%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 16 0 R 20 0 R 22 0 R ] /Count 4 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140721234752+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140721234752+01'00') /Title (Domesticity and Power in the Early Mughal World) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R 14 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4314 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Domesticity and Power in the Early Mughal World)] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The issues and themes concerning the state and its rulers have until quite recently dominated the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historiography of Mughal India. While some scholars argue for the centralized character of the Mughal state, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(others have pointed out its contested and negotiated nature. More recent scholars have come up with studies )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that underline the fluidity of the state. Ruby Lal?s )] TJ ET BT 275.996 216.299 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Domesticity and Power in the Early Mughal World)] TJ ET BT 521.648 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is one )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the two major works on the contestations and negotiations inherent in the functioning of the Mughal state \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 186.393 m 40.016 186.393 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 40.016 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\). This supposedly unconventional subject, the domestic world of the Mughals, is predisposed to question )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the politics of history writing \(which had hitherto been centred on politics and trade\), and this book marks a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(first attempt to understand gender relations at the Mughal court.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lal revisits the Mughals, and their domestic world in particular, provides a detailed genealogy of the rulers, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and takes to task colonial caricatures. The author refers to early travellers? emperor-centric accounts, which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(referred to women only marginally. For them, the harem was worth exploring and examining but they ended )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(up giving, at times, misleading?even fantastic?accounts of it. The efforts to understand the oriental culture )] TJ ET BT 34.016 75.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and society during the colonial period resulted in a concoction of information from, what Lal calls, ?fluid )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and self-contradictory travellers? accounts?. This had an impact on the understanding of the domestic world )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(603)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thursday, 31 May, 2007)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ruby Lal)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780521850223)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2005)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(45.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(260pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cambridge University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.cambridge.org/uk/catalogue/catalogue.asp?isbn=9780521850223)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cambridge)] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.579 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Karuna Sharma)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 15 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 186.7075 40.0157 198.5875 ] >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 18 0 R ] /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 7880 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the Mughals as the numerous incidents that the early writers had keenly observed were interpreted as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(symbolic of perversion. Intrepidly, Lal?s book provides an alternative to the sensuous, voyeuristic Mughal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(harem marquee, reproducing instead the vibrant and contested nature of the harem/domestic of the Mughals. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Such a portrayal of the royal domestic space, akin to the research of Leslie Peirce in the context of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ottoman harem \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 116.000 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 116.000 738.051 m 122.000 738.051 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 122.000 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\), challenges the common notion that gender segregation indicates limited and restricted )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(involvement on the part of royal women. Instead, Lal demonstrates that the decisions of the Mughal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(emperor, and thereby the policy of the Mughal state, were formed by the politics and complexities of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(royal household.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This study of the royal household falls into that genre of feminist writing that envisages the household as an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(institution in which gender relations are structured, enforced, and, possibly, contested. Underlining the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fluidity of the domestic arrangements of the Mughals, this book builds upon the role that the royal Mughal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(household, especially the females, had in the making of the Mughal state structure. This approach )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(problematizes and broadens the polarized character of the public-private model, and the book takes us )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(through the various meanings attached to the concept of the ?public-private domain?, especially in the non-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(western world. By taking up issues such as the intersection of the political interests of women and men, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(book emphasizes the superfluity of such distinctions, and contends for the dynamism and contestation of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mughal harem.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Domesticity and Power)] TJ ET BT 146.672 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, which covers the period from the sixteenth century to the early-seventeenth century, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is divided into six chapters, besides an introduction and a conclusion, that underscore the differences in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(domestic world of the peripatetic period of Babur and Humayun from that of Akbar?s centralized )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(administration. The book focuses on a re-reading of contemporary historical literature in the light of the new )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(set of questions it poses. The oft-repeated inadequacy of the sources in matters related to women and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(domestic life has been challenged, and information culled from Gulbadan begum?s )] TJ ET BT 435.944 458.837 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Ahval-i Humayun )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Badshah)] TJ ET BT 76.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( has been critically analysed. Gulbadan?s account of Babur and Humayun?s reigns was part of a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(programme commissioned by Akbar, and was to become the official source for the chronicling of his rule. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Through )] TJ ET BT 78.344 416.069 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Ahval)] TJ ET BT 106.340 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, which gives an account of the nascent Mughal monarchy, )] TJ ET BT 391.616 416.069 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Domesticity and Power)] TJ ET BT 504.272 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( shows )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(how the harem metamorphosed over a period of time into a bounded space which could be understood as a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(family. The record of routine events \(like the king?s visits to the royal women, preparation of marriages, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(distribution of gifts\) in the )] TJ ET BT 163.688 373.301 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Ahval)] TJ ET BT 191.684 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, is, for Lal, a repertoire of the processes involved in the making of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?hierarchical relationships, building alliances and reinforcing kinship solidarities?. Lal examines how royal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(life evolved through a period of struggle, how the Mughal monarchy was made, and the role royal women )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(played in Mughal politico-cultural thought. Making good use of Persian terminology, Lal shows how the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(domestic/harem, and the relations between different communities within it, evolved over time: from kin and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(intimate relationships to an awe-inspiring monarchy whose women/harem was to be much more secluded. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This is a necessary step to reaching an understanding of the political power, and consequent social relations, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the Mughal world.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The book describes the reign of three successive Mughal rulers. The first is Babur, whose reign was fraught )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with incessant conflict among his cousins which necessitated direct deliberations with his fellow men. Lal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(finds in this a homo-social domestic environment, in which emotions played an important role. The second )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ruler is Humayun. Even though the court was still peripatetic during his reign, and although he faced outside )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rivals, he developed a tighter royal entourage in which hierarchies were more clearly defined than before, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and where there was greater formality?to the extent that ?elaborate rituals of comportment? were being )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(written down. Babur had invoked his ancestral connections to legitimize his rule. Humayun also invoked his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exalted pedigree, but he preferred to enforce his power by demanding a strict adherence to the code of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conduct. This led in turn to the ?beginning of settlement of his court, its increased organization, of peoples, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of relationships, of roles?. There were certain stringent regulations which governed the conduct of close )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(associates \(pp. 96?99\), and Lal attempts to show the debates and tensions in the lives of the people at court )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which mirrored the intersection of private and public-political affairs.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Turning the pages over, we come across women-specific information. One finds themes such as marriage, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(motherhood, and wifehood, through which Lal locates the harem in the peripatetic world of the Mughals. )] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 19 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 115.9997 738.3655 121.9997 750.2455 ] >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 21 0 R >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Length 7589 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Babur never discussed the harem as an institutionalized entity \(which was, of course, only a later )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(development\); and among other things the harem meant, simply, ?women?. By Humayun?s time, the word )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was being used more frequently, but it still referred to the imperial women, the haraman-i padshah. As for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their contribution, the royal women had a due place in the construction of the monarchy. They were not only )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the carriers of the new dynasty, but they also socialized new members. This created the opportunity for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(women?s agency in the production and circulation of power. The intersection of the interests of men and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(women undermines any conception of a separate and independent domestic sphere. Amidst the multifaceted )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and intimate community which encompassed the domestic world the Mughals, Lal?s account relives various )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(episodes and stories to reveal the hierarchical and emotional relationships within the harem, which were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(respected by the kings, and how women played a crucial role, such as in brokering peace, as one may find )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(many entanglements in the making of monarchy. Thus Lal considers the deliberations over marriages, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Humayun-Hamideh Banu?s, and bases upon them a narrative of the making of Mughal political norms, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(traditions, protocols, and the agency women enjoyed \(concerning their own marriage\). Thus instead of being )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a segregated domain, the domestic/harem of the Mughals was open to negotiations and challenges from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(within.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In contrast to his predecessors, Akbar?s presence and charisma were not dependent on an exalted ancestry, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as he was divinely ordained; God granted him kingship. The leader of religion and realm, Akbar needed to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exhibit an extraordinary magnificence and distinctiveness. He tried to consolidate his power first by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(disciplining his own body, including his sexual behaviour, so that one finds hetero-social and masculine )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sexual ethical comportments; secondly, by carefully constructing, and separating, spaces for different )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(activities and rituals; and, thirdly, through a network of marriages which was a necessary adjunct of imperial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(power and control. If he were to be an awe-inspiring monarch, his harem had to be quite unique too. It now )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(became an institutionalized body, which, according to Lal, had its genesis in the formation of royalty itself. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(At this time, the word harem began to be used to refer not only to the women themselves, but also to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(spaces they occupied and their service-class. It is now, too, that one begins to find a neatly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(compartmentalized space. Various invocations, analysed in the book, convey the sense that Akbar and his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dwellings were in close proximity to the Prophet and the holy sites associated with him. Under such )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(circumstances, the places associated with Akbar, largely his harem, drew respect and, thereby, seclusion. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The construction of a new capital at Fatehpur Sikri, that spatially organized the various people and structures )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(within it, was one of the ways to create quarters manifesting the power of the monarchy. In this scheme, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(women came to occupy demarcated spaces \(p. 165\). Further, the invisibility of women was achieved, Lal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(argues, through the complete obliteration of the names of the mothers of the future heirs. The mothers were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(crucial to the empire, but unnamed in the annals. By making the private apartments more sacred and, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 314.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(therefore, invisible to those outside the immediate family, the monarchy created for itself an aura of being )] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(beyond the reach of its subjects. In this scheme the domestic world is more subjugated, as Akbar?s persona )] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(encompassed both spiritual and temporal powers. Lal in various ways tries to show how in reality the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 271.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(domestic world of Akbar betrayed such a characterization. Instead she discusses diverse ways by which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 256.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(women gained a central role at various junctures, such as intercessions or the provision of counsel. Thus )] TJ ET BT 34.016 242.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(even though the Mughal order was much more formalized and the domestic more secluded, Lal brings out )] TJ ET BT 34.016 228.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the women?s role in the contestation of those sovereign ideals?a contestation that was part of Mughal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 214.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(political traditions. Besides the intimate community, Lal is aware of the importance of Akbar?s foster )] TJ ET BT 34.016 199.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(community, thus there is also a detailed description of this community. As this promoted relationships with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 185.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(individuals who were not kinsmen, it took to a higher level the politics of marriage making; such a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 171.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(promotion of foster-relations did have an impact on the socio-political relations of the actors concerned.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(One episode that has triggered the author?s anxiety is the decision of Gulbadan begum to lead the hajj party )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in 1578. The author has mapped onto this venture the desires and agency of the imperial women; something )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which helps to accentuate the fact that these women remained visible, despite the fact that they now resided )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in secluded places. Hajj was undeniably more than a spiritual journey on the part of the women. It fostered )] TJ ET BT 34.016 88.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(an Islamic image of the empire, which was one reason why it had been fully supported by the settled and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consolidated government of Akbar. It was an exceptional enterprise of, and for, the royal women, who had a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 59.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more or less secluded life, and it consequently slams the door on the notion of a domestic world of the )] TJ ET endstream endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 24 0 R 26 0 R 28 0 R 30 0 R ] /Contents 23 0 R >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Length 6283 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mughals \(p. 213\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The conclusion sums up the findings of each chapter, including the introduction, providing a picture of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(development of domestic life that follows the growth and formation of the Mughal Empire. An attempt has )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(also been made to compare Mughal women with Ottoman and Safavid women \(p. 216\). All three empires )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(inherited Central Asian political traditions, but adopted different techniques to consolidate of their rule. Each )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(experimented with different domestic arrangements, social hierarchies, rituals, and symbols. These )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(experiments involved the creation of the harem. The rule of hasekis \(the sultan?s favourite concubine\) or the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(walide sultan in the Ottoman Empire, or the naturalness of royal women?s political authority in Safavid Iran )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have no parallels among the Mughals \(p. 223\). In the Mughal context, it was only the uncommonly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(determined and talented women who gained political importance. It was this experimentation and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(negotiation that give the Mughal harem a unique character. That is why the author is tormented by the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(omission of the names of the mothers of the Mughal heirs from contemporary chronicles; equally, Nur )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jahan?s marriage to Jahangir does not get a mention in his autobiography. These absences are ascribed to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(patriarchal nature of the sources \(p. 225\). The ?final thoughts? call for a rethinking of the ways in which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Islamic societies were formed and configured at a particular historical juncture.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Through this lively description of women?s role in the making of the empire, its traditions, and grandeur, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mughal social and domestic world becomes a part of the historical discourse. The book also embodies some )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(provocative thoughts. The hajj episode, for example, emphasizes, among others things, the agency and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(autonomy of the women who undertook the journey. More than simply claiming women?s agency in this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(enterprise, however, one could also notice its recognizable importance to the political economy of the day, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(where the ?actors in women? were performing their delineated roles. In such a big venture as the hajj, an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(admixture of trading and political enterprises cannot be ruled out. As the succeeding centuries would show, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the ships bound to Mecca were loaded with merchandise for the vendors of that city. Thus, it may be that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hajj venture of Gulbadan was part of this exchange nexus. Although not within the thematic purview of this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(book, a peep into the local harem, that is the Rajput antahpura, would have added to the understanding of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(evolution of the Mughal harem and the members constituting it. Could it be that the obliteration of a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mother?s name was the result of indigenous traditions, in which the requirements of respect hampered the so-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(called public pronouncement of the names of women! Written lucidly, the book opens up a new paradigm )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which will stimulate further researches into a neglected domain where gender relations can be tapped.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 338.403 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 307.786 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 307.781 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The other being F. Hasan, )] TJ ET BT 191.660 307.781 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(State and Locality in Mughal India: Power Relations in Western India, c. )] TJ ET BT 64.016 293.525 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(1572?1730)] TJ ET BT 118.016 293.525 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Cambridge, 2004\). )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 218.336 293.525 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 218.336 292.131 m 272.324 292.131 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 279.274 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 279.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(L. P. Peirce, )] TJ ET BT 126.008 279.269 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Imperial Harem-Women and Sovereignty in the Ottoman Empire)] TJ ET BT 437.624 279.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(New York, 1993\). )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 64.016 265.013 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 263.619 m 118.004 263.619 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 238.757 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 224.501 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Telegraph India)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 210.245 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.telegraphindia.com/1061229/asp/opinion/story_7191028.asp)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 208.851 m 383.012 208.851 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 386.012 210.245 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 205.519 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 187.739 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 187.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/603)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 186.345 m 322.316 186.345 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 161.368 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 146.968 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/4033)] TJ ET BT 34.016 132.568 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.telegraphindia.com/1061229/asp/opinion/story_7191028.asp)] TJ ET endstream endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 25 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 218.3357 292.4455 272.3237 304.3255 ] >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 27 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 64.0157 263.9335 118.0037 275.8135 ] >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 29 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 209.1655 383.0117 221.0455 ] >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.telegraphindia.com/1061229/asp/opinion/story_7191028.asp) >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 31 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 186.6595 322.3157 198.5395 ] >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/603) >> endobj xref 0 32 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000342 00000 n 0000000379 00000 n 0000000550 00000 n 0000000639 00000 n 0000005005 00000 n 0000005114 00000 n 0000005224 00000 n 0000005333 00000 n 0000008894 00000 n 0000009022 00000 n 0000009106 00000 n 0000009232 00000 n 0000009268 00000 n 0000009352 00000 n 0000017285 00000 n 0000017413 00000 n 0000017449 00000 n 0000017514 00000 n 0000025156 00000 n 0000025261 00000 n 0000031597 00000 n 0000031725 00000 n 0000031761 00000 n 0000031888 00000 n 0000031924 00000 n 0000032051 00000 n 0000032170 00000 n 0000032298 00000 n trailer << /Size 32 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 32393 %%EOF