%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 18 0 R 20 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140713052719+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140713052719+01'00') /Title (Religion and Political Culture in Britain and Ireland from the Glorious Revolution to the Decline of Empire) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 3033 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Religion and Political Culture in Britain and Ireland from the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Glorious Revolution to the Decline of Empire)] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Over the past decade growing numbers of students have undertaken research into the religious dimension of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the recent history of the British Isles, and in doing so have expanded its agenda away from the traditional )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(focus on the history of doctrine and ecclesiastical institutions. At the same time political, cultural, social and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(economic historians have also increasingly recognised religion as a significant explanatory factor or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(analytical category in their own accounts, nowhere more so than in the study of Britain in the long )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(eighteenth century: witness its significance in the contrasting work of, for example, Linda Colley and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 152.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jonathan Clark.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(6)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Tuesday, 1 October, 1996)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(David Hempton)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780521473750)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1996)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(35.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(202pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cambridge University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.cambridge.org/uk/catalogue/catalogue.asp?isbn=9780521479257)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cambridge)] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.195 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Arthur Burns)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7452 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(What we have so far lacked are significant works of synthesis from historians of religion -- transcending the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(scale of the growing body of case-studies, but informed by the understanding that involvement in the sub-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discipline inevitably provides -- which set out boldly to address the place of religion in the wider culture. We )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(therefore have cause to be grateful to David Hempton, who has bravely attempted the theme of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contribution of religion to political culture and identity from the Glorious Revolution to the First World War )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and beyond, and taken within his compass not only England, but also Scotland, Wales and Ireland.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 686.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hempton is, of course, peculiarly well qualified to undertake such an enterprise, having already made )] TJ ET BT 34.016 672.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(substantial contributions to the history of evangelical protestantism on both sides of the Irish Sea, but his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 658.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(achievement is none the less considerable. Above all, Hempton demonstrates great powers of synthesis. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(book is quite short, and deliberately and happily retains signs of its origins in the Cadbury lectures Hempton )] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(delivered in Birmingham in 1993, being lively, opinionated, sometimes witty and above all readable. Yet )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this light touch disguises the underpinning: a careful and critical reading of a prodigious body of both )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(published and unpublished recent scholarship, generously acknowledged by Hempton. As a result, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(volume represents an excellent point of departure for anyone seeking an overview of recent work on British )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and Irish religious history not only in its relation to political culture, but more generally. Indeed sometimes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the discussion is if anything too wide-ranging, wandering from the focus on `political' culture promised by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the title in such a way as to obscure the overall direction of the argument. None the less, the book will prove )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of considerable use to tutors seeking a reliable introduction to both religious history and to its importance )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which will be accessible to the increasing number of undergraduates with no background in the subject. In )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this respect the volume resembles John Wolffe's recent study )] TJ ET BT 329.792 501.605 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(God and Greater Britain: Religion and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(National Life in Britain and Ireland 1843-1945)] TJ ET BT 261.368 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London, Routledge, 1994\), with which it clearly overlaps in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(theme and scope. Wolffe, admittedly, is concerned primarily with the interplay of religion and nationhood, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(whereas Hempton wishes to explore in addition regional and local identities, but questions of national )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(identity inevitably figure prominently throughout the book. The two studies are, however, complimentary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rather than competitors. Wolffe's has a narrower chronological span, and ventures more determinedly into )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the twentieth century. The volumes also have different centres of gravity, Wolffe working out from an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(English focus, Hempton offering a counterbalancing emphasis on the experience of the "Celtic fringes". )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Moreover, since both authors choose to explore their theme through a series of illustrative investigations )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rather than attempting a comprehensive account, despite their shared background in the study of evangelical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(protestantism they frequently offer different emphases even where they traverse similar ground.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(What then, does Hempton have to offer? The first part of the book consists of a number of case-studies of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(particular traditions or regions: the Church of England in the long eighteenth century; Methodism; )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(evangelicalism in Wales and Scotland; Irish catholicism; and Ulster protestantism. These explore the factors )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(strengthening or weakening each tradition as a source of identity, and the nature of the identities they )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fostered. Then follows a discussion of religion in the urban context of nineteenth-century Britain, and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(volume concludes with a thematic consideration of the relationship between faith and identity as illustrated )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in protestantism and anti- catholicism, evangelicalism, empire and missions, and the formation of social )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(policy.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The case-studies get the volume off to a good start. The account of the Hanoverian Church of England )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(manages to bring together a good cross-section of recent scholarship and to adjudicate sensibly between the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(most "optimistic" and "pessimistic" accounts of the Church's pastoral achievement and of the nature and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consequences of its relationship with the state. Inevitably there are a few points where one might question )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the interpretation. Certainly the proliferation of clerical magistrates and more effective clerical exactions )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(may have contributed to the rise of overt anticlericalism in the countryside from the late eighteenth century )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(p. 9\). But it also surely owed something to an increased availability in radical literature and prints of a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(framework for interpreting local disputes with, or even simple irritation at, the clergy as part of a conflict )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with wider ramifications, giving the individual a sense of his place in and responsibility to a greater cause. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Such considerations perhaps deserve more consideration in a work concerned primarily with identities.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The chapter on Methodism offers an excellent account of the various approaches historians have brought to )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 7702 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the subject of Methodist growth and decline, and examines the present state of debate on the issues raised by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Halevy thesis in the light of Hempton's own work. Others better qualified than this reviewer must be left )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to provide a verdict on Hempton's judgements on the religious history of Wales and Scotland. Certainly the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(two are at least effectively brought together in a reflection on the interrelationship of denominational and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(national identity in the two countries which highlights the significance in this respect of contrasting social )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and ecclesiastical structures. English readers will be grateful for the guidance Hempton offers through the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(literature here, but probably even more so in his two chapters on Irish affairs.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In this section Hempton once more draws profitably on his own researches, this time with Myrtle Hill for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their )] TJ ET BT 59.012 670.421 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Evangelical Protestantism in Ulster Society 1740-1890)] TJ ET BT 323.996 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, and the result is one of the best short )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(introductions to the Ulster protestant tradition currently available, at once sufficiently detached to point up )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ironies and ambiguities, while conveying a vivid and sensitive picture of the historical sources of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tradition's resilience. In particular Hempton underlines the significance of evangelicalism. It acted as a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(solvent of social and denominational barriers which might otherwise have impeded the melding of the Ulster )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(protestant identity, and in relation to sectarian conflict was able to simultaneously narrow the focus to a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contest between reformed religion and Catholic superstition in Ireland and widen it to an international )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conflict of major proportions . . . Depending on circumstances, therefore, Ulster Protestants could think of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(themselves as either a faithful remnant of righteousness in a pagan land or as part of a great and civilising )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(world empire. They were equally comforting and culturally reinforcing ideas. \(p. 110\) The account of Irish )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Catholicism is similarly balanced and sensitive, critically assessing the results of revisionist scholarship. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hempton emphasises the factors that made the contours of its history differ significantly from those of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(other traditions he considers, in particular its ability, like Ulster protestantism, to draw strength from social )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and political conflicts of the kind which elsewhere undermined religious loyalties.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(When Hempton turns to the discussion of religion and political culture in urban Britain, another effective )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(synthesis is given an unusual slant through an extended consideration of the Victorian novel as evidence for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the substance of popular belief and experience of religion. He uses this to reinforce the testimony of oral )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history for the existence of a common religious culture, a "religio-moral homogeneity" \(p. 136\), avoiding )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(metaphysical abstractions and with a strong ethical component, which extended far beyond official )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Christianity. Its existence owed much to "the extent to which a predominantly evangelical pietism managed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to spread its values and preoccupations far beyond the doors of the churches it controlled" \(p. 141\), but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hempton concludes, along with most recent scholarship, that by the end of the nineteenth century )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(introversion within denominations and the impact of suburbanization, state welfarism and leisure )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(alternatives had weakened the hold of the churches throughout urban Britain.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The final chapter is in many ways the most ambitious. Hempton sets out to demonstrate through a discussion )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of its four themes how the same forces could promote national integration and yet also promote separation. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(His account of protestantism indeed provides both a useful elaboration and qualification to the stress on its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(integrative role that was so central to Colley's )] TJ ET BT 256.148 261.509 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Britons)] TJ ET BT 291.488 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, as does his consideration of evangelicalism. Hempton )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(argues that the decline of both anti- catholicism and evangelical protestantism, along with that of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(imperialism, has eroded links between religion and national identity in the British Isles. More strikingly, he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(claims that even more significant in this process has been "the inexorable decline of religious influence in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the construction and implementation of social policy" \(p. 163\). There is an important point here, concerning )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the failure of Christian social visions to impose themselves on what increasingly appeared the core functions )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the state and on policy formation and public responses. However, Hempton does not allow himself )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(enough space to permit the relationship of this development to questions of "identity" to be satisfactorily )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(expounded. Moreover, he offers us little clue as to the nature of the "secularized" versions of identities, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in particular of "Britishness" and its constituent nationalisms, which he presumably believes superseded )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(those to which he illustrates religion was central.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The reader is forcibly struck by a two themes which emerge repeatedly in the book. Above all, as in the last )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chapter, Hempton emphasises the difficulty of attaching any single political or cultural meaning to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(religious traditions he considers. As recent scholarship continues to amplify the body of evidence on which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(we can draw, it is no longer possible to pronounce confidently on the "conservative" or "radical", )] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 7393 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [("emancipatory" or "repressive", "integrative" or "divisive" character of, for example, Anglican, Methodist or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(evangelical politics. Depending on the geographical, social, political or cultural context, different aspects of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(each tradition could find expression. This proteanism can be found exhibited even in a single individual: )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(witness Wesley's sense of his special mission to the poor in England in contrast to his pastoral practice in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ireland working through gentry and garrison. Similarly, ambiguities could be found pervading traditions: )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(thus anticlericalism was not merely an "external" rejection of the financial exactions and disciplinary actions )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of Anglican clergy, but also, as methodist ministers were later to discover, an authentic "internal" expression )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the English popular protestantism which was one important root of popular identification with their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(denomination. If Hempton's volume already demonstrates the difficulties in navigating a clear path between )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ambiguities and contrasts thrown up by recent research, the overall lesson none the less remains the need for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(further work so that we can properly assess the findings of existing studies.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A second recurring theme is the pivotal importance of the era of the French Revolution and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Revolutionary Wars as a turning-point in the history of religion in all parts of the British Isles. Hempton )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(argues, for example, that it was a crisis for establishments, as churches' "access to power and the resources )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the state" become less important in determining their fortunes than their ability to "reflect the social, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(political and cultural aspirations of their members" \(p. 178\); indeed a sense of exclusion might now become )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a positive advantage. The Church of England, while emboldened by a new sense of its social utility as a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(guarantor of order, emerged weakened by demographic change, the threat of Methodism, the intellectual )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(challenge of new critiques of establishment, lack of state support, and the social tensions fostered by the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wartime subsistence crisis. The same social tensions saw the transformation of an undenominational )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(phemonenon of revival during a period of increased denominational discipline, and consequent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fragmentation. In Ireland, meanwhile, the heightened tensions of the revolutionary period promoted sectarian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conflict, while millenarian traditions within Ulster protestantism received a powerful impulse of enduring )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(significance.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hempton's emphasis on this period not only mirrors recent work in the political, social and cultural histories )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of modern Britain, but underlines the prescience of W. R. Ward's writings on the topic a quarter of a century )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ago, notably his seminal article "The Religion of the People and the Problem of Control 1790-1830", the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(influence of which Hempton acknowledges. Few would question the overall importance of the period, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(although in places one might query Hempton's relative weighting within it. For example, Stewart J. Brown )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(has rightly emphasised the significant injection of funds and evidence of elite commitment to the principle of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(establishment in England, Scotland and Ireland apparent in the decade after 1815, the date at which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hempton sees the Church of England as "in a more vulnerable position than at any time since the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Restoration in 1660", abandoned by a state "more committed to maintaining order than to propping up a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(national religious establishment" \(p. 22\). But if it was ultimately defeated, it was the strength and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(seriousness of this establishmentarian initiative which itself generated a backlash that primarily effected that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(defeat.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It is no doubt a lazy reviewing practice to point out omissions in a book which makes no claims to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(comprehensive coverage. None the less many readers will feel that more attention mght have been paid to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(questions of gender. Any consideration of religion's relationship to political identity ought surely to grapple )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with the extent to which it sustained or subverted the gendered nature of citizenship and participation, not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(least because at times during the period considered religion offered women significant points of entry to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(public life. A historian of nineteenth-century Anglicanism may also be permitted to regret the curtailing of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discussion of this tradition in the 1830s. We still know astonishingly little about the political expression of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Anglicanism in the later nineteenth century at any other than an elite level. Moreover, a consideration of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(development of church party in the mid-nineteenth century might also shed a slightly different light on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(problems that tradition faced after 1790. Without denying the significance of structural administrative )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(problems, the changing relationship with the state and the impact of social change to which Hempton )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attaches so much importance, I think he underplays the extent to which this church's problems were as much )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a product as a cause of weakness and instability in "identity", as its theological and ecclesiological )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ambiguities made it difficult to relate unproblematically to the wider religious components in national and )] TJ ET endstream endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 22 0 R ] /Contents 21 0 R >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Length 6481 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(communal identity and so facilitate effective political and cultural expression.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This perhaps leads on to a more general observation about the treatment of "identity" in the book. Questions )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of identity have exercised historians in many different fields in recent years, but perhaps nowhere with more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consequence in modern British history than in work concerned with social structure and categories. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Historians influenced by the "linguistic turn", such as Patrick Joyce, Gareth Stedman Jones and Dror )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wahrman have directed attention to the discursive construction of social identity and the deficiencies of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(older historical narratives constructed around the "rise of class" as an "objective" social reality mirrored in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(language. They have pioneered exciting new approaches to the importance of narratives, cultural tropes and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the "imaginary" in actively shaping the experiences of both individuals and collectivities as they navigated )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their political, social and economic lives, both public and private. It is puzzling that Hempton engages so )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(little with this literature, for it seems to have a great deal to offer his project, not least in making it easier to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(navigate through the complexities of paradox and ambiguity of meaning in identities.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For example, it is surprising in a work centrally concerned with the complex issues of identity to find class- )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consciousness and identity generally closely yoked to "class" and "class conflict", and so perhaps )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unintentionally presented as if they fairly transparently expressed the identity of "real" social formations of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the early years of the nineteenth century. This seems to me unhelpfully to restrict the terms in which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hempton is able to conduct his discussion of the interaction of religious and socio-political identity, creating )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the impression of a "reductionism at one remove" which is successfully avoided in the direct discussion of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(religion. Hempton might have made use, for example, of the work of Patrick Joyce, which would have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(shown how important narratives of "populism" rather than class might be in the construction of both mass )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and individual identities among nineteenth- century workers, narratives which might be far more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(accommodating to religious discourse than those of class. Indeed Joyce's micro-study of the construction of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(self- identities in these terms by Edwin Waugh and John Bright in his )] TJ ET BT 371.000 458.837 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Democratic Subjects: The Self and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Social in Nineteenth- Century England)] TJ ET BT 220.676 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(CUP, 1994\) is a remarkably sensitive demonstration of just how )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(important religious discourses might be in such self-fashioning, and suggests helpful ways of exploring in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(detail themes Hempton himself raises in a brief discussion of trade unions and radicalism. In particular, I )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(think the explicit emphasis on narrative frameworks for self- understanding in Joyce's work could have been )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of considerable use to Hempton in explaining the robustness of religious dimensions of identity in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nineteenth century.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(I do not mean in these remarks to demand that Hempton become a card-carrying postmodernist, or to claim )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that adopting this approach would force a substantial modification of the book's overall thrust and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chronological emphases. Rather, I think that it might perhaps have provided an extra dimension to points )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that are often already implicit in his account, and have given greater clarity to the necessarily compressed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(treatment of the myriad of different conjunctions in which religious discourse contributed to expressions of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(identity during the period Hempton covers. As it stands, Hempton's book is a splendidly subtle, suggestive )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and reliable point of departure for further research in this field. It might be suggested that one promising )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(approach, which has been too much neglected by historians of late, would be to take a lead from Joyce's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(example and attempt micro-studies of how Hempton's themes were played out in the construction of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(individual self- identities.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 173.503 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 155.723 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 155.723 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/6)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 154.329 m 310.316 154.329 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 129.352 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 114.952 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/142)] TJ ET BT 34.016 100.552 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 23 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 154.6435 310.3157 166.5235 ] >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/6) >> endobj xref 0 24 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000349 00000 n 0000000386 00000 n 0000000617 00000 n 0000000699 00000 n 0000003784 00000 n 0000003893 00000 n 0000004003 00000 n 0000004112 00000 n 0000007673 00000 n 0000007801 00000 n 0000007885 00000 n 0000007950 00000 n 0000015455 00000 n 0000015520 00000 n 0000023275 00000 n 0000023340 00000 n 0000030786 00000 n 0000030870 00000 n 0000037404 00000 n 0000037532 00000 n trailer << /Size 24 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 37625 %%EOF