%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 26 0 R 34 0 R 46 0 R 54 0 R 76 0 R ] /Count 7 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20141023093558+01'00') /ModDate (D:20141023093558+01'00') /Title (Sovereignty and Possession in the English New World: The Legal Foundations of Empire, 1576?1640) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 2062 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Sovereignty and Possession in the English New World: The Legal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Foundations of Empire, 1576?1640)] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(597)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Tuesday, 1 May, 2007)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ken MacMillan)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780521870092)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2006)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(50.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(250pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cambridge University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.cambridge.org/uk/catalogue/catalogue.asp?isbn=9780521870092)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cambridge)] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.195 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Christopher Tomlins)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 16 0 R 18 0 R 20 0 R 22 0 R 24 0 R ] /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 8901 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As social history?s highest tides recede, certain of its presumptions are exposed for reargument. In the case )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the early-modern Atlantic, one such comes in the shape of Karen Ordahl Kupperman?s long-held view )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that the decisive truths of England?s first New World colonizings are properly learned from the autoptically )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(authoritative settler??the English who actually spent time with Americans?\()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 397.964 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 397.964 740.307 m 403.964 740.307 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 403.964 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\). The contention breeds two )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consequences: first, confronted by the ?truths? of the eyewitness, the metropolis?s texts of colonizing \(its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(geographies and chorographies, its maps and charters, treatises and instructions\) become ?false??or at best )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(empirically unfounded speculations, armchair fantasies; secondly, historical inquiry becomes oriented to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(producing the experiential moment in which the encounter between settler and colonized object actually )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(occurs. Here lies the fount of authenticity, the contact point that identifies what is to be explained and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(provides the evidence. Thus are set down markers that peg the historian?s subject in historical time. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Measured by the first moment of encounter, England came late to colonizing. John Wood Sweet writes in his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(introduction to the recent Kupperman-inflected essay collection, )] TJ ET BT 345.956 627.653 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Envisioning an English Empire)] TJ ET BT 496.292 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, that, ?it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was only around the 1580s that the horizons of English leaders, merchants, intellectuals, and adventurers )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(began to broaden?\()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 125.984 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 125.984 597.747 m 131.984 597.747 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 131.984 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Why would one argue with a literature that has achieved so much? After all, it is not that long since the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(settler eye-witnesses invoked by historians saw nothing but others like themselves doing nothing but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(building Englishness anew on the edges of a spacious emptiness that they would later penetrate and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?modernize? \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 102.320 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 102.320 528.723 m 108.320 528.723 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 108.320 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\). Into their midst Kupperman and her peers tersely inserted the absent indigenous subject )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and made it the incontrovertible point of departure for an American history that we should affirm \(but for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(our own reasons\) as ?colonial? rather than the anodynous ?early? of current choice. To the existential )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(encounter of Indians and English that furnished this history?s first moment of truth, moreover, Kupperman?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(subtitle?)] TJ ET BT 74.684 473.093 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Facing Off)] TJ ET BT 127.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?added an elemental moral referent. For the other is unknowable, Emmanuel Levinas )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(insisted, save only that )] TJ ET BT 146.348 458.837 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(facing)] TJ ET BT 176.348 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( reveals the other?s face, hence humanity. In that instant the other becomes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unconditionally our ethical responsibility, to be accepted \(justice\) or refused \(death\). Kupperman?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(eyewitnesses, she finds, agreed on the ?essential humanity? of those they encountered, suggesting that a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history of acceptances might lie muffled beneath the more familiar tale of refusals \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 434.924 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 434.924 414.675 m 440.924 414.675 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 440.924 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\). Not incidentally, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(suggestion plants the historian?s third marker, contingency.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(We should not, though, take )] TJ ET BT 172.340 375.557 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(facing)] TJ ET BT 202.340 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( too literally: facing can occur anywhere and any time. Its morality is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(realized in revelation, not line of sight. Arguably, indeed, the ethics of responsibility came far closer to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(realization in the metropolis than on the frontier \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 271.316 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(5)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 271.316 345.651 m 277.316 345.651 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 277.316 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\). And other claims for the eyewitness are as problematic. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(To write off metropolitan texts because they do not comport with what an eyewitness purports to ?see?, for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(example, is epistemologically nave. Who is to say that the objectives of author and eyewitness are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(commensurate? So also, to create a narrative that produces at its climax the moment of the eyewitness?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(encounter is to pick one?s way through an array of temporal and contextual standpoints that, in different )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(combinations, would produce different outcomes. In Sweet?s narrative, English horizons do not broaden )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(until the 1580s. But one can frame the breadth of horizons differently by looking at them in different ways.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ken MacMillan?s )] TJ ET BT 123.332 235.253 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Sovereignty and Possession in the English New World)] TJ ET BT 383.660 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( exemplifies precisely the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(difference choice can make. In MacMillan?s hands the colonizing process is removed from the social history )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of settler experience and indigenous contact, and reestablished as an intellectual-doctrinal product founded )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(upon Roman law and upon conjectural histories of English sovereign claims to an ancient North-Atlantic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(empire predating Iberian-Columbian landfall by a millennium. The merit is obvious. There was a colonizing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(impulse before there were settlements, and in self-justification and legitimation that impulse marshaled and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(employed what was, at its time, ?known?. MacMillan?s considerable achievement, in other words, is to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(explain the expressive logic \(legal, historical, textual, and iconographic\) of English sovereign possession in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the New World. He grasps the sense \(and indeed the sensibility\) conveyed in metropolitan texts and crown )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(strategies that examined, defined, claimed, defended, mapped, and negotiated a Tudor-Stuart empire in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(North America. Metropolitan texts were not fantasies to be overridden by ?experience?; nor were they )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(adventitious reconstructions of facts established on the ground by the opportunistic adventurings of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(freebooters, gentry speculators and a few imaginative merchants. They fashioned an intellectually coherent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(order of things that began long before, persisted after, and was overall generally unaffected by the moment )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 17 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 397.9637 740.6215 403.9637 752.5015 ] >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 19 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 125.9837 598.0615 131.9837 609.9415 ] >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 102.3197 529.0375 108.3197 540.9175 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 23 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 434.9237 414.9895 440.9237 426.8695 ] >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 25 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 271.3157 345.9655 277.3157 357.8455 ] >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 28 0 R 30 0 R 32 0 R ] /Contents 27 0 R >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Length 8295 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the eyewitness. In the service of the crown they founded?authored and authenticated?an English Empire )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the New World in a fashion not one whit less significant than the social historian?s materiality of settlers )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(struggling in unfamiliar forests and swamps.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(MacMillan?s account of English colonizing discourse is grounded on two important assertions. First, from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the outset the crown was an active participant rather than passive enabler that stamped formal imprimaturs )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on others? initiatives. The crown acted in its imperial capacity; it took the position that it had ?a legal, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sovereign, prerogative, and imperial obligation to authorize, supervise, protect, and proclaim its overseas )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(holdings, particularly when faced with challenges from other European colonizing monarchs? \(p. 6\). It was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?especially concerned to ensure that its imperium, or independent and absolute sovereignty, and its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dominium, or right to possess and rule territory under its jurisdiction, were fully and legally expressed? \(p. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(6\). Second, and related, Roman law and its derivatives, not English common law, furnished ?the principal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(legal foundations? for English claims of New World sovereignty and possession \(p. 13\). This is a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(particularly important contention. Scholars examining the role of law in early-modern transoceanic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(colonizing have generally described a process in which distinct European legal systems framed processes of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(transoceanic acquisition particular to their own vernacular practices, clashing where they competed, sharing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(little in common. In the English case, vernacular \(common law\) practice and ideology furnished a potent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(technology?a discourse of waste \(crudely, uncultivated, deserted land\) and of rightful possession by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(inhabitation, use and improvement?for claiming and absorbing overseas territory \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 429.284 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(6)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 429.284 540.723 m 435.284 540.723 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 435.284 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\). MacMillan does not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dispute the salience of common law analogies and institutions in organizing settled jurisdictions, but does )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(question the implication that European colonizing took place in a supranational legal vacuum. International )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(law was not invented by the Treaty of Westphalia \(1648\)?the laws of nature \(ius naturale\) and nations \(ius )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(gentium\) had long provided norms of decisive importance to the ordering of supranational spaces. Roman )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(law furnished a common vocabulary for interstate relations among sovereigns, one that historians of English )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(colonizing have thus far tended to pay relatively little attention to, precisely because they have taken the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(common law to be the only legal expression of English colonizing, and have attended to the crown from a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(domestic common law perspective as \(effectively\) enabler of others? adventures rather than imperial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(claimant on its own behalf. Roman law?s ?multiple, related, and ?universal? legal resources?, MacMillan )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(argues, ?provided the crown and its advisors with a corpus of supranational material that could help it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(develop legal strategies in favor of imperial pursuits?, and territorial acquisitions, ?that would be recognized )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by the broader European community? \(p. 13\). As this underscores, in MacMillan?s account the crucial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(audience in English claims to sovereignty and possession is rival European sovereigns, not indigenous )] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(possessors. His subject is not the legal mechanics of dispossession but how sovereign claims were made and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with whom in mind. His achievement is to show that English New World colonizing occurred not as a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 314.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(halting series of ill-planned, commercially-motivated, crudely justified lunges into the unknown, but within )] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a dense and carefully-parsed, historical-legal tradition \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 299.612 299.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(7)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 299.612 298.371 m 305.612 298.371 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 305.612 299.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Sovereignty and Possession)] TJ ET BT 167.336 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( makes its case in six substantive chapters. Successively, these discuss: \(i\) the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(supranational Roman Law context of sixteenth-century English and European state formation?notably the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(crucial distinction between internal \(domestic\) and external sovereignty and their differential legal means of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(expression, and, equally important, the dual \(mental and physical\) components of sovereign possession; \(ii\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the extraordinarily fecund geographic and historical imaginaire that, particularly in the works of John Dee, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(invoked an extended array of North-Atlantic territories \(islands and continents\) long penetrated by a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(millennium of English voyaging and conquest dating to an Arthurian sixth century in the comprehensive )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(legal-historical rebuttal of Iberian claims to the American mainland north of Florida; \(iii\) the active exercise )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of royal prerogative by the crown in the significant form of letters patent authorizing successive adventurers, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(trading companies, and palatine proprietors to implement by occupation the crown?s rights of acquisition )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and distribution of claimed territories \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 220.328 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(8)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 220.328 129.555 m 226.328 129.555 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 226.328 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\); \(iv\) the fear of European rivals in motivating colonial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(militarization \(selection and organization of personnel, choice of settlement sites, construction of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fortifications, resort to martial law\) and cultivation of ?images of dominance? \(p. 122\)?all instancing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 88.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(judicious apprehension of interference from without at least as much as a desire to intimidate or defend )] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(against indigenous inhabitants; \(v\) the importance of reading maps for their strategic and political content )] TJ ET BT 34.016 59.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(vis--vis European rivals \(English manuscript maps, MacMillan observes, displayed superior geographic )] TJ ET endstream endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 29 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 429.2837 541.0375 435.2837 552.9175 ] >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 31 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 299.6117 298.6855 305.6117 310.5655 ] >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 33 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 220.3277 129.8695 226.3277 141.7495 ] >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 36 0 R 38 0 R 40 0 R 42 0 R 44 0 R ] /Contents 35 0 R >> endobj 35 0 obj << /Length 8841 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(knowledge and cartographic capacity in comparison to their printed counterparts, evidencing the desire of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(both crown censors?acting through the Stationers? Company?and map makers to guard secrets while still )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conveying representations ?of imperial sovereignty and territorial possession?: p. 175\). MacMillan?s last )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chapter \(vi\) presents an analysis of the lengthy negotiations between 1604 and 1632 with the Iberian and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(French crowns that secured their acquiescence in and recognition of the English empire in America.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It is a pity that this original and important study resorts to a rather jaded clich to convey its author?s basic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(purpose??to bring the crown and empire back in? \(p. 7\). Scholars have brought so much back in since Theda )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Skocpol et al pioneered the phrase twenty years ago, one wonders whether anything remains left out \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 522.248 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 522.248 683.283 m 528.248 683.283 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 528.248 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This small infelicity notwithstanding, MacMillan?s success is considerable. The tight narrative of the first )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(four chapters decisively plants both the crown and the discourse of imperium and dominium squarely in our )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(field of vision. Structurally, the narrative falters slightly thereafter: Chapter Five, ?Mapping the English )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Empire,? is a fine piece of work but reads somewhat as a distinct essay, and instead of a two-page )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?Epilogue? tacked onto the end of Chapter Six, one might have preferred a more elaborated overall )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conclusion. In particular it might have served the author to situate his mapping research in closer proximity )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to his fascinating second chapter on the geographer John Dee, for, apart from their related substance, both )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(address questions of considerable epistemological importance: namely, the historical conditions for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(formation of knowledge \(what knowing is, what counts as known, by whom, when\), and the purposes and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ends for knowledge formed. Dee?s )] TJ ET BT 204.632 542.117 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Limits of the British Empire)] TJ ET BT 338.648 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(prepared in manuscript, 1577?8\) compiled )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(extensive geographical and historical evidence that established a record of English presence and voyaging in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the North Atlantic sufficient to ensure that the queen of England could lay claim to imperium and dominium )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(throughout the North Islands and the American mainland ?from Florida to the Circle Articke??as the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(younger Hakluyt would put it in the )] TJ ET BT 209.012 485.093 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Discourse of Western Planting)] TJ ET BT 356.672 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( ??more lawfull and righte then the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Spaniardes or any other Christian Princes? \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 245.312 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(10)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 245.312 469.443 m 257.312 469.443 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 257.312 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\). Later historians would of course dismiss Dee?s history?of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the empire of Britain founded by Brutus, its extension by Arthurian voyaging and conquest in the sixth )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century, of Madoc?s American landfall in the twelfth?as absurd myth-making. Might we not instead treat )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Dee?s efforts as the exhibition of an expertise that established \(in the strategic service of the crown\) what )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(could, at that point, be advanced as known? In other words, MacMillan?s work suggests that we consider )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(seriously the ?means to know? that enabled the )] TJ ET BT 263.312 399.557 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Limits of the British Empire)] TJ ET BT 397.328 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( to be written.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Why the actual product of Dee?s expertise was strategically significant is best addressed under the banner )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?legal pluralism?, which also is my preferred candidate for the most important substantive contribution )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(MacMillan makes. In recent years the legal history of English colonizing has attended to legal plurality, but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(primarily as a situational phenomenon. Pluralism lies in the migration of regionally-specific common law )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cultures from England; it lies in the subsequent divergence of common law cultures?both from each other )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and from their English template\(s\)?once implanted in regionally varied New-World environments; it lies in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the consequences of encounters between common law cultures and indigenous jurispractices; it lies, finally, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the comparison of English legal cultures with those of other European colonizers. From these common )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(law pluralisms scholars have begun to tease an overarching ?Atlantic? common law culture that, piecemeal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and inchoate, begins to become recognizable as a form of constitutionalism for the early Anglophone )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(imperium \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 87.680 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(11)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 87.680 229.347 m 99.680 229.347 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 99.680 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\). To this common law history of English colonizing, as we have seen, MacMillan adds \(and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Dee expresses\) the further pluralism of Roman law. Historians have already established that a domestic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Roman law culture was actively represented in an English civilian tradition that complemented common )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(law, and, more generally, was enshrined in the universalist studia humanitatis of sixteenth-century )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(humanism \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 91.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(12)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 91.016 172.323 m 103.016 172.323 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 103.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\). In this study MacMillan demonstrates quite precisely how Roman law inflected English )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(colonizing, furnishing an overall animating structure \(which common law could not do\) through its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discourse of imperium and dominium, while also providing common terms of competition and conciliation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with European rivals, all of them operating within the same intellectual structure. Dee?s )] TJ ET BT 458.948 130.949 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Limits of the British )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.693 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Empire)] TJ ET BT 69.344 116.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, then, becomes virtually a case study of the employment of geography and history to put this Roman )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(law inflection into instrumental effect by establishing the whereabouts and the lineage of prior possession )] TJ ET BT 34.016 88.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and intent to possess, necessary conditions of sovereignty and acquisition \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 393.644 88.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(13)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 393.644 86.787 m 405.644 86.787 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 405.644 88.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Amid all MacMillan?s achievements one false note sounds?his rather casual resort to the terminology of )] TJ ET endstream endobj 36 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 37 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 522.2477 683.5975 528.2477 695.4775 ] >> endobj 37 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 38 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 39 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 245.3117 469.7575 257.3117 481.6375 ] >> endobj 39 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 40 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 41 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 87.6797 229.6615 99.6797 241.5415 ] >> endobj 41 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 42 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 43 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 91.0157 172.6375 103.0157 184.5175 ] >> endobj 43 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 44 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 45 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 393.6437 87.1015 405.6437 98.9815 ] >> endobj 45 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 46 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 48 0 R 50 0 R 52 0 R ] /Contents 47 0 R >> endobj 47 0 obj << /Length 7908 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(terra nullius \(literally, ?no one?s ground?\) as if this too were a routine Roman law concept \(for example at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pp. 106, 115, 120\). It is not. No one would dispute that terra nullius has been invoked by many scholars to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(stand for colonizers? claims that the New World was effectively ?empty? of possession. But the provenance )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the term is now a matter of some controversy, particularly in recent debates over English colonization of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Australia in which the concept of terra nullius is bitterly contested \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 358.304 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(14)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 358.304 738.051 m 370.304 738.051 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 370.304 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(MacMillan sources terra nullius to Justinian:)] TJ ET BT 64.016 674.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The Roman legal precedents for the acquisition of territorial sovereignty and possession of terra )] TJ ET BT 64.016 660.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nullius were the most clearly expressed in Justinian?s Digest \(book forty-one\) and Institutes )] TJ ET BT 64.016 646.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(book two\), texts which all civilian lawyers in England and Europe would have studied in detail. )] TJ ET BT 64.016 632.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As the drafters of [crown letters patent] were undoubtedly aware, inserting the legal language of )] TJ ET BT 64.016 617.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Roman law could help to ensure that these claims would receive either acquiescence or )] TJ ET BT 64.016 603.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(recognition among the broader European community. The failure of the English crown to )] TJ ET BT 64.016 589.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(receive such concessions for its New World territories meant that its claims could continue to be )] TJ ET BT 64.016 575.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(subject to diplomatic entanglements and threats of belligerency \(p. 106\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 536.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In fact, the words themselves appear nowhere in the )] TJ ET BT 286.616 536.885 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Digest)] TJ ET BT 317.948 536.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( or the )] TJ ET BT 351.608 536.885 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Institutes)] TJ ET BT 395.612 536.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( as such. Certainly in discussing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 522.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(acquisition under the law of nations the Digest notes that such as ?presently belongs to no one? may become )] TJ ET BT 34.016 508.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?by natural reason the property of the first taker?. But the examples, grouped under the generic term ?things? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 494.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(\(rerum\), are virtually all animate??all animals taken on land, sea, or in the air, that is, wild beasts, birds and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 479.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fish?. These are things that may ?escape from our custody and return to their natural state of freedom?. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 465.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(When they do so, ?they cease to be ours and are again open to the first taker?. To its pronounced emphasis )] TJ ET BT 34.016 451.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on beasts, birds, and fish \(also swarms of bees, which ?are wild until we house them in hives?, but which, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 437.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(upon leaving, cannot be claimed as property once out of sight\) the )] TJ ET BT 354.296 437.093 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Digest)] TJ ET BT 385.628 437.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( adds, ?things captured in war, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 422.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(islands arising in the sea, and gems, stones, and pearls found on the seashore?. Islands arising in the sea \(?a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 408.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rare occurrence?\) refers not to newly-discovered lands appearing on the horizon but to outcomes of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 394.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(geological events?volcanic or tectonic. This is the only example in the )] TJ ET BT 374.636 394.325 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Digest)] TJ ET BT 405.968 394.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( of land that is \(res nullius and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 380.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(open to possession by a ?first taker?. All other discussion of apparently new or vacant land in book forty-one )] TJ ET BT 34.016 365.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(deals with islands arising in rivers \(?a frequent occurrence?\) created by alluvium or by natural changes in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 351.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(water courses, none of which can be analogized to a conception of \(terra nullius or of land open to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 337.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(possession by a first taker, in that the principle determining possession of the island is not who takes it first )] TJ ET BT 34.016 323.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(but the already-existing structure of ownership of adjacent or proximate land. Indeed, the term used in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 308.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Digest to refer to land is not terra but, most commonly, \(fundus or estate, that is land that is already the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 294.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(property of someone. The Digest does consider how possession of land that has been abandoned or left )] TJ ET BT 34.016 280.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(derelict may be lost and taken up by others, but again this is \(fundus?land that has been owned rather than )] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?new land? never before taken \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 187.616 266.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(15)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 187.616 264.627 m 199.616 264.627 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 199.616 266.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 239.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Andrew Fitzmaurice has recently identified \(terra nullius as a twentieth-century latinate formulation or tag )] TJ ET BT 34.016 225.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(invented in the wake of the more specific term \(territorium nullius \(no sovereign?s land\) which was itself )] TJ ET BT 34.016 211.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(coined by late-nineteenth-century international lawyers, Fitzmaurice argues, ?to codify rules for the carve-up )] TJ ET BT 34.016 196.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of Africa? \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 89.984 196.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(16)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 89.984 195.603 m 101.984 195.603 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 101.984 196.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\). But although a recent invention, Fitzmaurice believes \(terra nullius can appropriately be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 182.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(used to stand in for European colonizers? deployment of the ancient natural law conception of the first )] TJ ET BT 34.016 168.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(taker?s right of possession to justify their expropriations of indigenous inhabitants deemed too barbarous or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 154.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(uncivilized in customs and practices to manifest conceptions of property that colonizers were bound to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 139.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(respect. The debate is complex and?in the Australian case?furious. It is also dogged by a failure fully to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 125.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(distinguish between claims of sovereign possession and their basis, and property claims advanced by settlers )] TJ ET BT 34.016 111.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and )] TJ ET BT 54.344 111.461 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(their)] TJ ET BT 77.012 111.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( basis.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 85.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(If MacMillan?s excursion into the fraught world of \(terra nullius seems a little ill-judged because of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 70.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(plethora of debates and confusions in which the term is entangled, little of real consequence for his argument )] TJ ET BT 34.016 56.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(actually hangs on it. So it would be a shame if the term?s controversies were to obscure his real )] TJ ET endstream endobj 48 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 49 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 358.3037 738.3655 370.3037 750.2455 ] >> endobj 49 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 50 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 51 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 187.6157 264.9415 199.6157 276.8215 ] >> endobj 51 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 52 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 53 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 89.9837 195.9175 101.9837 207.7975 ] >> endobj 53 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 54 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 56 0 R 58 0 R 60 0 R 62 0 R 64 0 R 66 0 R 68 0 R 70 0 R 72 0 R 74 0 R ] /Contents 55 0 R >> endobj 55 0 obj << /Length 10207 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(achievement, which is precisely to create a basis to understand the distinction in the legal technology of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(English colonizing between the language of sovereign possession \(\(imperium and \(dominium\) advanced in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the metropolis and the language of property in land used in situ. MacMillan does this by reinserting the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(crown as actor into the legal narrative of English colonizing, and by establishing an overarching Roman law )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(context for the terms of English crown claims to New World jurisdiction in competition with other European )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sovereign claims. His book suggests that careful study of Roman law will greatly amplify legal historians? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(comprehension of the discourses of early modern English colonizing, richly embellishing a scholarship that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(has, hitherto, scrutinized English colonizing?s legalities more or less exclusively in common law terms.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Once we have absorbed those lessons and followed their implications perhaps we will want to return once )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more to Karen Kupperman?s autoptic moment. We will return better equipped to appreciate that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(momentous interaction that her work has emphasized took place in an extraordinarily dense metropolitan )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(context.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 592.755 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 562.138 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 562.133 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(K. O. Kupperman, )] TJ ET BT 155.996 562.133 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Indians & English: Facing Off in Early America)] TJ ET BT 388.988 562.133 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Ithaca and London, 2000\), p. x; )] TJ ET BT 64.016 547.877 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and see also her )] TJ ET BT 143.324 547.877 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Settling with the Indians: The Meeting of English and Indian Cultures)] TJ ET BT 479.336 547.877 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Totowa, N.J., )] TJ ET BT 64.016 533.621 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1980\). )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 98.012 533.621 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 98.012 532.227 m 152.000 532.227 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 519.370 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 519.365 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(J. W. Sweet ?Introduction: Sea Changes,? in )] TJ ET BT 280.652 519.365 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Envisioning an English Empire: Jamestown and the )] TJ ET BT 64.016 505.109 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Making of the North Atlantic World)] TJ ET BT 235.688 505.109 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. R. Appelbaum and J. W. Sweet \(Philadelphia, 2005\), p. 12. )] TJ ET BT 64.016 490.853 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(On truth and falsity, see J. Edwards ?Between ?Plain Wilderness? and ?Goodly Corn Fields?: )] TJ ET BT 64.016 476.597 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Representing Land Use in Early Virginia,? in )] TJ ET BT 284.648 476.597 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(idem)] TJ ET BT 307.976 476.597 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, pp. 217?35, at p. 234. )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 420.968 476.597 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 420.968 475.203 m 474.956 475.203 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 462.346 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 462.341 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(See for example J. P. Greene, )] TJ ET BT 208.976 462.341 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Pursuits of Happiness: The Social Development of Early Modern British )] TJ ET BT 64.016 448.085 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(colonies and the Formation of American Culture)] TJ ET BT 298.676 448.085 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Chapel Hill, 1988\); J. W. Hurst, )] TJ ET BT 462.332 448.085 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Law and the )] TJ ET BT 64.016 433.829 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Conditions of Freedom in the Nineteenth-Century United States)] TJ ET BT 370.340 433.829 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Madison, 1956\). )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 459.332 433.829 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 459.332 432.435 m 513.320 432.435 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 419.578 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 419.573 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Kupperman, )] TJ ET BT 126.668 419.573 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Indians & English)] TJ ET BT 214.676 419.573 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, pp. x, 239?40. For the tale of refusals, see for example R. A. )] TJ ET BT 64.016 405.317 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Williams, Jr., )] TJ ET BT 131.684 405.317 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The American Indian in Western Legal Thought: The Discourses of Conquest)] TJ ET BT 503.672 405.317 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(New )] TJ ET BT 64.016 391.061 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(York and Oxford, 1990\). )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 186.656 391.061 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 186.656 389.667 m 240.644 389.667 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 376.810 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(5.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 376.805 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(See for example P. Karsten, )] TJ ET BT 200.984 376.805 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Between Law and Custom: ?High? and ?Low? Legal Cultures in the )] TJ ET BT 64.016 362.549 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Lands of the British Diaspora?The United States, Canada, Australia, and New Zealand, 1600?1900)] TJ ET BT 64.016 348.293 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Cambridge, 2002\); S. Banner, )] TJ ET BT 215.000 348.293 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(How the Indians Lost their Land: Law and Power on the Frontier)] TJ ET BT 64.016 334.037 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Cambridge, Mass, 2005\). )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 192.668 334.037 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 192.668 332.643 m 246.656 332.643 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 319.786 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(6.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 319.781 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(On the deployment of waste, see P. Seed, )] TJ ET BT 265.652 319.781 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(American Pentimento: The Invention of Indians and the )] TJ ET BT 64.016 305.525 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Pursuit of Riches)] TJ ET BT 146.684 305.525 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Minneapolis and London, 2001\), pp. 29?44. )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 367.664 305.525 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 367.664 304.131 m 421.652 304.131 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 291.274 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(7.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 291.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(So doing, MacMillan follows, and develops, themes suggested in the work of Anthony Pagden, for )] TJ ET BT 64.016 277.013 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(example, )] TJ ET BT 110.672 277.013 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Lords of All the World: Ideologies of Empire in Spain, Britain and France c.1500? c.1800)] TJ ET BT 64.016 262.757 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(New Haven, 1995\), and David Armitage, for example, )] TJ ET BT 332.612 262.757 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Ideological Origins of the British Empire)] TJ ET BT 64.016 248.501 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Cambridge, 1998\). Also of interest are A. Anghie, )] TJ ET BT 311.972 248.501 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Imperialism, Sovereignty and the Making of )] TJ ET BT 64.016 234.245 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(International Law)] TJ ET BT 151.028 234.245 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Cambridge, 2004\), notably pp. 1?31, and Williams, The American Indian, pp. )] TJ ET BT 64.016 219.989 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3?225. )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 99.344 219.989 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(7\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 99.344 218.595 m 153.332 218.595 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 205.738 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(8.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 205.733 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(We should note that the letter patent?preeminent instrument of prerogative?was consistently the means )] TJ ET BT 64.016 191.477 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of authorization for expeditions of acquisition from the Cabot patent of 1496 through to the )] TJ ET BT 64.016 177.221 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Restoration. In addition to MacMillan, pp. 79?120, see M. S. Bilder ?English Settlement and Local )] TJ ET BT 64.016 162.965 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Governance? in )] TJ ET BT 142.652 162.965 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Cambridge History of Law in America: Volume 1. Early America, 1580?1815)] TJ ET BT 537.632 162.965 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. )] TJ ET BT 64.016 148.709 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(M. Grossberg and C. Tomlins \(Cambridge and New York, forthcoming 2008\). )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 443.636 148.709 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(8\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 443.636 147.315 m 497.624 147.315 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 134.458 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 134.453 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Bringing the State Back In)] TJ ET BT 191.336 134.453 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. P. B. Evans, D. Rueschemeyer and T. Skocpol \(Cambridge and New )] TJ ET BT 64.016 120.197 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(York, 1985\). )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 128.672 120.197 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(9\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 128.672 118.803 m 182.660 118.803 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 105.946 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(10.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 105.941 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(R. Hakluyt \(the younger\), )] TJ ET BT 190.664 105.941 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Discourse of Western Planting)] TJ ET BT 338.324 105.941 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, in )] TJ ET BT 356.660 105.941 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Original Writing and )] TJ ET BT 64.016 91.685 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Correspondence of the Two Richard Hakluyts)] TJ ET BT 284.336 91.685 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. E. G. R. Taylor \(London, 1935\), ii. 213, and )] TJ ET BT 64.016 77.429 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(generally pp. 290?7. )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 164.996 77.429 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(10\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 164.996 76.035 m 224.984 76.035 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 63.178 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(11.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 63.173 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(See M. S. Bilder, )] TJ ET BT 149.684 63.173 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Transatlantic Constitution: Colonial Legal Culture and the Empire)] TJ ET BT 493.724 63.173 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Cambridge, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 48.917 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mass, 2004\); D. J. Hulsebosch, )] TJ ET BT 217.004 48.917 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Constituting Empire: New York and the Transformation of )] TJ ET BT 64.016 34.661 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Constitutionalism in the Atlantic World, 1664?1830)] TJ ET endstream endobj 56 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 57 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 98.0117 532.5415 151.9997 544.4215 ] >> endobj 57 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 58 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 59 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 420.9677 475.5175 474.9557 487.3975 ] >> endobj 59 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 60 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 61 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 459.3317 432.7495 513.3197 444.6295 ] >> endobj 61 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 62 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 63 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 186.6557 389.9815 240.6437 401.8615 ] >> endobj 63 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 64 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 65 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 192.6677 332.9575 246.6557 344.8375 ] >> endobj 65 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 66 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 67 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 367.6637 304.4455 421.6517 316.3255 ] >> endobj 67 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 68 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 69 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 99.3437 218.9095 153.3317 230.7895 ] >> endobj 69 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 70 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 71 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 443.6357 147.6295 497.6237 159.5095 ] >> endobj 71 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 72 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 73 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 128.6717 119.1175 182.6597 130.9975 ] >> endobj 73 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 74 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 75 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 164.9957 76.3495 224.9837 88.2295 ] >> endobj 75 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 76 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 78 0 R 80 0 R 82 0 R 84 0 R 86 0 R 88 0 R 90 0 R 92 0 R ] /Contents 77 0 R >> endobj 77 0 obj << /Length 6140 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 64.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Chapel Hill, 2005\). )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 163.676 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(11\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 163.676 795.075 m 223.664 795.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 782.218 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(12.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(B. P. Levack, )] TJ ET BT 132.008 782.213 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Civil Lawyers in England, 1603?1641: A Political Study)] TJ ET BT 424.352 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Oxford, 1973\); A. )] TJ ET BT 64.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Fitzmaurice, )] TJ ET BT 127.340 767.957 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Humanism and America: An Intellectual History of English Colonisation, 1500?1625)] TJ ET BT 64.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Cambridge and New York, 2003\). )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 234.980 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(12\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 234.980 752.307 m 294.968 752.307 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 739.450 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(13.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For a pioneering account of legal pluralism in colonizing see L. Benton, )] TJ ET BT 412.640 739.445 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Law and Colonial Cultures: )] TJ ET BT 64.016 725.189 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Legal Regimes in World History, 1400?1900)] TJ ET BT 279.344 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Cambridge and New York, 2002\). Benton argues that )] TJ ET BT 64.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the state-oriented law of colonizing is primarily the product of the nineteenth century?s era of high )] TJ ET BT 64.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(colonialism. MacMillan?s case for ?bringing the crown ... back in? to early-modern English New )] TJ ET BT 64.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(World colonizing modifies Benton?s account. )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 287.324 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(13\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 287.324 681.027 m 347.312 681.027 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 668.170 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(14.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(See for example M. Connor, )] TJ ET BT 203.660 668.165 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Invention of Terra Nullius)] TJ ET BT 350.336 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Sydney, 2005\). )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 433.328 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(14\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 433.328 666.771 m 493.316 666.771 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 653.914 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(15.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(See for example )] TJ ET BT 144.992 653.909 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Digest of Justinian)] TJ ET BT 256.664 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, Latin text edited by T. Mommsen with the aid of P. Krueger, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(English translation edited by A. Watson, 4 vols \(Philadelphia, 1985\), iv. 41.1.3, 41.1.5.2, 41.1.7.1?5, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(41.1.29, 41.1.30.1?4, 41.2.3.6?7. )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 224.672 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(15\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 224.672 624.003 m 284.660 624.003 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 611.146 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(16.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A. Fitzmaurice, ?The Great Australian History Wars? [online]. [2006] [URL: )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 64.016 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.usyd.edu.au/news/84.html?newsstoryid=948])] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 595.491 m 339.440 595.491 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 342.440 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET BT 356.432 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( [accessed 24 March 2007]. In contrast, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 582.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Patricia Seed has credited the invention of terra nullius to William Blackstone in 1765, citing his )] TJ ET BT 64.016 568.373 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Commentaries on the Laws of England)] TJ ET BT 251.024 568.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. See Seed, )] TJ ET BT 306.680 568.373 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(American Pentimento)] TJ ET BT 410.996 568.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, pp. 155-6, also Benton, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 554.117 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Law and Colonial Cultures)] TJ ET BT 195.044 554.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, p. 168 n. But Seed does not provide a reference to the passage she has in )] TJ ET BT 64.016 539.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mind. A search of the )] TJ ET BT 170.660 539.861 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Commentaries)] TJ ET BT 240.656 539.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( fails to disclose any reference to terra nullius as such, although )] TJ ET BT 64.016 525.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Blackstone does refer \(ii.7\) to a natural right to migrate to ?desart uninhabited countries?. On the )] TJ ET BT 64.016 511.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historical usage of territorium nullius in international law, see M. F. Lindley, )] TJ ET BT 435.992 511.349 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Acquisition and )] TJ ET BT 64.016 497.093 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Government of Backward Territory in International Law: Being a Treatise on the Law and Practice )] TJ ET BT 64.016 482.837 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Relating to Colonial Expansion)] TJ ET BT 215.696 482.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London, 1926; repr. New York, 1969\). 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