%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 18 0 R ] /Count 4 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140818073909+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140818073909+01'00') /Title (Negotiating Darwin: The Vatican Confronts Evolution, 1877?1902) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4341 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Negotiating Darwin: The Vatican Confronts Evolution, 1877?1902)] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Charles Darwin died in April 1882 at which time William Bateson and Walter Weldon were still Cambridge )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(undergraduates and, indeed, still friends. In later years their bitter feud over the mechanisms of inheritance, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(evolution, and, in particular, the status of 'Natural Selection', was to colour Darwinian studies throughout the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1890s and well beyond. Gregor Mendel had completed and published his work by 1865, but neither Darwin )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nor anyone else read it. Its full impact did not begin to dawn until the early 1900s, and even then the initial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(effect was to encourage a belief in saltational evolution, as favoured by Bateson, rather than the Darwinian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(gradualism, advocated by Welden. By this time, Thomas Hunt Morgan was busy breeding fruit flies and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mapping chromosomes at Columbia University. His work is now regarded as one of the foundation stones of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(our modern understanding of evolution, yet Morgan himself saw his results as anti-Darwinian! In London, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(meanwhile, the young Arthur Holmes was not only literally preparing his 'time bomb' which would )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(transform the geological time scale but also provide enough time for Darwinian evolution to operate. In )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1900, however, Bateson was famously to comment on the current state of knowledge of heredity and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 87.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(evolution that, '...not only is our ignorance complete, but no one has the remotest idea how to set to work on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that part of the problem'. )] TJ ET BT 155.492 73.739 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Negotiating Darwin)] TJ ET BT 251.840 73.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is, firstly, a series of case studies on how six Catholic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 59.483 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(apologists were able to exploit the disputes and uncertainties of these 'eclipse of Darwinism' years \(p. 20\) in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(601)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thursday, 31 May, 2007)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mariano Artigas)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thomas F. Glick)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Rafael A. Martnez)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780801883897)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2006)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(336pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The Johns Hopkins University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.press.jhu.edu/books/title_pages/9084.html)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Baltimore)] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.579 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(John F. Pollard)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 8035 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attempts to reconcile, or, rather, to 'harmonize' \(p. 3\), evolution with Catholic theology. Secondly, but more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(importantly, it is a detailed account of the reaction of Vatican bureaucracy to these reconciliatory attempts.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(There has been, and still is, an extremely nive attitude towards the so-called conflict between Science and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Church, and this nivete has generated a series of myths which have been perpetuated as truths. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(authors of )] TJ ET BT 85.340 727.445 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Negotiating Darwin)] TJ ET BT 181.688 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, however, subscribe to John Hedley Brooke's 'complexity thesis' of history, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and demonstrate just how intertwined and non-linear the debates really were; and in addition they also trace )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the origins of those myths.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 672.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(They are able to produce this fine-grained study as a result of the opening up \(on 22 January 1998\) of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 658.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(archives of the Congregations of the Holy Office and of the Index. For the first time, this allowed scholars )] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(free access to the documentation recording the actions taken by the Vatican with respect to the reconciliatory )] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(writings of these six authors. The period covered is from 1877 to 1902, with all but two of the six cases )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(taking place in the 1890s during the pontificate of Leo XIII. Of these six, two are Italian, two English, one )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(American, and one French. All are clerics, save the English anatomist St. George Mivart, but all, without )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exception, are Catholics. It is important to note that the subtitle of this work is 'the Vatican confronts )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(evolution' and not ?the Vatican confronts Darwin? for, unlike that other paradigmatic case of 'Church versus )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Science', that of Galileo and Urban VIII, there was no clash of personalities here. The authors of )] TJ ET BT 499.388 558.629 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Negotiating )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Darwin)] TJ ET BT 70.688 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( are, however, at pains to demonstrate how the 'long shadow of Galileo's condemnation' had a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(moderating influence on the way the Vatican approached the perceived threat of evolutionary theory, and, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(indeed, the echoes of Galileo's philosophy appear time and time again throughout the book. Of course, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(two situations were very different but, taking an overview of these case studies, it is apparent that all six )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(authors, while accepting, more or less, that evolution, sensu lato, had taken place, were unhappy about )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(natural selection as being its sole driving force and about the fact that there was no obvious experimentum )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cruces to test it. At least the Copernican theory had been amenable to such a test, if only stellar parallax )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(could have been measured with the requisite accuracy. This lack of evidence, and the fierce debates that it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(engendered within the scientific community itself, provided our apologists with the opportunity they needed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to propose a series of non-materialistic alternatives to natural selection; alternatives which involved )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(secondary, but law-abiding, causes and thereby retained Divine Providence which the Darwinian 'Russian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(roulette' was seen to threaten. Such strategies did less violence both to scriptural exegesis and the consensus )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fidelium of the Catholic Church. Conversely, this lack of proof also enabled the anti-evolutionists smugly to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dismiss the whole idea as 'unscientific'. What irony that Karl Popper, some ninety years later, controversially )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(came to the same conclusion because, he said, the theory of evolution was not falsifiable!)] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(While the writings of these six authors have always been readily available, published as they were in book )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(form or in the press, the critiques, reports, and recommendations of the Holy Office and the Congregation of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Index have never seen the light of day. It is these reports which have made )] TJ ET BT 412.928 290.021 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Negotiating Darwin)] TJ ET BT 509.276 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( both )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(possible and fascinating. The book goes a long way to closing an enormous gap, often erroneously filled )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from secondary sources, particularly the notoriously conservative Jesuit journal, )] TJ ET BT 421.616 261.509 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(La Civilta Cattolica)] TJ ET BT 517.640 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, in our )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(knowledge of the understanding of how Darwinism was received. It also highlights a number of issues )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which, with the resurgence of interest in 'intelligent design' \(ID\), are still relevant today.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It is impossible to summarize the subtly-nuanced dialectic which took place between the Darwinian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('harmonizers' and the consultors of the Congregations. While some telling points are made on both sides, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(much of it has the flavour of a disputation between twelfth-century schoolmen transposed into the nineteenth )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century. Did St Thomas Aquinas and St Augustine really anticipate Darwin? In his attempt at harmonization, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the American, John Zahm, in his )] TJ ET BT 194.000 149.717 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Evolution and Dogma)] TJ ET BT 299.996 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Case no.3 p. 124 et seq.\) argues that this is indeed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the case. His reviewer, on the other hand, says that he finds it 'difficult to tease evolution, as we currently )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(understand it, out of the philosophers of antiquity or the doctors of the Church' \(p. 134\). So the debates )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(swung back and forth, often with the same 'facts' being used in the support of both sides; and one has to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(admire the intellectual gymnastics involved, if not the selectivity. Certainly the protagonists were selective )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the omissions are as interesting as the inclusions. For example, only passing reference is made to the age )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the Earth, poor Darwin's 'sorest trouble'. This was a difficult problem which was not solved until Arthur )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Holmes used his radioactive dating techniques, the results of which were first published in 1911. Another of )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 8438 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Darwin's problems, which none of the authors mention, in the context under study is that of the 'incipient )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(stages of organs'. This formed a major element in Mivart's initial critique of Darwin's theory. It was, indeed, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of such extreme importance that Darwin felt himself forced to address it by adding a completely new chapter )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to the sixth edition of )] TJ ET BT 139.688 753.701 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Origin)] TJ ET BT 192.692 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1872\). We still lack a fully satisfactory answer to this critique but it is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(gradually beginning to yield to the new science of 'Evo-Devo'.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It was, of course, the year before this sixth edition of )] TJ ET BT 290.300 713.189 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Origin)] TJ ET BT 343.304 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( was published that Darwin unleashed his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(second wild boar to rampage through, and scatter, the sacred text of Genesis. )] TJ ET BT 405.932 698.933 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Descent of Man)] TJ ET BT 502.916 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( was much )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(harder to come to terms with than )] TJ ET BT 198.992 684.677 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Origin)] TJ ET BT 251.996 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( had been, and the consequences leap from the writings of both )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the apologists and the from consultor's reports. In general, both sides, in their different ways, make )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Herculean efforts to cage this particular wild boar, and you must read the book to discover the theological )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contortions that they performed in order to 'save appearances', as Galileo might have said. The real tussle )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was between the emphasis on God's orderly immanence in the creation of all living creatures except man. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Here, it was necessary to require that the Almighty be an interventionist 'God-of-the-Gaps'. The tension is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(palpable. One of Darwin's biographers, Ronald Clark, has likened these efforts of theologians in general to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(defend the 'special creation' status of man to 'Custer's last stand'. Reading the reports of these six apologists, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(however, and the ways they invoked concepts such as 'mitigated', 'limited', and 'theist' evolution, brings to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mind much more Neville Chamberlain's futile note waving.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(So why did two books by a middle-aged gentleman, from a country one of whose former queens had been )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(excommunicated in 1570 and whose clergy were not recognized by the Catholic Church, ruffle so many )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(feathers? The traditional answer is that Darwinian evolution destroyed the 'watch on the heath?/'argument )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from design' teleology, and intoned the last rites of William Paley's 'final causes'. This was certainly the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(belief of some of the apologists, John Zahm for example \(p. 133\). In fact 'natural theology' had been on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wane for some thirty years before )] TJ ET BT 198.632 458.837 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Origin)] TJ ET BT 251.636 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( appeared. Both the comparative anatomists and the geologists )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(came to regard it as a sterile explanation of Nature's underlying unity. )] TJ ET BT 371.780 444.581 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Negotiating Darwin)] TJ ET BT 468.128 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( makes it clear )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that the real danger lay not so much with the pros and cons of any specific theory, but was rather to do with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(who had the ultimate authority to interpret the scriptures. Galileo, quoting Aquinas, had said that God had )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(assigned Holy writ concerning scientific matters to scientists ?' and not to theologians, or ecclesiastical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tribunals, or the Roman congregations' \(p. 244\). This was, perhaps, something of an unlooked for backfire of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Leo XIIIth's encyclicals, )] TJ ET BT 154.808 373.301 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Aeterni Patris)] TJ ET BT 222.476 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1879\) and )] TJ ET BT 280.796 373.301 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Providentissimus Deus)] TJ ET BT 391.124 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1893\), in which he had )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(encouraged new Thomist scholarship. It also opened the floodgates to an allegorical reading of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(scriptures, thus undermining the authority of Holy Church. The book concludes that Leo XIII was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(undoubtedly more cautious in handling the 'new learning', especially science, than his predecessor, Pius IX. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Pius was rather given to thunderous, sweeping condemnations of the innovations of an age of 'reason' and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(materialism, culminating in his infamous declaration, at the end of the )] TJ ET BT 373.652 302.021 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Syllabus of Errors)] TJ ET BT 461.660 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, that 'The Roman )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Pontiff could not and would not reconcile himself with the progress, liberalism and modern civilization'. One )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wonders whether he would have condemned Darwin as well...)] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The final chapter, 'The Church and Evolution', puts the question, 'Was there a policy?'. We will not spoil it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for the reader by giving the authors' answer, but, suffice it to say that, in the 1890s there were no )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(inquisitorial witch hunts of yesteryear, no threats of torture, house arrest, or burnings at the stake. The word )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('heresy' is hardly mentioned, in 'Fact, nothing to laugh at at all'. Instead, lack-lustre admonitions such as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('rash', 'unsafe', or 'erroneous in the Faith' replaced the more muscular responses. However, it is clear that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Vatican still wished to restrain any loose cannon that might be directed at that sacred Leonine wall, the last )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(physical bastion of the pope's erstwhile secular domain. Evolution did, however, remain a problem for the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Catholic Church for some time afterwards. For example )] TJ ET BT 305.636 147.461 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(La Civilta Cattolica)] TJ ET BT 401.660 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( devoted a series of articles by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jesuit Father Gaia to the question of 'Evolution or the Stability of Species?' in 1919 and 1920, which, after )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(presenting scientific evidence both for and against, came out against evolution.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This is a fine study of the Church's response to Darwin and evolutionism in the late-nineteenth century, even )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(if there are some literary/linguistic lapses, with the result that it is difficult to understand quite what the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(authors are trying to say. One of the book's great strengths, however, is that the authors resist the temptation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to force conclusions on their readers. The treatment is even-handed with sufficient background being given )] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 20 0 R 22 0 R 24 0 R ] /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 1688 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to contextualize each case study yet allowing the apologists and the consultors to speak for themselves. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(work will appeal to a wide readership.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Tablet)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.thetablet.co.uk/issue/1000029/booksandart)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 726.051 m 297.008 726.051 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 300.008 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(National Center for Science Education)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://ncse.com/rncse/29/1/review-negotiating-darwin)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 697.539 m 292.316 697.539 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 295.316 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 694.207 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 676.427 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 676.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/601)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 675.033 m 322.316 675.033 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 650.056 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 635.656 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/4029)] TJ ET BT 34.016 621.256 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.thetablet.co.uk/issue/1000029/booksandart)] TJ ET BT 34.016 606.856 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3] http://ncse.com/rncse/29/1/review-negotiating-darwin)] TJ ET endstream endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 726.3655 297.0077 738.2455 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.thetablet.co.uk/issue/1000029/booksandart) >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 23 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 697.8535 292.3157 709.7335 ] >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://ncse.com/rncse/29/1/review-negotiating-darwin) >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 25 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 675.3475 322.3157 687.2275 ] >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/601) >> endobj xref 0 26 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000342 00000 n 0000000379 00000 n 0000000565 00000 n 0000000647 00000 n 0000005040 00000 n 0000005149 00000 n 0000005259 00000 n 0000005368 00000 n 0000008929 00000 n 0000009057 00000 n 0000009141 00000 n 0000009206 00000 n 0000017294 00000 n 0000017359 00000 n 0000025850 00000 n 0000025948 00000 n 0000027689 00000 n 0000027816 00000 n 0000027920 00000 n 0000028047 00000 n 0000028151 00000 n 0000028279 00000 n trailer << /Size 26 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 28374 %%EOF