%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 18 0 R 20 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140922160816+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140922160816+01'00') /Title (Race and Liberty in the New Nation: Emancipation in Virginia from the Revolution to Nat Turner's Rebellion) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 3961 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Race and Liberty in the New Nation: Emancipation in Virginia )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(from the Revolution to Nat Turner's Rebellion)] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(What does it mean to say that all men are created equal? In the context of the American Declaration of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Independence it could be seen as merely a rather grandiose way of saying that Americans have as much right )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to self-government as Englishmen. 'No taxation without representation' was another rallying call of the time, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(but that had been a parliamentary slogan during Charles I's reign. To rally supporters and gain the world's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(approval Americans needed something more up-to-date that would show they had rebelled for good cause, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and not simply because they resented paying taxes for the upkeep of an empire in which their interests were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 152.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not fully represented. And what more elevating principles were available to men of the latter part of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(eighteenth century than those forged by the philosophers of the Enlightenment? Freedom from tyranny, a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(government dedicated to serving the needs of the people, the universal rights of man?that was what the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Enlightenment was about, and that was what the founders of the United States decided it should be about )] TJ ET BT 34.016 95.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(too. True, a number of them happened to be slaveholders. That was inconvenient. But wasn't it better to have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(high aspirations than no aspirations at all? The important thing was to get rid of the British. Sorting out the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(details could be left until later.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(604)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thursday, 31 May, 2007)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Eva Sheppard Wolf)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780807131947)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2006)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(30.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(312pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Louisiana State University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.lsu.edu/lsupress/bookPages/9780807131947.html)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Baton Rouge)] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.195 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Howard Temperley)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7502 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Taken literally, of course, the idea of men being equal is nonsense. As John C Calhoun and other defenders )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of slavery would in time argue, some men arrived in the world better equipped than others. It was a matter of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(common observation that men?women were another matter?differed in terms of physical strength, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(intelligence, industriousness, and in countless other ways. Furthermore, it was the case that all societies were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(based on the notion of there being some kind of hierarchy. Far from being an anomaly, Calhoun went on to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(argue, slavery was a time-honoured institution, a 'positive good'. It was also democratic to the extent that all )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(societies depended for their successful operation on the performance of mundane tasks of a kind unbefitting )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(those responsible for bearing the burdens of citizenship. What slavery did was to underwrite democracy by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(providing a subordinate class peculiarly suited to performing tasks of that kind. That had been the case in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ancient Athens, and it was no less the case with the United States. Some men were born equipped to give )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(orders, others to obeying them. In short, the idea of men being born equal was contrary to common sense )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and sound policy.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This, however, is looking ahead to the 1830s. At the time of the War of Independence, and indeed for most )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the period dealt with in )] TJ ET BT 161.336 587.141 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Race and Liberty in the New Nation)] TJ ET BT 334.004 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, slaveholders were less assured in their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pronouncements on the subject. Borne forward on the tide of Revolutionary rhetoric, few were prepared to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dismiss the principles of the Declaration in so robust a manner as Calhoun. After all, embarked as they were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on an entirely new experiment in government, quibbling over principles would have been not only divisive )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(but also unpatriotic. All the same, there were those, even at the time, who expressed unease over what struck )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(them as the overly sweeping character of the principles evoked. What was this notion of there being natural )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rights to which all men were entitled? Either the rights in question were not universal or slaves were not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(men. One way or another, a formula would have to be found for getting around this seeming contradiction.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The most obvious, and the one initially resorted to, was to say that the rights concerned, whether universal or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not, were in practice available only to citizens. As the Virginia Declaration of Rights put it, 'all men are by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nature equally free and independent, and have certain inherent rights, of which, when, they enter into a state )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of society, they cannot by any compact, deprive or divest their posterity'. It was obvious that slaves, being )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wholly owned, could not be citizens. But what about free blacks? Their numbers had been swollen by the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(war's disruptions. To get around that problem Virginia's legislators defined entitlement to citizenship as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(being confined to, 'all white persons born within the territory of this commonwealth, and all who have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(resided therein two years'. By such Jesuitical reasoning Virginia's legislators contrived to say, without )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(blatantly spelling it out, that, at least in Virginia, liberty was for whites only.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This was, according to Eva Sheppard Wolf, a view shared by Americans at large. Nevertheless, the way )] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Virginians approached the issue had much to do with their efforts to balance a slaveholders' freedom to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(emancipate their slaves with growing unease over the number of free blacks in the state. As the book's sub-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(title indicates, )] TJ ET BT 104.348 278.021 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Race and Liberty)] TJ ET BT 187.004 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is not simply a general discussion of Virginian attitudes, for example as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reflected in political speeches and newspaper editorials, but one firmly grounded in archival records )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concerning specific applications for manumission. In consequence, Wolf is able to delve beneath the public )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pronouncements of important persons and show how ordinary citizens sought to reconcile themselves to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(continuing existence of slavery in a society supposedly dedicated to universal freedom.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(One response was to wish that slavery had never been introduced. In his original draft of the Declaration of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Independence, Thomas Jefferson had had the temerity to insert a passage condemning George III for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(enslaving innocent Africans and for encouraging an 'execrable commerce in men'. King George might be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 151.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(responsible for a lot of things, but to blame him for slavery on top of everything else was so patently self-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(serving that Congress had it struck it out. The issue, however, was not how Americans came to be in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(position they were in but how to get out of it without landing themselves in an even worse one. Slaves )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(produced the bulk of Virginia's exports. They were also personal property. Apart from land, more capital )] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was tied up in the ownership of slaves than in any other commodity. Once the state began meddling with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(property there was no telling where it would end. Besides, how would the slaves fare once they had been )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(freed? Would one even be doing them a favour by freeing them? At present they were quite unequipped to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(manage on their own. Might they gang together and seek vengeance? And wouldn't living without slaves )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 6836 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prove extraordinarily inconvenient, particularly in Virginia? Thus, while it was possible to agree with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Patrick Henry that slavery was a 'lamentable evil', there were strong arguments for not doing anything about )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(it.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Yet, many ordinary Virginians believed not only that slavery was wrong but that ways of dealing with it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(would have to be found. One step in that direction was to ban the further importation of slaves. Although )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nominally antislavery, this served the interests of the slaveholders of the eastern counties who did not wish )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to see the value of their holdings reduced by allowing further imports. More indicative of the softening of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attitudes, however, was the removal of the legal provisions requiring those who freed slaves to send them )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(outside the state. Thus, from 1782 until 1806 a window of opportunity was opened that allowed slaveholders )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to free their slaves without providing for their resettlement elsewhere. Whether moved by Revolutionary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ardour, religious conviction, or some combination of the two, a minority of owners, George Washington )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(among them, began emancipating some or all of their slaves. Now they were joined by Methodists and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Baptists. Urged on by two visiting English evangelists, Francis Asbury and Thomas Coke, Methodists )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(submitted a petition to the Virginia House of Delegates calling for general manumission, claiming, among )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(other things, that any American who upheld slavery was a hypocrite on the grounds that the way masters )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ruled their slaves was far more oppressive than Britain's rule over its former American colonists. This, not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(surprisingly, did not go down well. As one anti-emancipation petition had it, the War of Independence had, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('sealed with our Blood, a Title to the full, free, and absolute Enjoyment of every species of our Property'. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Once again, it was claimed, the British were up to their old tricks, conspiring to deprive Americans of their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(liberties, in this instance their liberty to hold property in slaves. In reporting the matter to George )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Washington, James Madison reported that the petition had aroused a great deal of indignation and that a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(motion had been passed to throw it under the table.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(On the basis of manumission records it would appear that locality was as important as religious persuasion )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in determining the behaviour of individuals. For example, in Accomack County on the Eastern Shore the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(collapse of tobacco agriculture led to an exceptional number of manumissions. On occasion, too, the result )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(could be attributed to the example of a local figure. Among the most revealing of Wolf's findings is the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(change in the character of manumissions that occurred over time. Initially it tended to be Revolutionary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(principles that spurred slaveholders to action. In such cases the articles of manumission would commonly be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(accompanied by expressions of antislavery belief. Soon, however, they took on a different character )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(suggesting that promises of emancipation were being used as a means of persuading slaves to work harder, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(thereby actually strengthening slaveholders' control over their workforces.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Emancipation could also be made into a money-making proposition by having slaves accumulate funds, first )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to purchase their own freedom and then that of the rest of their family. Wolf cites cases in which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hardworking individuals born into slavery spent forty years of their lives struggling to achieve what white )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Americans took to be their birthright, namely the right to live surrounded by their family and in a place of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their choice.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In 1806, declining commitment to Revolutionary ideology and increasing alarm over the number of free )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(blacks, especially in cities, persuaded Virginia's lawmakers to make manumission conditional on freedmen )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(leaving the state. The discovery of Gabriel's plot and ever more alarming news of the rebellion in Haiti also )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contributed to the heightening of racial fears. The result was a hardening of policy that was destined to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(continue right up to the Civil War. Virginians found that in order to justify slavery they were increasingly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(obliged to fall back on the claim that blacks were inherently different from whites. In the case of newly-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(imported Africans, outlandish in appearance and unacquainted with Western ways, this had not been )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(difficult to demonstrate. The irony was that as African Americans increasingly acquired the manners, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attitudes and predilections of free white Virginians, not to mention the racial mixing that was occurring, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(differences were becoming ever harder to discern. In what respects, other than legal status and accident of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(birth, was a Virginian whose grandmother had come from Africa different from other Virginians?)] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 7078 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Yet, embarrassing, irritating and absurd though all this was, it was something else entirely that brought )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(slavery to the forefront as a political issue.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 743.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(At the time of the War of Independence, three-quarters of Virginia's population, including virtually all of its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 729.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(slaves, had been concentrated east of the Blue Ridge Mountains. However, with the decline of the tobacco )] TJ ET BT 34.016 715.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(industry, a basic demographic shift took place. By 1830 almost half of the state's white population was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 701.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(located west of the mountains. In terms of origin and occupation it differed from the population to the east )] TJ ET BT 34.016 686.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(being largely composed of small farmers and artisans, a good many of whom were foreign born. Meanwhile, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 672.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the black population of the Tidewater and Piedmont had increased to the point that African Americans )] TJ ET BT 34.016 658.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(outnumbered whites by a ratio of roughly three to two. Thus there were now two Virginias, one a fully-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fledged slave society in which blacks outnumbered whites, the other a predominantly white society that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(employed slaves but on a much smaller scale.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 603.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As was commonly the case along the Atlantic coast from Massachusetts to Georgia there was a degree of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 589.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hostility between the tidewater and the backcountry, a recurring issue being the refusal of those in the longer-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 575.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(settled areas to allocate seats in the legislature to those in the hinterland. In the case of Virginia, however, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 560.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(these tensions were exacerbated by the easterners' claim that they deserved special privileges in view of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 546.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(peculiar nature of their property. It was basically the same argument that the slaveholding states as a whole )] TJ ET BT 34.016 532.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(had used at the Constitutional Convention of 1787 to justify the three-fifths rule allowing them additional )] TJ ET BT 34.016 518.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(seats in Congress on account of their slave holdings. Virginia planters did not dare repeat this demand, but at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 503.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the State Constitutional Convention of 1828 they rejected the notion of universal white male suffrage on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(grounds that the greater part of the State's wealth was located east of the Blue Ridge. As one of the principal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(purposes of the social compact was to protect property, why should those with property lay themselves at the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mercy of those without? Seats should be allocated on the basis of wealth rather than population. As much of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the personal wealth of the state was represented by the ownership of slaves, easterners were demanding more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(control over policy than their numbers justified. In the end a 'compromise' was reached that, in spite of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(westerners' demands, left between a third and a half of all white men disfranchised. In short, the slaveholders )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(had won.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This, then, was the background to the Virginia slavery debates of 1831 to 1832. Hitherto the easterners had )] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(striven to prevent an open debate on the future of slavery, but faced with the alarm aroused by Nat Turner's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Rebellion they had no alternative. The result was a unique and far-ranging discussion of the available )] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(options in a state whose divisions increasingly mirrored those of the country at large. There was, however, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(one important difference between the two, namely the inability of Virginians, even those most strongly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(opposed to slavery, to envisage a future in which blacks and whites lived amicably together. If slaves were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to be freed it must be on condition of their being sent elsewhere. Much of the debate, in fact, was not about )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(freeing slaves but about removing blacks to Liberia, an idea that had wide appeal. Planters looked to it as a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(means of ridding the state of free blacks; critics of slavery as a way of reducing and perhaps eventually )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(eliminating slavery altogether.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The impracticability of both schemes soon became apparent. Simply removing the free black population, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 208.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which is to say paying for its transportation and supervising its resettlement, would involve a vast increase in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(taxes. In the case of slaves there would be the additional cost of compensating owners. Although fine in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(theory, the costs were prohibitive. That aside, the high mortality rate among blacks who returned to Africa )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the troubles arising out of their displacement of native Africans made it hard to see how such schemes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 151.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(would benefit anyone. But what most clearly emerged from the debates was the incompatibility of two )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(visions of Virginia society, one based on the essentially northern notion of free white farmers and artisans )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(creating wealth through their industry, the other on the southern vision of a privileged white plantocracy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(supporting itself on the unrequited labour of African Americans. Common to both visions was an ingrained )] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(belief that men were not equal and that freedom was a white prerogative.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In the event nothing was done because, so far as Virginians could see, nothing could be done. When people )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(believe in incompatible things they get into terrible muddles. Reading )] TJ ET BT 372.332 54.437 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Race and Liberty in the New Nation)] TJ ET endstream endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 22 0 R 24 0 R 26 0 R 28 0 R ] /Contents 21 0 R >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Length 3149 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(there are times when one wishes the story were being told, not by Professor Wolf, but by Mark Twain or H. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(L. Mencken. This is not to impugn her scholarship or the skill with which she guides the reader through the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tangles into which Virginians got themselves, but merely to regret that humour is considered unseemly in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(works of serious scholarship. And perhaps rightly so, for this is, above all, a tale of how the conjunction of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(economic interests and ideology can lead otherwise perfectly ordinary and decent people into committing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(acts of appalling cruelty without even realising that that is what they are doing. Anyone wishing to learn )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(how a nation dedicated to notions of universal freedom could go so spectacularly off the rails need look no )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(further.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(H-Net Reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.h-net.org/reviews/showrev.php)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 640.515 m 240.992 640.515 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 243.992 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Journal of Interdisciplinary History)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://muse.jhu.edu/login)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 612.003 m 154.700 612.003 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 157.700 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3])] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Civil War Book Review)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.cwbr.com/index.php)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 583.491 m 190.340 583.491 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 193.340 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([4])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 580.159 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 562.379 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 562.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/604)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 560.985 m 322.316 560.985 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 536.008 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 521.608 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/4035)] TJ ET BT 34.016 507.208 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.h-net.org/reviews/showrev.php?id=22864)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.923 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3] )] TJ ET BT 34.016 478.552 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://muse.jhu.edu/login?auth=0&type=summary&url=/journals/journal_of_interdisciplinary_history/v038/38.4einhorn.html)] TJ ET BT 34.016 464.267 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([4] )] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.896 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.cwbr.com/index.php?q=3844&field=ID&browse=yes&record=full&searching=yes&Submit=Search)] TJ ET endstream endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 23 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 640.8295 240.9917 652.7095 ] >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.h-net.org/reviews/showrev.php?id=22864) >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 25 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 612.3175 154.6997 624.1975 ] >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://muse.jhu.edu/login?auth=0&type=summary&url=/journals/journal_of_interdisciplinary_history/v038/38.4einhorn.html) >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 27 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 583.8055 190.3397 595.6855 ] >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.cwbr.com/index.php?q=3844&field=ID&browse=yes&record=full&searching=yes&Submit=Search) >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 29 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 561.2995 322.3157 573.1795 ] >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/604) >> endobj xref 0 30 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000349 00000 n 0000000386 00000 n 0000000616 00000 n 0000000698 00000 n 0000004711 00000 n 0000004820 00000 n 0000004930 00000 n 0000005039 00000 n 0000008600 00000 n 0000008728 00000 n 0000008812 00000 n 0000008877 00000 n 0000016432 00000 n 0000016497 00000 n 0000023386 00000 n 0000023451 00000 n 0000030582 00000 n 0000030687 00000 n 0000033889 00000 n 0000034016 00000 n 0000034117 00000 n 0000034244 00000 n 0000034414 00000 n 0000034541 00000 n 0000034689 00000 n 0000034817 00000 n trailer << /Size 30 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 34912 %%EOF