%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 18 0 R 20 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140721101217+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140721101217+01'00') /Title (Modern South Asia: History, Culture, Political Economy) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4728 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Modern South Asia: History, Culture, Political Economy)] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In the last twenty years or so there have been great transformations in the historiography of modern South )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.091 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Asia. It would not be too crude an exaggeration to say that no western historian of much intellectual )] TJ ET BT 34.016 301.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ambition engaged with the subject from James Mill in the early nineteenth century until after the second )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(world war, while Indian historians were little known outside the subcontinent. All that has changed. Highly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(innovative work that commands the attention of all historians, not merely of regional specialists, is now done )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on modern South Asia. This work comes out of Indian and western universities, where scholars from South )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Asia, like Sugata Bose and Ayesha Jalal, play a very prominent role.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Works of synthesis on modern South Asia have not kept up with the flow of monographs, the installments of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.299 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Subaltern Studies)] TJ ET BT 118.352 204.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( or the articles that appear in profusion in )] TJ ET BT 319.316 204.299 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Indian Journal of Economic and Social )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.043 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(History)] TJ ET BT 70.016 190.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( or in )] TJ ET BT 98.348 190.043 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Modern Asian Studies)] TJ ET BT 204.344 190.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. The late Percy Spear and Stanley Wolpert, the two authors who have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(commanded the field in Britain for so long in introducing general readers or undergraduates to South Asian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history, now look distinctly dated. A new and authoritative synthesis like this one is therefore very welcome.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.275 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Modern South Asia)] TJ ET BT 126.680 135.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( introduces the reader not merely to new interpretations of topics such as the rise of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(British power, nationalism and partition, but to new perspectives on the subject as a whole. The traditional )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historiography of British India tended to be very much history from above. British Governor Generals were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(placed in the centre of the stage and judged as good, bad or indifferent by whatever criteria were currently )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(deemed appropriate. In later and more liberal treatments, such as those of Spear and Wolpert, prominent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 63.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Indians who engaged with the Raj, Rammohan Roy, the early nationalists and the great protagonists in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(end of empire - Gandhi, Nehru and Jinnah, were also given full treatment. Popular accounts published in this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(60)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sunday, 1 November, 1998)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sugata Bose)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ayesha Jalal)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1998)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(313pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Routledge)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Peter Marshall)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7562 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(country remain obsessed with personalities, above all with Mountbatten, Wavell and the leadership of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Congress and the League. 'Ordinary' Indians were reduced to abstract Hindus, Muslims and Sikhs or in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(books with any pretensions to scholarship to statistics in the perennial debates as to whether India got richer )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(or poorer under the British.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bose and Jalal try to write history from below. They are of course interested in Gandhi, Nehru and Jinnah )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and have important things to say about them, which lay readers may well find surprising and challenging. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The British, however, are not personalised. Wavell does not appear in the index and the only reference to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Warren Hastings tells the reader that he was impeached. There is no room for cultural brokers like William )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Carey. Instead, the British presence in India is depicted as a colonial state, taking forms that varied with its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(underlying economic rationale. In the early nineteenth century that rationale shifted from oceanic trade to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(extraction of land revenue; in the later nineteenth century priorities changed to the generation of an export )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(surplus and the stimulation of rural purchasing power for British imports. Something is of course lost in such )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a synoptic view. The Raj may well seem to be a much more unified, calculating and rational institution than )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was actually the case, and the diversity of the British presence is inevitably telescoped. Nevertheless Bose )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and Jalal could well reply that there are enough books of )] TJ ET BT 308.960 584.885 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Men who Ruled India)] TJ ET BT 433.616 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( genre for those who wish )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to recapture that diversity and they have other purposes to fulfil.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(They wish attention to be paid not to the British, except as a source of some of the pressures that shaped )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Indian society, or to the Indian elite, but to what they term 'intermediate social groups', such as merchants )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and traders and those who filled minor offices, and the 'subaltern groups', peasants, the urban poor and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('tribals', at the bottom of society. They are concerned with women as well as with men. They recognise the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(crucial importance of labels such as Hindu or Muslim in the twentieth century, but insist that these are not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(immutable distinctions that have endured for centuries; they have a relatively recent history. 'The undue and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ahistorical privileging of religion in the periodization of Indian history' must be discarded. 'There are no )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(grounds for branding the ancient, medieval and modern periods of the subcontinent's long and complex )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history as Hindu, Muslim and British' \(p. 13\). Bose and Jalal urge historians to concern themselves with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(smaller entities, those that they call 'communitarian' rather than with the 'communal' labels attached to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(supposedly monolithic religions. As with all the other concepts that the authors use, the uninitiated probably )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(require much more explanation of community' than is offered to them, but the issue is summarised on p. 108: )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('What needs emphasizing is that there were multiple and competing narratives informed by religious and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(linguistic cultural identities seeking to contribute to the emerging discourse on the Indian nation.' These )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(voices were eventually drowned by the assertion of religion in the making of Pakistan and by the counter-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(assertion, at least for a time, of secular nationalism's right to inherit the centralised state created by the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(British and to call it 'India'. It has been the ultimate fate of the communities, except in Bangladesh, to be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(subordinated to one or other of these leviathans.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(There is a strong ideological commitment behind this interpretation of South Asia's history, as there is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(behind any historical interpretation of any interest. Its assumptions are very different from those embodied in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(recent western attempts at synthesis, such as those of Spear or Wolpert. Both of them seem to have believed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in an essential Indianness and to have understood its history as a series of interchanges between that essence )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and outside influences, most obviously Muslim and British ones. This for Spear was 'the inner meaning of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(modern Indian history, culminating in Gandhi and the national movement, independence and the reign of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nehru'. In brief sections at the end of their books he and Wolpert assessed the state of contemporary India, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(noting the extent of western influence and the survival of 'traditions'. For Wolpert, 'The more India changes, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the more Indian it remains'. Significantly, neither of them wrote anything about post-1947 Pakistan, let alone )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bangladesh. For them, partition was a disaster and the criterion for judging the success of independence was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the survival of India as a unitary, secular state.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Neither intellectual trends nor recent events have been kind to such interpretations. Concepts of an essential, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(timeless India have been subjected to withering analysis. They are emphatically rejected as western )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(constructions, designed to emphasise India's difference and therefore its inferiority. Indian nationalism as it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(emerged at the end of the nineteenth century is not generally seen as any kind of fulfilment of India's history, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(but rather as a colonial legacy. A narrow elite were able to use western concepts of nation and state as the )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 7465 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(means to obtain power over the rest of the population and to perpetuate the subordination of the 'subalterns'. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bose and Jalal are more sympathetic to nationalist aspirations than it is currently fashionable to be, arguing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that discriminating nationalists were capable of recognising the claims of linguistic and regional diversity to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(be embodied in the new Indian nation. Nevertheless, the heroes of the nationalist pantheon are left badly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(scarred. Congress under Gandhi 'more often than not represented the class interests of the middle to richer )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(peasantry and industrial capitalists in the urban sector'. For the poor, the Mahatma offered only "the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(palliative remedy of trusteeship" \(p. 144\). Nehru is portrayed as the exponent of a unitary nationalism that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(took over and operated the colonial centralised state. His claims to have founded a democratic new India are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(called into question. Of the great leaders, only Jinnah, so often reviled in conventional historiography, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(emerges largely unscathed. It is argued that a separate Pakistan based on religion was not at all what he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(intended. He had a vision of a pluralistic India in which a Muslim 'nation' would co-exist with other nations )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and be able to exercise 'an equitable share of power' in the centre \(p. 193\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(What many recent historians have seen as a flawed nationalism inevitably, in their eyes, produced flawed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(states after independence. Bose and Jalal do not endorse the respect, if often tempered with anxiety for the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(future, accorded in most western accounts to Indian 'democracy', let alone to the workings of the states of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Pakistan or Bangladesh. They dislike the centralisation of power which, they believe, Nehru perpetuated )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from the past. Expectations that a strong state might be an effective agent for driving through 'modernity" )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(are now often looked at with as much scepticism as is accorded to the concept of 'modernity' itself, taken to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(be another western construct. On the role of the Indian state as a promoter of economic or social )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(development, Bose and Jalal are a little ambiguous. They recognise that the economic liberalisation of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(early 1990s removed 'the more stifling bureaucratic controls on industry', but insist that 'state and public )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(action' have an important role in remedying deficiencies in health and education \(p. 229\). The political )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(failures of India seem glaring to them. The narrow basis of the Nehru regime could not be sustained. As )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(subsequent leaders, notably Indira Gandhi, endeavoured to become more populist they were forced to invoke )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hindu 'majoritarianism' as a counter to regional challenges. The legacies of military rule in Pakistan have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(been 'a parallel arms and drugs economy, administrative paralysis, and violent social conflict' \(p. 230\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In the last chapter of the book, reflections on fifty years of independence, Bose and Jalal offer their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(alternative scenario for the evolution of modern South Asia. Instead of a transfer of 'colonial structures of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(state and ideologies of sovereignty' to 'mainstream nationalist elites' \(pp. 23940\), they would have preferred )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the survival of pre-colonial ideals and practices, whether under the Mughals or their eighteenth-century )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(successors, of 'flexible, nuanced, and overarching suzerainties', which observed both individual and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(communitarian rights' and had no 'notion of absolute sovereignty' or 'singular allegiance' \(p. 240\). There )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(must be a return to 'a political and state system based on layered and shared sovereignties' \(p. 243\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Assuming that the pre-colonial order had some of the characteristics attributed to it by Bose and Jalal, how )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(did the shift come about some hundred and fifty years later to two and subsequently to three sovereign )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(successor states, one overtly based on religion and the others to a considerable degree dominated by parties )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(organised according to religious allegiance? The attempt to answer this question is the book's major theme.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bose and Jalal attribute much to the nature of colonial rule. They rightly point out that the British had a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(strong concept of a sovereign state from the eighteenth century onwards and that nationalists were more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(inclined to try to capture this powerful state for themselves than to dismantle it. Bose and Jalal are, however, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(also critical of what might seem to be opposite trends in colonial rule, a willingness to devolve authority to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(regions within a nominally federal structure and to assure separate rights to what the British identified as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(minorities. The situation created by the 1935 Government of India Act with its carefully rigged provisions )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that no Indian group should be able to exercise absolute power at the centre and with its provinces based on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historical evolution rather than on religion does not look all that different from Bose's and Jalal's ideal, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(except of course for the survival of a sovereign imperial presence.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The British are also held responsible, in part at least, for the consolidation of more or less unified Hindu or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Muslim religious entities. British views that India was so divided go back to the early days of their rule and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the British had something to do with the process of defining the orthodoxies to which Hindus and Muslims )] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 6718 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(increasingly adhered. In the south, the East India Company 'sponsored a somewhat spurious neo-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Brahmanical ruling ideology' based on a rigid definition of caste, while British scholars 'gave far greater )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(importance to doctrinal Islam or the sharia as propagated by the ulema' than to the 'eclectic religion shot )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(through with local customary practices which was followed by the vast majority of Indian Muslims' \(p. 74\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The late nineteenth-century censuses embodied British notions of clear-cut religious divisions and electoral )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(constituencies were eventually demarcated on religious lines. Yet Bose and Jalal stop well short of divide )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and rule as a full explanation for the hardening of the Hindu/Muslim divide, let alone for partition in 1947. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(They see the emergence of a variety of Muslim identities, 'linked to the fact of British colonial rule without )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(being wholly shaped by it' \(p.167\). The creation of a Pakistan consisting of no more than parts of the Muslim )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(majority provinces of the old British India was the outcome of a whole series of contingent events, carefully )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(analysed in this book. The partition of the areas where Muslims lived between Pakistan and India, far from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(being the fulfilment of the idea an Islamic nation, was 'its most decisive political abortion' \(p. 188\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This review has tried to indicate something of the richness of this book and of the intellectual excitement )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that it generates. Will it succeed in displacing other introductory accounts to provide 'the multi-dimensional, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(high definition overview of modern South Asian history' \(p. 5\) which the authors, with justification, find )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lacking elsewhere? There can be not the slightest doubt that it addresses the issues which currently dominate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a highly creative body of historical writing, that this writing has been comprehensively mastered and that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(persuasive interpretations of it are offered. The book is a manifesto as well as an historical account, but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(readers will have no difficulty in identifying the authors' ideological agenda and in making up their own )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(minds about it. Total success seems, however, to require a little more than these admirable attributes. It )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(requires a high quality of exposition if an audience without prior knowledge is to be caught and held. That )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(quality is lacking.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Whatever their level of intellectual aspiration, Spear's books were, as the authors generously acknowledge, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('elegantly written'. What he meant was always abundantly clear and he carried his readers along with him )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with ease The same cannot be said for this book, except where the authors resort to some splendidly apposite )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(poetic quotations.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The introductory chapter embodies what the uninitiated will surely find to be a major defect in the book. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(later pages of that chapter become hopelessly over-allusive. The authors clearly wish to establish their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(position in relation to their peers, but that is surely not the purpose of a book such as this. Instead, they are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(likely to baffle, and one fears to irritate and put off, the serious inquirer who might like to know what )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('subalternity' is or what is the difference between 'dissonance or polyvalence' and might well welcome 'a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(much-needed decentred balance in our current, disoriented scholarly predicament' \(p. 11\) if she knew what )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(any of that meant or if the authors would condescend to tell her. The issues raised in the introduction are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(serious ones but it is self-indulgent to write in that way in a book like this.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The other main problem that the lay reader is likely to face is the denseness of the exposition in many places. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The authors set out to cover a great deal in a relatively short space and this inevitably means cutting corners )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rather than offering full explanations. For instance, in a section on the emergence of successor states to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mughal empire the reader is told about 'a transition from prebendal to patrimonial land holdings' \(pp. 52-3\), )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(but the following sentences do not seem to explain or to illustrate what that might mean. In short, one feels )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that what this book desperately needed was an aggressive copy editor prepared to say over and over again: )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('Stop, I do not know what that means; please explain it to me.' )] TJ ET BT 334.652 178.229 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Modern South Asia)] TJ ET BT 427.316 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( would have benefited )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(greatly from that salutary discipline. As it is, it is certainly a work that professionals and the initiated will )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(greatly admire but it is one whose wider impact may be more limited than it deserves to be.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [()] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [()] TJ ET BT 34.016 70.949 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 56.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET endstream endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 22 0 R ] /Contents 21 0 R >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Length 603 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 805.999 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 788.219 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 788.219 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/60)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 786.825 m 316.316 786.825 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 761.848 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 747.448 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/445)] TJ ET BT 34.016 733.048 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 23 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 787.1395 316.3157 799.0195 ] >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/60) >> endobj xref 0 24 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000349 00000 n 0000000386 00000 n 0000000564 00000 n 0000000646 00000 n 0000005426 00000 n 0000005535 00000 n 0000005645 00000 n 0000005754 00000 n 0000009315 00000 n 0000009443 00000 n 0000009527 00000 n 0000009592 00000 n 0000017207 00000 n 0000017272 00000 n 0000024790 00000 n 0000024855 00000 n 0000031626 00000 n 0000031710 00000 n 0000032365 00000 n 0000032493 00000 n trailer << /Size 24 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 32587 %%EOF