%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 16 0 R 20 0 R 22 0 R 28 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140918192607+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140918192607+01'00') /Title (Myth and Materiality in a Woman's World: Shetland, 1800?2000) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R 14 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4421 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Myth and Materiality in a Woman's World: Shetland, 1800?2000)] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Professor Abrams has written a profound and illuminating study of a relatively-isolated, but not inward-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(looking, community which has been perceived by outsiders as a quintessentially masculine society and yet )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which was, at least until the 1960s, very much ?a woman?s world?. This was certainly the case in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(demographic terms: when the economy was dominated by fishing, a male occupation in Shetland, men were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(regularly absent for long periods, leaving the landscape populated by women. Abrams sees Shetland as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unique, not just in the British Isles, but in Western Europe, as a place where women dominated the family, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the economy, and the cultural imagination. Indeed, it is the latter which provides much of the evidence for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this work of historical anthropology, since it draws richly and originally on the female tradition of story-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(telling in Shetland. In so doing, the author makes us re-consider the usual assumptions on which much )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(women?s history is based, notably that there were separate spheres for the sexes, and the dominance of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ideology of domesticity well into the twentieth century. In addition, she argues that we should expand our )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concept of power to include control over resources, which women in Shetland possessed. She posits )] TJ ET BT 34.016 87.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Shetland as an alternative story to, and not simply a regional variation in, the history of women in Western )] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Europe. Indeed, when she began research on Shetland, she was writing a survey history of women in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 59.483 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nineteenth-century Europe \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 168.644 59.483 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 168.644 58.089 m 174.644 58.089 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 174.644 59.483 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\). What she realized was that the focus for such a history was the industrialized )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(595)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Tuesday, 1 May, 2007)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lynn Abrams)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780719065927)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2005)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(49.99)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(256pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Manchester University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.manchesteruniversitypress.co.uk/catalogue/book.asp?id=1041)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Manchester)] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.579 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jane McDermid)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 15 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 168.6437 58.4035 174.6437 70.2835 ] >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 18 0 R ] /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 7599 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(economies, while she also came to see that the case study of Shetland revealed considerable differences even )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(within peasant, fishing, and island communities.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Throughout the nineteenth century, women dominated Shetland in terms of numbers; the ratio of women to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(men was greater there than for any other part of the British Isles. As the author records, the census of 1861 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(revealed the most extreme imbalance of the century, with 143 women to every one hundred men in Shetland. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Although this dropped thereafter, it still remained significant, and higher, than elsewhere in Britain until the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(end of the century; by the 1901 census, there were 127 women to one hundred men in Shetland. Moreover, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Abrams points out that these figures were probably an underestimation, since they were taken in April before )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the men left for the fishing. One result of this sexual imbalance was that the fertility rate was significantly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(below the average for Scotland as a whole. By the end of the nineteenth century, Shetland?s birthrate was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(20.2 per thousand of the population; Scotland?s average was thirty per thousand \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 425.624 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 425.624 640.515 m 431.624 640.515 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 431.624 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\). Interestingly, in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Shetland there was an extremely low incidence of illegitimacy. In 1861, 4.3 per one hundred births were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(illegitimate, compared to Scotland?s average of 9.2 per one hundred; by 1901, this had reduced for both but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the gap had narrowed only slightly: 3.7 in Shetland, compared to Scotland?s average of 6.3. Moreover, a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(higher proportion of women worked in Shetland, and a lower proportion married than anywhere else in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Britain, while the mean age of marriage was higher.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The rate of marriage among Shetland?s men, in contrast, was similar to that elsewhere in Scotland, while )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Abrams shows that the rate of migration from Shetland was considerably higher for men than for women. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Despite the fact that efforts were made to encourage single women to migrate to Australia during the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?hungry? 1840s, few did. In each decade between 1831 and 1861, around 1,500 men emigrated in contrast to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(about 500 women. The author suggests that the centrality of women to the culture of Shetland both )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(empowered them and made them reluctant to leave. The spinster, who was regarded with pity, and seen as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(peripheral, in the rest of the British Isles, was a productive member of Shetland society, as least for so long )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as she was able to work. Like the married woman, she could help on the croft, care for younger children )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(while the mother worked, knit, and engage in seasonal work such as gutting fish. Indeed, if a married woman )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was widowed, the spinster might play a crucial role in the survival of the household, though, as Abrams )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(shows, in some desperate cases even this support might not be enough.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Besides collections of folk narratives and oral traditions, Abrams uses sources from the nineteenth century, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(such as travellers? accounts and the testimony of witnesses to government inquiries, to show that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Shetlanders were aware of their difference, and that visitors were both impressed and troubled by this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(otherness. Indeed, by the 1880s, the situation of women in Shetland was taken as a sign of backwardness )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(compared to the rest of Britain where, Abrams argues, working- as well as middle-class women were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(increasingly confined, at least in ideological discourse, to the domestic sphere, however that was defined. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This is not to deny that there was a gendered division of labour in Shetland, nor that it was a patriarchal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(society, but it is to show how both were limited by the values associated with such a fishing-crofting )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(community, most notably those of self-sufficiency and egalitarianism. Abrams suggests that it was this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unusual and prolonged absence of men which altered women?s expectations in a patriarchal society and led )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to a shift in power relations; but she is careful not to claim too much for a matrifocal society such as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Shetland, and is at pains to point out that while the woman ran the croft, she could not have paid the rent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(without a man at the fishing. Hence, the position of the widow or unmarried mother in rural areas was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(precarious, which Abrams suggests might explain a tendency of these groups to move to Lerwick, a thriving )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(commercial centre. Again, the public prominence of women in Shetland?s urban centre came as a shock to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(visitors and incomers. ?Public women?, people from the mainland believed, had low moral standards and, as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Abrams points out, this led to a kind of Mary Magdalene image of Shetland women which sat uneasily )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(beside the other notion, based on those low illegitimacy rates, of them as peculiarly virtuous.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Shetland was distinguished by its Norse heritage and its economic structure. Into the twentieth century it was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(primarily a fishing community which had a fundamental, if secondary, dependence on crofting, a form of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(small-scale subsistence farming. There was a basic sexual division of labour, with the men responsible for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the former and the women the latter. The author?s discussion of the economy reveals that women played a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prominent role, and were credited as doing so, despite the fact that since the end of the seventeenth century )] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 19 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 425.6237 640.8295 431.6237 652.7095 ] >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 21 0 R >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Length 7486 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the tenancy of crofts depended on fishing, and so was dominated by men. Moreover, two waves of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(clearances \(the 1820s to the 1840s, and the 1860s to the 1870s\) resulted in the concentration of the land in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(very few, generally male, hands. Yet Abrams reveals how the croft was more than a type of economic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(activity: it represented a way of life, and one which was in practice dependent on women. This was due not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(only to frequent and lengthy male absences, but to a significant death rate among men of working age, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(related to the dangers of open-boat fishing. This underpinned a culture of loss, represented by what Abrams )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(terms the ?tragic woman?. However, the latter was not seen, except by outsiders, as a downtrodden victim; )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rather, the image within Shetland is of a strong woman who overcame adversity to ensure both her own and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(her family?s survival. This heroic figure is memorialized as uncomplaining and stoic, emotionally as well as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(economically self-sufficient, not as an isolated individual, but as deeply integrated into the community.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In contrast to the rest of the British Isles of the late-nineteenth century, women in Shetland continued to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(work on the land, though this had declined. The 1901 census showed that around sixty-six per cent of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(employed females were concentrated in the hosiery and textile industries, fifteen per cent in agriculture \(a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(considerable underestimate, since female ?dependents?, who usually worked on crofts from at least the age )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of ten, were excluded from the occupied category\), and eight per cent in domestic service. The latter )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(confirms how different Shetland was from the rest of Britain, where domestic service was still the biggest )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(employer of women. Interestingly, Abrams observes that it was not simply the fact that women still took on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(such heavy physical labour which so shocked visitors to Shetland, but that when the men were at home they )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(did not relieve the women, but rather appeared to the outsider to be lazy in contrast to the hard-working )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(female drudges. Certainly, the men were central to the main economic activity of fishing, but that took place )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(away from home, and paradoxically made men marginal there and curiously absent from the women?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(stories which Abrams analyses. Women, on the other hand, were central to both crofting and the associated )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(craft of knitting. Again, the latter was not so much a domestic as an economic activity for Shetland women. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In an economy with few alternatives for women to earn, knitting was a necessity. Often it was bartered )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rather than sold for cash. Abrams reveals a complex process of bargaining, bound up with the truck system )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which the Truck Act 1872 failed to ameliorate. Indeed, while the Crofting Commission at the end of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century gave greater security and fairer rents to tenants, barter in knitting continued into the twentieth )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century. By then, there were more cash-paying jobs open to women. From the 1880s until the First World )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(War, the herring industry grew, and it employed women in fish-processing on a seasonal basis. However, as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Abrams points out, many of these women workers were not from Shetland, but from other parts of Scotland.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Fish- processing was a sociable job, whereas most Shetland women worked for their own household, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their sociability centred on family and neighbours. There were few public places of entertainment in rural )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(areas, and these were in any case usually associated with men. Abrams suggests that the lack of such )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(respectable amenities for women may have predisposed them to attend religious events, which they did in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(large numbers. Indeed, the women seem to have enjoyed the spectacle offered by itinerant preachers, both )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(men and women, and to regard their services as a form of dramatic entertainment, in contrast to the dour and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(judgmental discourses of the Church of Scotland and the Free Church.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Abrams painstakingly builds up a picture of a female culture which depended on solidarity and reciprocity. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Both church and sheriff court records, however, reveal another side to these women, and Abrams uses this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(evidence to show that they were prepared to resort to the law to defend their interests, even against each )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(other. For example, in a society of such scarce resources, women contested ownership of both food and fuel. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Moreover, despite the centrality of community to Shetland society and culture, compassion was sorely tested )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by women who fell on hard times \(the unmarried mother, the widow with young children, the elderly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(widow\). A woman who could not work was a liability. Abrams cites cases brought against sons who refused )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to support mothers, against men for breach of promise, or fathers for refusing to support illegitimate children )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which show that Shetland women were prepared to assert themselves.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Yet as Abrams acknowledges, these strong women nevertheless believed that there were fundamental )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(differences between the sexes. True, the ideals of Victorian womanhood seem to have had little relevance for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(most Shetland women, but the author traces changes in both discourse and the economy from around the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1860s. In terms of the latter, both the crofting and fishing industries were in decline by the end of the )] TJ ET endstream endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 24 0 R 26 0 R ] /Contents 23 0 R >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Length 7109 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nineteenth century. Fishing tenure itself was coming to an end in the 1880s, undermined by the growth of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(herring industry and off-shore cod fishing, as well as by improved communications with the Scottish )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mainland. Shetland men by the turn of the next century could become independent fishermen; however, as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Abrams notes, there was no such transformation in the position of Shetland women.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Moreover, while women had been celebrated for their ability to do ?men?s work?, itself a reflection of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(continuing belief in distinctive gender roles, relations between the sexes were increasingly discussed in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(language of Victorian respectability introduced by the people from the mainland who staffed Shetland?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(institutions. They also brought the pre-occupations of Evangelical Christianity, particularly with temperance )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and sexual morality. These discourses overtook the earlier language of gender equality \(at least of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?different but equal? variety\), according to Abrams. Late-Victorian officialdom insisted that moral order )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(required strict control over female sexuality, which previously in Shetland had been related to material )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(circumstances. Women were still prepared to defend their reputations, but they came up against different )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(expectations. Thus, for example, where previously a couple sharing a bed was seen as part of the courtship )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(process and was used by the woman in a breach of promise case, by the late-nineteenth century it was taken )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as proof of the woman?s loose morals.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Of course, the uniqueness of this ?world of women? was related to poverty and social homogeneity. By the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(late-nineteenth century, Lerwick?s economy in particular was thriving and it was becoming more socially )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(diverse. With such changes, the power of Shetland?s women diminished. Yet Abrams has found no evidence )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that women?s active role in the economy was decreasing. They certainly never enjoyed the growth in job )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(opportunities or wage-earning capacity that men did, but Abrams argues perceptively that women?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(economic autonomy empowered their cultural autonomy, which was not bound by domestic values. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nevertheless, while her contention that the ideals of Victorian womanhood had little relevance for Shetland )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(women is convincing, such notions were increasingly articulated; and while women did have control over )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(household resources and a degree of authority in decision-making, they did not hold any formal positions of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(power. Abams?s overall argument that we need to widen the concept of power to acknowledge female )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(control over resources is well-made; but, as she also acknowledges, those resources were scarce. These )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(women struggled to survive in a harsh economy of truck and barter which restricted their chances as well as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their choices in what remained a deeply patriarchal society. Shetland?s patriarchy was less evident than )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(elsewhere in Britain, and possibly subverted because of the long absences of men, but the power which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(women had, as household producers and culture-bearers, seems to have been limited, and never challenged )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the established order.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Women outnumbered men in Shetland until the 1960s, but today are in a slight minority in the population. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The late-twentieth century witnessed a demographic resurgence, mainly due to incomers. The oil industry )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that transformed the economy has offered most opportunities to men. As the author points out, economic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(growth and population change stimulated Shetlanders? interest in their past, especially as the oil industry is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(new, has no roots in that past, and threatened to push women?s role into obscurity. The original )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interpretation offered here will help to ensure that the crucial part played by women in Shetland?s history )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(will not be forgotten. It also makes a powerful case for that history representing a different narrative of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(women in the past. However, any answer to the question of whether this offers an alternative to, rather than )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(just a regional variation of, women?s history in Britain or Western Europe remains tentative without further )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(case studies, including of Shetland itself. This closely-argued book should serve as an inspiration.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 155.331 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 124.714 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 124.709 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(See L. Abrams, )] TJ ET BT 141.668 124.709 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Making of Modern Woman: Europe 1789?1918)] TJ ET BT 391.640 124.709 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London, 2002\). )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 475.964 124.709 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 475.964 123.315 m 529.952 123.315 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 110.458 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 110.453 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The average birth rate for England and Wales in the same period, 1896?1900, was 29.3, and for )] TJ ET BT 64.016 96.197 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ireland, 1895?99, it was 23.4. See C. Cook, )] TJ ET BT 275.996 96.197 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Britain in the Nineteenth Century 1815?1914)] TJ ET BT 493.664 96.197 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Harlow, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 81.941 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1999\), pp.112?13. )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 154.340 81.941 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 154.340 80.547 m 208.328 80.547 l S endstream endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 25 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 475.9637 123.6295 529.9517 135.5095 ] >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 27 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 154.3397 80.8615 208.3277 92.7415 ] >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 30 0 R ] /Contents 29 0 R >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Length 755 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 777.487 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 759.707 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 759.707 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/595)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 758.313 m 322.316 758.313 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 733.336 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 718.936 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/4013)] TJ ET BT 34.016 704.536 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 31 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 758.6275 322.3157 770.5075 ] >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/595) >> endobj xref 0 32 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000349 00000 n 0000000386 00000 n 0000000570 00000 n 0000000659 00000 n 0000005132 00000 n 0000005241 00000 n 0000005351 00000 n 0000005460 00000 n 0000009021 00000 n 0000009149 00000 n 0000009233 00000 n 0000009359 00000 n 0000009395 00000 n 0000009479 00000 n 0000017131 00000 n 0000017259 00000 n 0000017295 00000 n 0000017360 00000 n 0000024899 00000 n 0000024990 00000 n 0000032152 00000 n 0000032280 00000 n 0000032316 00000 n 0000032442 00000 n 0000032478 00000 n 0000032562 00000 n 0000033369 00000 n 0000033497 00000 n trailer << /Size 32 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 33592 %%EOF