and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(maintain public order; but of greater long-term importance, through the measures and rhetoric described )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(here, was )] TJ ET BT 82.328 359.045 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(legitimizing)] TJ ET BT 139.004 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( his rule. \(Environmental disasters and foreign invasion eased neither this task nor the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(collection of taxation, with the intense resentments this generated, needed both for building works, defence, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and expansionary military policies.\) A book entitled )] TJ ET BT 287.324 330.533 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(A Companion to Roman Society in the Sixth Century)] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(might not sell as well, but with its present title?and the foregrounding of the emperor it entails?and through )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(taking insufficient account of a growing body of scholarship associated now, for instance, with Jairus Banaji, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Peter Sarris, and Chris Wickham \(who feature, however, in the bibliography\), the picture of the empire it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(offers is avoidably bland. It is, in fact, a back-handed compliment to Justinian and his spin doctors that )] TJ ET BT 530.300 273.509 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(their)] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ideological view of the world and their activities can still be taken largely at face value.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Part 2, ?Religion and Philosophy?, is more focussed. The first three papers: ?The Legacy of Chalcedon: )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Christological Problems and their Significance? \(pp. 215?38\) by Patrick Gray; ?Society and Community in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Christian East? \(pp. 239 - 66\) by Lucas van Rompay; and ?Emperors and Popes in the Sixth Century? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(pp. 267?90\) by Claire Sotinel provide collectively a wide-ranging and lucid introduction to a subject, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(theological conflict, that students can find off-putting, and whose political salience, in our secular, European )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(society, can be hard to understand. You want to know the basic issue at Chalcedon?Christ?s having one or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(two natures?and how the dispute engrossed the Mediterranean world? Gray will tell you. Interested in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(learning how ?anti-Chalcedonian? communities were formed, which still exist, or how these disputes spilled )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(over the Roman borders into Persia and Africa? Van Rompay?s your man. How successive bishops of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Rome, notwithstanding imperial pressure, played consistently?and hard?to secure Roman doctrinal primacy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(at the expense, if necessary, of Justinian?s aim of achieving ?the peace of the church? \(and internal political )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concord\), is well described by Sotinel in a contribution which both sticks closely to the sources, and, in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contrast to the two ecclesiastical historians, takes fuller account of the wider geo-political context, although )] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 19 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 284.3117 697.8535 290.3117 709.7335 ] >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 410.6357 586.0615 416.6357 597.9415 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 23 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 237.3197 472.0135 243.3197 483.8935 ] >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 26 0 R ] /Contents 25 0 R >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Length 7711 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Gray understands the political character of that emperor?s ecclesiastical policies??a pragmatic power )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(broker? \(p. 228\). She also brings out the western dimension of these theological conflicts, often occluded by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concentration on religious developments in the Eastern Mediterranean.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Unfortunately, neither Gray nor van Rompay always link their narratives as closely to their primary sources )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as they might. This is a loss to the student who needs the type of detailed guide to the turbid oceans of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(theological literature that Humphress and Padzernik provide for the law. It also encourages )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(misinterpretation. Thus Gray \(p. 229\) has needlessly to explain away a joint law of Justin and Justinian \(527\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(allegedly condemning anti-Chalcedonians \(or Miaphysites\) as running counter to what he had earlier, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(correctly, identified as Justinian?s intention to reach an accommodation with them?as well as with Rome. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(However, while this enactment, )] TJ ET BT 189.320 656.165 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Codex Justinianus)] TJ ET BT 277.652 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( 1.5.12, artfully condemns ?heretics? in very general )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(terms?unlike Jews, Samaritans, ?Hellenes? \(= Pagans\) and Manichaeans?it nowhere singles out anti-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chalcedonians as such. Nor does the other anti-heretical legislation in CJ 1.5: they were not specifically )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(targeted by imperial legislation until Novel 42 \(537\), after Pope Agapetus had visited Constantinople. For )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Gray, he was then a refugee \(p. 232\) while van Rompay almost ignores him \(p. 246\). But this would have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(crippled his negotiating position, thus reducing the importance of his visit as the turning point it was turning )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(point in church politics. Sotinel, correctly, describes him as an ambassador of the Gothic King Theodahad )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(p. 278\) at a time when Justinian?s foreign policy was focussed on winning the West, and when securing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(papal support was accordingly especially important?even if this antagonized anti-Chalcedonians.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(But religion is more than theology. We can be grateful, therefore, to Derek Krueger for his ?Christian Piety )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and Practice in the Sixth Century? \(pp. 291?315\). What he says, for example, about the increasing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(magnificence of the imperial liturgy in particular, the tangible and therapeutic elements of Christian cult )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(generally, or the more intense involvement of the worshipper through, for example, pilgrimage, penitence, or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the increasing importance of icons, is valuable. Unfortunately, forgetting that ideology is also a matter of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(social practice, he too fails to relate liturgical development, including the ever-greater sacralization of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(emperor, and iconography to the political and cultural conflicts of the age.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The value of this section would also have been greater had it addressed the Paganism that, Gibbon noted \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 542.264 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 542.264 402.675 m 548.264 402.675 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 548.264 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\), )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?still lurked in the most refined and rustic sections of mankind??and which Justinian strove to extirpate. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(most we get is in Wildberg?s interesting article on ?Philosophy in the Age of Justinian?, which perhaps )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(assumes too much previous knowledge of what Plato or Aristotle stood for, let alone of Neo-Platonism. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nevertheless, he does bring out just how much philosophy was produced in this era, mainly in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(commentaries?a livelier genre then than today. Unsurprisingly, Wildberg reaches no definite conclusion on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the legal basis for the destruction of the \(private\) pagan philosophical ?School of Athens?, though it clearly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(received a devastating blow. This was in keeping, however, with the regime?s consistent hostility )] TJ ET BT 504.956 304.277 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(both)] TJ ET BT 526.292 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?heretics??Pagans, Jews, and Manichaeans?displayed in legislation which, as was characteristic of imperial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(legislation more generally, effectively gave local activists the right to take action; )] TJ ET BT 428.288 275.765 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(and)] TJ ET BT 446.288 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, one must add, to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(classical, ?Hellenic? culture and the elites it sustained more generally, even if classical philosophy retained )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(an ambivalent place in Christian theology.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Part 3 addresses ?Literature and the Arts? \(pp. 343?400\). Joseph Alchermes \(?Art and Architecture?, pp. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(343?77\) might have said more about what the arts?including the survival of pagan iconography?reveal about )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contemporary mentalits. He is, however, well aware, for example, that the church of Hagia Sophia, rebuilt )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by Justinian after the near catastrophe of the Nika riots, and other elements of his extensive building )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(programmes, were as much works of imperial \(and ideological\) self promotion and legitimation as anything )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(we find in the legislation analysed by Padzernik. But what he does have to say in reviewing the artistic and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(architectural achievement of the period, including technical innovation, provides, too, an excellent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(introduction.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Claudia Rapp \(?Literary Culture under Justinian?\), by contrast, is less sensitive to the ideological dimensions )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of her subject matter. She contends that the period was not?despite Justinian?s policies to enforce orthodox )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Christian conformity with concomitant persecution of intellectuals, book burnings, or the harassment of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?deviants? of all kinds?one of ?rustic boorishness?, as the later Byzantine writer, Zonaras, put it. )] TJ ET endstream endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 27 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 542.2637 402.9895 548.2637 414.8695 ] >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 30 0 R 32 0 R 34 0 R 36 0 R 38 0 R 40 0 R ] /Contents 29 0 R >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Length 7627 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Classicizing literature, she claims, flourished \(though it barely outlived the century\). But her case is only )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(made plausible by an almost-complete omission of what was perhaps, after the law, the most characteristic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(literary product of the age, and one practised by the emperor himself?theology. She omits from her )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discussion, for instance, the greatest \(anti-Chalcedonian\) theologian, Severus, or the important church )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(histories of John of Ephesus, both of which survive only in Syriac; she ignores the excoriation of classical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(culture and philosophy in, most strikingly, the hymns of Romanus and the )] TJ ET BT 392.684 725.189 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Akathistos Hymn)] TJ ET BT 474.344 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, which she cites )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on other grounds; she has relatively little to say about the rise of other non-classical genres, including saints? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Lives)] TJ ET BT 59.348 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and chronicles \(whose popularity she, however, recognizes\). Such oversights are not wholly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(compensated for by her valuable explanation of why literature was an elite pursuit and why people could not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?curl up in a corner and get blissfully lost in a cheap paperback ...? \(p. 377\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The final part, ?Peoples and Communities? \(pp. 401?534\), is about life at the margins: literally, in the case )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of Walter Pohl \(?Justinian and the Barbarian Kingdoms?, pp. 448?76\), Geoffrey Greatrex \(?Byzantium and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the East in the Sixth Century?, pp. 477?509\), and Fred Donner \(?The Background to Islam?, pp. 510?34\); )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(metaphorically for Walter de Lange \(?Jews in the Age of Justinian?, pp. 401?26\), and Leslie Brubaker \(?The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Age of Justinian: Gender and Society?, pp. 427?47\). The former are excellent, straightforward overviews of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their subjects, and Maas should be congratulated on opting for a vision of the ?long? late antiquity that can )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(accommodate Islam. De Lange is equally straightforward in chronicling the widening gulf between an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(aggressively Christian regime and the Jews, whose deteriorating legal status he describes. Brubaker, by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contrast, provides a stimulating analysis of how Procopius exploited contemporary gender stereotypes to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(savage the Empress Theodora. This segues into a general introduction to the relationship between gender )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and language in Byzantium. In a book not conspicuous for methodological originality, this is a treat, even if )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Juliana Anicias?s paean to her relatives inscribed on the walls of the church of S. Polyeuctos \(which she )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(built\) can be read not simply, la Brubaker, as an assertion of female, family values but as a political )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(statement, from a scion of the highest aristocracy, challenging the ?upstart? Justinian near the vulnerable )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(beginning of his reign.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Everyone brings to history their own experience and points of view. Mine reflect a civil service career )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mainly in Northern Ireland, with forays into the Middle East and Colombia. I am perhaps more sensitized, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(therefore, to the problems of securing and maintaining public order and establishing the legitimate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(institutions that underpin it than those who have spent their days in less troubled academe. Yet Justinian had )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(these problems. Acutely. In underplaying them, this )] TJ ET BT 285.992 359.045 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Companion)] TJ ET BT 341.996 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( blunts the sharp edges of reality. But this is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(far from denying that it remains a most useful book, fact-rich, for which countless readers and students, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(including myself, will remain grateful.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 295.635 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 265.018 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 265.013 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For the former, M. Meier, )] TJ ET BT 191.324 265.013 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Das Andere Zeitalter Justinians: Kontingenzerfahrung und )] TJ ET BT 64.016 250.757 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Kontingenzbewltigung im 6. Jahrhundert n. Chr.)] TJ ET BT 304.028 250.757 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Gttingen, 2003\). )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 399.020 250.757 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 399.020 249.363 m 453.008 249.363 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 236.506 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 236.501 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For this definition: M. Freeden, )] TJ ET BT 218.348 236.501 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Ideology: A Very Short Introduction)] TJ ET BT 392.324 236.501 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Oxford, 2003\). My italics. )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 528.308 236.501 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back )] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 528.308 235.107 m 555.968 235.107 l S BT 64.016 222.245 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 220.851 m 90.344 220.851 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 207.994 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 207.989 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(M. Kaplan, )] TJ ET BT 121.340 207.989 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Les hommes et la terre Byzance de VIme au XIme sicles)] TJ ET BT 403.604 207.989 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Paris, 1992\). )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 474.596 207.989 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 474.596 206.595 m 528.584 206.595 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 193.738 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 193.733 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(E. Gibbon, )] TJ ET BT 119.348 193.733 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire)] TJ ET BT 305.996 193.733 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, c. 47, ed. Womersley \(London, 1994\). )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 498.296 193.733 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 498.296 192.339 m 552.284 192.339 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 167.477 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 153.221 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 148.495 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 130.715 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 130.715 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/594)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 129.321 m 322.316 129.321 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 104.344 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 89.944 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/4004)] TJ ET BT 34.016 75.544 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 31 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 399.0197 249.6775 453.0077 261.5575 ] >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 33 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 528.3077 235.4215 555.9677 247.3015 ] >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 35 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 64.0157 221.1655 90.3437 233.0455 ] >> endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 36 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 37 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 474.5957 206.9095 528.5837 218.7895 ] >> endobj 37 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 38 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 39 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 498.2957 192.6535 552.2837 204.5335 ] >> endobj 39 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 40 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 41 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 129.6355 322.3157 141.5155 ] >> endobj 41 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/594) >> endobj xref 0 42 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000349 00000 n 0000000386 00000 n 0000000557 00000 n 0000000639 00000 n 0000004682 00000 n 0000004791 00000 n 0000004901 00000 n 0000005010 00000 n 0000008571 00000 n 0000008699 00000 n 0000008783 00000 n 0000008848 00000 n 0000016150 00000 n 0000016248 00000 n 0000025047 00000 n 0000025175 00000 n 0000025211 00000 n 0000025339 00000 n 0000025375 00000 n 0000025503 00000 n 0000025539 00000 n 0000025623 00000 n 0000033387 00000 n 0000033515 00000 n 0000033551 00000 n 0000033670 00000 n 0000041350 00000 n 0000041478 00000 n 0000041514 00000 n 0000041642 00000 n 0000041678 00000 n 0000041804 00000 n 0000041840 00000 n 0000041968 00000 n 0000042004 00000 n 0000042132 00000 n 0000042168 00000 n 0000042296 00000 n trailer << /Size 42 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 42391 %%EOF