%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 18 0 R ] /Count 4 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140723052400+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140723052400+01'00') /Title (Politics and Power in Early Medieval Europe: Alsace and the Frankish Realm, 600?1000) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4175 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Politics and Power in Early Medieval Europe: Alsace and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Frankish Realm, 600?1000)] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It is difficult to write a regional history for most areas of early-medieval Europe because convention and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(common form in writing tend to level off regional difference. Either one can read the local landscape in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(every way and in as much detail as can be managed, as Alan Everitt did so effectively for the history of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Kentish settlement, or one can draw on the mass of information that gathers around the political centre and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(leading institutions in order to see how general developments manifested themselves in the particular region. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The latter is the approach taken by Hans Hummer, as he makes plain in the title of his impressive book. He )] TJ ET BT 34.016 152.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(begins with a geographical description of Alsace and the Vosges, but moves quickly on to a very big picture, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(namely the definition of the early-medieval period. For Hummer, the early middle ages begin in the seventh )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and end in the eleventh century. This was a period that was, ?neither merely a survival of late classical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(forms, nor a prelude to the bureaucratization of the high middle ages? \(p. 7\). Rather, it was marked by a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 95.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(distinctive symbiosis of familial, ecclesiastical, and royal interests. What brought it into being was the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(spread of monasteries which became the basis of family power and local domination. What brought about its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(end was monastic reform which turfed the family out of the monastery and forced lords to live in secular )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.355 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(strongholds. For this, the history of the leading Alsatian family, the so-called Etichonids, provides a striking )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(600)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Friday, 1 June, 2007)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hans J. Hummer)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780521854412)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2006)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(50.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(318pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cambridge University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.cup.cam.ac.uk/uk/catalogue/catalogue.asp?isbn=9780521854412)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cambridge)] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.195 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Paul Fouracre)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 5021 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(paradigm. In the tenth century the power and memory of the family still resided in the network of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(monasteries it had founded and endowed in the late-seventh and early-eighth centuries. Hagiography from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the premier foundation of Mt St-Odile \(Hohenbourg\) portrays the founder figure, Duke Adalrich, as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(violently lording it over the monastery. His tomb, incidentally, is still to be visited there, and is perhaps the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(only identifiable resting place of a secular, non-royal, leader of the seventh century anywhere in Francia, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(possibly beyond. By the twelfth century, descendants of the now largely forgotten family lived in craggy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(strongholds such as the castle above Eguisheim. Monastic reform meant not only a change of residence, but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(also the erasure of memory and tradition. Cut off from the old extensive networks, agnatic lineages came to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the fore, and with them a new consciousness for a new age. This is Hans Hummer?s take on the ?feudal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(transformation? debate.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hummer?s basic premise is that too many historians have been reluctant and blinkered readers of monastic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sources; reluctant in that this is the only material available in many cases, so that it is necessary to use it to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(try and get at the more interesting and important lay world beyond. This approach is, in Hummer?s view, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(both fruitless and wrong-headed. Monasteries were fully integrated into society. There was, in this sense, no )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(world beyond, and the patronage of family monasteries enabled kin groups to institutionalize their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consciousness and wealth. What follows is a careful and insightful account of how the Etichonids built their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hold over Alsace on the back of monastic patronage. The rise of Carolingian power is explained in the same )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(terms. In Alsace, the Carolingians ?developed mechanisms of control focused on monasteries rather than )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(counts? \(p. 61\). In the central section of the work, Hummer goes into detail about how the Carolingians )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(affected the working relationship between monasteries, patrons, and clients in the ordering of precarial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(grants, the census payment \(an annual rent\), and the collection of dues known as nona et decimal. Hans )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hummer is a fine scholar and his careful account of the relationship between monastery and patron from the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(eighth to the tenth centuries is clear, useful, and stimulating. He must, however, rely heavily on material )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from the monastery of Weissenburg, which actually points northwards to the Speyergau and Wormsgau )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rather more than south towards Alsace proper. Weissenburg likewise forms the basis of a chapter on ?The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Politics of Old German?, largely because Otfrid, the author of the )] TJ ET BT 351.620 428.069 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Evangelienbuch)] TJ ET BT 428.936 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, was a monk of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Weissenburg. This was a rather disappointing discussion that appeared to be leading up to a single point: that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(within the single cultural enterprise, the Carolingians had room for regional variants that bound ethnic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(difference into the common political culture, but that this difference could also become a means of political )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(identification. This discussion seemed itself to be winding up to the following examination of how Louis the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(German took control of Alsace, but what a long winding it was, and what a missed opportunity to talk about )] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(language in what is linguistically one of the most fascinating areas of Western Europe. As early as the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(seventh century it was commented on how speech changed as one traversed the Vosges.)] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 7692 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Two chapters discussing the Carolingian politics of the ninth century are as good an analysis as one can find )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(anywhere, and again Weissenburg material is prominent. Much thought is given to the dating and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(composition of Weissenburg?s cartulary, which is put in the context of Loius the German? s attempts to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(acquire influence over the monastery?s clients in Alsace. The discussion allows Hummer to reiterate the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(importance of ecclesiastical institutions. Their ?vast proprietary wealth and their extensive network of patron )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(families dominated the social and political landscape of early-medieval Europe? \(p. 207\). Hence these )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(institutions were at the heart of the succession contests of the ninth century, and they were active participants )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as they sought to protect their precarial interests. By this time they were very adept at doing so, and since )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(they underpinned the local order, that sense of chaos and political confusion that comes from narratives of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(high political conflict belies considerable stability and calm in the locality. These thoughts set up Hummer?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(final chapter on ?The tenth-century transformation?, which, as already mentioned \(but which we would by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(now guess anyway\), was brought about when monasteries began to emancipate themselves from lay )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(domination. A final, and rather striking, point about the transformation comes in the Conclusion: agnatic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lineage and castle power arrived at the same time in very different places with very different amounts of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(royal or ducal authority \(that is in Duby?s Mconnais and Schmid?s Swabia or Alsace\). The only thing these )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(areas had in common was, ?the advent of radical monastic reform which profoundly challenged the compact )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of monastic and family rights that had animated lordship since the seventh century? \(pp. 256?7\). This is a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(neat conclusion which encapsulates the whole argument.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As one who habitually reads monastic sources trying to glimpse the world beyond, this reviewer is troubled )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by Hans Hummer?s conviction that monasteries were, to adapt Marshall McLuhan, not just the medium but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the message itself. Hummer is building here on the work of Barbara Rosenwein on the relationship between )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cluny and its patrons, and especially on Matthew Innes?s analysis of the political structures of the mid-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Rhine area in the Carolingian period. Innes too thinks that influence over monasteries provided the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Carolingians with an entre into local society, although his position is more nuanced and he is more aware of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(other elements. Also prominent in Hummer?s thought is Patrick Geary?s argument that monastic reform )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(effectively brought about a loss of social memory, engendering the need for new narratives of family history. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(There is great virtue in all of this work which punctured the old and tired public/private dichotomy in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(structural analysis, but Hummer?s unremitting reiteration of the central proposition raises issues in several )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(areas. First and foremost, relying so heavily on ecclesiastical, and especially monastic, sources will )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(invariably result in the impression that society revolved around ecclesiastical institutions. So before we take )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(these sources at their word we should spend more time hammering at other materials?chronicles, legislation, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(place names, archaeology, and, not least, the glimpses of lay activity in the ecclesiastical sources )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(themselves?to see if any different note is struck. Second, the proposition rests on assumptions about the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(proprietary nature of monasteries, but not all monasteries were the same, and not all founder families )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(managed to stay in control of their foundations. It is commonly said that it was the ?Columbanan? monastic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(movement that led to the spread of the proprietary monastery in Francia, but Columbanan texts actually )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attempted to distance foundations from families, insisting on the complete freedom of the monastery. This )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(impulse would trouble the devout from time to time even before the ?transformation of the tenth century?. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Third, Hans Hummer is excellent on patrons and clients, but he stops short of showing how these relations )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(actually translated into power. Or, to put it another way, was the monastery the sole source of a family?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(power? Obviously not: families gave land to the church because they were powerful and rich. They may )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have used the influence stemming from their involvement to consolidate their local domination, but first they )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(had to have something to donate. So one would have liked to see a more extensive investigation of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sources of social, economic, and political power. Hummer cites numerous donations and precarial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(arrangements, but he never asks how the land was organized. Classes below donor level do not appear in this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(account; the nature of farming units is never discussed. Why not draw on polyptych material here? Finally, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(one must doubt the extent and effectiveness of the monastic reform of the tenth century. It was certainly not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(universal in Alsace, and even when monasteries acquired greater autonomy, they remained in close alliance )] TJ ET BT 34.016 88.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with lay clients. Although it is indeed striking that regions in which there were differing amounts of royal or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ducal power shared a common experience in the building of castles and development of agnatic lineages, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 59.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(there were common denominators other than monastic reform. Of these the most obvious is the increasing )] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 20 0 R ] /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 2396 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cash in circulation from the early-eleventh century. It may partly have been because people were richer that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(they could afford to build stone castles as alternative residences. The loss of social memory is not restricted )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to the period around the first millennium as Patrick Geary argued. We are aware of those few families which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(maintained a group consciousness up to this point. This is not to deny that most families had probably lost it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(well before. All in all, one wonders whether monastic reform was capable of triggering such a widespread )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(transformation.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Despite the fact that Hans Hummer is over-committed to monasticism as the key social, political, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(economic agency in the early middle ages, he has still produced a first-rate work. He brings Alsace into the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(narrative of Carolingian politics with great skill. He is excellent on the development of precaria and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(census. He brings out the extraordinary survival of the Etichonid family in a way that no one has done )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(before. He pushes one to react against his view of the early middle ages, but that is just another way of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(saying that he has written a most thought-provoking book.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 582.415 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 564.635 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 564.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/600)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 563.241 m 322.316 563.241 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 538.264 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 523.864 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/4027)] TJ ET BT 34.016 509.464 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 563.5555 322.3157 575.4355 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/600) >> endobj xref 0 22 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000342 00000 n 0000000379 00000 n 0000000587 00000 n 0000000669 00000 n 0000004896 00000 n 0000005005 00000 n 0000005115 00000 n 0000005224 00000 n 0000008785 00000 n 0000008913 00000 n 0000008997 00000 n 0000009062 00000 n 0000014136 00000 n 0000014201 00000 n 0000021946 00000 n 0000022030 00000 n 0000024479 00000 n 0000024607 00000 n trailer << /Size 22 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 24702 %%EOF