%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 18 0 R 24 0 R 28 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140708062810+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140708062810+01'00') /Title (The Culture of History: English Uses of the Past 1800?1953) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4104 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(The Culture of History: English Uses of the Past 1800?1953)] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The use of the past in previous eras has become a growth area of historical enquiry in recent times, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exemplified by the enormous Cambridge University project, ?Past Versus Present: Abandoning the Past in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(an Age of Progress?, on the Victorians? relationship to the past. Historians have been particularly interested )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the development of a notion of a ?national? past, and the light this throws on national identity. Billie )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Melman?s )] TJ ET BT 87.008 202.043 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Culture of History)] TJ ET BT 196.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is an ambitious and revisionist contribution to this work, which not only )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(challenges accepted accounts of how the English have constructed and remembered their past, but which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(also wrestles bravely with some of the core challenges of writing cultural history: notably the interplay )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(between ?images and representations? and ?material lives and bodies? \(p. 330\), and the relationship between )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the forms and subjectivities of popular culture and the social, economic, and political developments which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(she collectively describes as ?big change?.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(At the outset, Melman notes areas of consensus in the existing historiography which she intends to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(challenge, particularly the idea that the English saw their past as characterized by unusual stability, that this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 75.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was linked to confidence in national institutions, and that the past was envisaged as essentially rural. Instead, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(she posits the existence of an alternative view of the past as urban, violent, and disturbing, a view which had )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(605)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thursday, 31 May, 2007)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Billie Melman)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780199296880)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2006)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(60.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(384pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oxford University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://ukcatalogue.oup.com/product/9780199296880.do)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oxford)] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.579 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Simon Morgan)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 16 0 R ] /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 8084 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(an uneasy co-existence alongside the cosy nostalgia for a rural and egalitarian ?Merrie England? identified, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(among others, by Peter Mandler \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 195.320 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 195.320 780.819 m 201.320 780.819 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 201.320 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\). In particular, she focuses on the Tudor and late-Georgian periods )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(particularly the French Revolution\) as providing especially unsettling views of the past. Moreover, while )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(other historians have thought of ?history? primarily as a tool of social control, Melman?s stated aim is to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(allow more scope for individual agency, by taking ?a close look at the layers and percolations of practices, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(uses, and the meanings given by individuals to the past more than at an inventory of structures of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(manipulation? \(p. 10\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(To achieve this goal, Melman deliberately eschews the kind of history disseminated by the educated elite )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and focuses instead on a nascent popular culture of history that was quintessentially metropolitan, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(facilitated by the rapid spread of literacy as well as the emergence of new technologies of ?seeing? the past, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(such as the panorama and the motion picture. Her definition of ?popular? as denoting ?a cross-class )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exchange between and through different yet interacting genres? \(p. 12\) is an elegant solution to the problem )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of distinguishing between ?high? and ?low? culture, while her emphasis on the two-way nature of that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exchange allows her to consider productions which might not otherwise have been thought of as relating to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(popular culture at all, such as Carlyle?s )] TJ ET BT 225.980 584.885 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(French Revolution)] TJ ET BT 315.632 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( or Britten?s 1953 coronation opera )] TJ ET BT 488.936 584.885 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Gloriana)] TJ ET BT 532.940 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This exchange of ideas and imagery between different types of cultural production is just one of four )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?modalities? in the ?two-way travel of histories between their producers and consumers? \(p. 20\) which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Melman identifies as being recurrent themes throughout the book. The others are, first, the ways in which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the less educated compensated for their unequal access to information about the past by incorporating )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historic artefacts, sites, and stories into narratives which resonated with their own experiences; second, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(increasing democratization of history over the period, which she relates to the advance of political reform as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(well as the emergence of the mass media in the early-twentieth century; and, third, the possibility of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(creation of a ?national? history?a possibility that Melman accepts in line with existing historiography on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(national identity, but which she complicates through her examination of the )] TJ ET BT 399.980 456.581 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(inter)] TJ ET BT 422.648 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nationalism of many of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(producers of popular history, from Madame Tussaud in the early-nineteenth century to the multi-national )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(film crews who brought the Tudors to English cinema audiences between the wars.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Melman?s method is to take a particular production \(a novel, a historical site such as the Tower of London, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(or a film\) and to explore its themes and the ways in which the consumers of that production \(readers, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(visitors, or viewers\) responded to it and inscribed their own meanings upon it. The result is a work brimming )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with insight and interest, though at the expense of appearing occasionally disjointed. To give it more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(coherence, the book is divided into five thematic sections. Part one comprises three chapters exploring )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(different representations of the French Revolution, and it is here that the theme of the past as a dangerous )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and unsettling place is developed. Chapter one looks at the importance of Madame Tussaud?s as a site where )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(audiences of different classes were exposed to a particular view of the French Revolution in which the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(guillotine held centre stage. Melman argues that the juxtaposition of the guillotined heads of the victims of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Terror alongside notorious British criminals such as Burke and Hare in what came to be known as the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?Chamber of Horrors?, created an imaginative connection between criminality and political violence and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(catered for a popular desire to encounter history as a location of ?horror?, which, ?constituted a set of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attitudes and sensations in which repulsion, apprehension, and fear combined with attraction and delight? \(p. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(31\). The revolutionaries themselves, particularly Robespierre, were portrayed as inhuman monsters, in stark )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contrast to the figure of Napoleon, displayed elsewhere, who was integrated into a narrative of British )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(military achievement in symbiosis with Wellington.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In chapters two and three, Melman compares the accounts of the revolution in Carlyle?s )] TJ ET BT 459.596 161.717 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(French Revolution)] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and Dickens? )] TJ ET BT 101.996 147.461 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Tale of Two Cities)] TJ ET BT 190.352 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1859\) respectively, contrasting Carlyle?s ?panoramic? view of the action )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which places the reader in elevated observation points, with Dickens? ?street level? account, although both )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(situate the revolution as a quintessentially urban event. The common thread in each work is the disturbing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nature of the revolutionary crowd as a historical actor in its own right?a view which takes on a specifically )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(gendered dimension for Carlyle, whose anarchic female revolutionaries personified the collapse of state )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(order. Melman links Dickens?s fascination with the guillotine as the focal point of a dark and dangerous )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(urban landscape, and particularly with the unruly crowds who gathered to see it in action, with the author?s )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 17 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 195.3197 781.1335 201.3197 793.0135 ] >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 20 0 R 22 0 R ] /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 8140 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(disquiet about the moral effects of public executions in mid-century Britain. Using Gattrell?s work on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(gallows, she argues that state violence in the form of execution was a key part of the urban experience, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(provided a direct link in the popular imagination between mid-nineteenth century England and the violence )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of France?s recent past \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 151.304 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 151.304 752.307 m 157.304 752.307 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 157.304 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In Part II, Melman explores the theme of ?History as Dungeon?, looking first at the emergence of the Tower )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of London as a national historic monument, and shedding light on the contemporary debates over visitor )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(access to the Tower. She focuses in particular on working-class east-enders who saw the Tower as part of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?their? inheritance and the ongoing attempts of the authorities to limit and control admittance. However, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(continuing her theme of history as horror, Melman notes the increasing fascination with the Tower as a place )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of incarceration, and its reconceptualization as a ?dungeon? rather than as an arsenal or a collection of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(antiquities, largely as a result of W. H. Ainsworth?s novel )] TJ ET BT 315.644 641.909 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Tower of London)] TJ ET BT 419.324 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1839?40\). This theme is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(developed in a chapter on Lady Jane Grey, whose passivity reflected early-Victorian ideals of womanhood )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more closely than the more problematic Elizabeth I. Melman argues that the early Victorians? fascination )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with this unfortunate woman not only gave a specifically gendered dimension to visions of the dungeon, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(power, and the state, but also helped to domesticate and ?feminize? the image of the dungeon in the early )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1840s, and so made ?horror? more respectable and less subversive. Lady Jane?s cross-class appeal as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(innocent and virtuous victim of masculine ambition and state violence is contrasted with the plebeian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(enthusiasm for the life of executed prison-breaker Jack Sheppard in the 1830s, whose tumultuous life )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(seemed to reflect contemporary social upheaval and insecurity.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In the second half of the book, Melman shifts her focus to the early-twentieth century, and in particular to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(film as the primary popular medium for historical culture. In chapters six and seven she examines the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(popularity of films about the Tudor monarchy, particularly the portrayal of Elizabeth I in )] TJ ET BT 463.616 473.093 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Fire Over England)] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(starring Flora Robson and )] TJ ET BT 162.008 458.837 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Henry VIII)] TJ ET BT 214.316 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( starring Charles Laughton, while in chapter eight she returns to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(French Revolution with an examination of the popularity of Baroness Orczy?s creation )] TJ ET BT 454.616 444.581 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Scarlet )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Pimpernel)] TJ ET BT 84.008 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, which quickly progressed from popular play to novel and, eventually, to the screen. These )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chapters offer fascinating insights into the role of film stars themselves as interpreters of history to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(public, with Robson striving to give a more ?authentic? rendition of Elizabeth?s role at Tilbury for instance, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(while Melman is able to bring out the sophistication of film audiences in making judgements about historical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(accuracy, despite the fears of the Historical Association about the corrosive effects of glamorized accounts )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the past on the public?s understanding of the ?national? history. However, the nub of Melman?s argument )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in these later chapters is the foregrounding, from the late-nineteenth century onwards, of a more comforting )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(notion of the past as a place of security and comfort \(p. 186\). From being associated with corruption, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(arbitrary power, and state violence in the early-nineteenth century, the person of the monarch had been )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(depoliticized and could now be seen as symbolic of freedom and stability, particularly in the face of a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(deteriorating international situation. Moreover, the portrayal of past monarchs by modern film stars )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(accompanied the growing celebrity status of the royal family themselves, with the emphasis on domestic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(detail in historical films reflecting the insatiable curiosity about the private lives of living royals. This more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(comforting view of the past is seen to reveal itself most tellingly in the popularity of the Scarlet Pimpernel, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the archetype of twentieth-century heroes from Zorro to James Bond. Again, the glamorization of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(aristocracy that the Pimpernel embodied is seen to accompany the depoliticization of the aristocracy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(themselves in the early-twentieth century \(p. 250\), an interesting insight with echoes of the historical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(memorialization of other previously problematic groups such as the Scottish Highlanders in the nineteenth )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 77.000 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 77.000 172.323 m 83.000 172.323 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 83.000 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\). In the meantime, she contends that the idea of the crowd as an important historical force in its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(own right fades from the stage.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In her final chapter, Melman identifies fundamental shifts in the culture of history that she has described, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(including the advent of television, and the emergence of the state as a ?cultural broker? following the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(foundation of the Council for Encouragement of Music and the Arts \(1942\), which gave way to the Arts )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Council of Great Britain in 1945. However, the main focus of the chapter is Benjamin Britten?s opera )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Gloriana)] TJ ET BT 78.020 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, written for the coronation of Elizabeth II in 1953. Produced against the backdrop of exuberant )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(proclamations of a second Elizabethan age, Britten?s creation proved highly controversial. Focussing on the )] TJ ET endstream endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 151.3037 752.6215 157.3037 764.5015 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 23 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 76.9997 172.6375 82.9997 184.5175 ] >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 26 0 R ] /Contents 25 0 R >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Length 7611 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ageing Elizabeth I?s tempestuous and ultimately doomed relationship with the earl of Essex, the opera?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(musical dissonances underlined the potentially-subversive messages of the opera itself, which seemed to run )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(counter to the prevailing official narratives of youth, confidence, and rebirth.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(There are so many perceptive arguments in this richly-analytical book that it is impossible to do them justice )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(here. Particularly valuable are Melman?s accounts of the ways in which the ?consumers? of the culture of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history inscribed their own meanings and interpretations onto the productions of that culture. She utilizes a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(range of sources to that end, from the life stories that workhouse boys related to Henry Mayhew to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(accounts of film goers in the Mass Observation archive. Ingeniously, Melman has even used the ?Friends )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Reunited? website to track down Londoners who had visited the Tower of London as schoolchildren in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1930s, to ask them about their impressions. There are many fascinating insights here into the way that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ordinary people constructed their own sense of the past from the materials around them, ranging from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(monuments to match-boxes, and also their capacity for arriving at subversive readings even of supposedly-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conservative texts \(the ability of some nineteenth-century feminists to take inspiration from the more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(misogynistic passages of Carlyle?s )] TJ ET BT 204.668 599.141 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(French Revolution)] TJ ET BT 294.320 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is particularly telling\). However, the picture is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(necessarily fragmentary, and leaves much further work to be done in recovering the popular meanings of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(past.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It seems legitimate to conclude by asking how far Melman succeeds in her aim of tying developments in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(popular culture to what she terms ?big change?, specifically change ?in political structures, Britain?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(position as an empire and world power, and urbanization and technologies of communication? \(p. 326\). This )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is an ambitious programme, and Melman herself admits that the study is incomplete. Much of the analysis is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(convincing, particularly her model of the ?accretion?, as new ways of seeing the past become grafted on to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the representations provided by older technologies and narrative forms. Her suggestion that early-nineteenth-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century authors? views of the disturbing power of the revolutionary crowd were connected to disquiet over )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contemporary social unrest is plausible, as is her argument that the projection of the past as a dangerous and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(specifically )] TJ ET BT 92.336 430.325 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(urban)] TJ ET BT 121.004 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( place can be linked to contemporary upheavals and ?improvements? which were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(changing, if not totally erasing, the historical face of major nineteenth-century cities, including London. On )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the other hand, Melman?s schematic linkage of the decline of this subversive view of history to a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(progressive accommodation between the state and the ?people? through successive reform acts seems too )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tidily mono-causal and requires further elaboration. The liberal state remained suspicious of the crowd well )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(after the point at which Melman identifies important shifts in the focus of the ?culture of history?, and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(social tensions of the 1930s were no less profound in their way than those of the 1830s. Moreover, as Patrick )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Joyce has demonstrated, any accommodation between state and people in the nineteenth century has to be set )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the context of ever more elaborate technologies of urban governance \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 382.916 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 382.916 314.883 m 388.916 314.883 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 388.916 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\). However, perhaps the problem is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not so much that Melman downplays the social instability of the early twentieth-century, as that she )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(overplays the insecurities of the early nineteenth. In this context the role of ?horror?, which Melman argues )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(had a central place in the nineteenth-century culture of history, needs to be theorized and explored much )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more fully. One could argue that the psychological attraction of ?horror? as entertainment, whether in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(form of a public hanging or a visit to the Chamber of Horrors, lies in the underlying conviction of one?s own )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(security as a spectator: the )] TJ ET BT 163.652 230.741 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(representation)] TJ ET BT 233.648 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( of the Terror fascinates precisely because the )] TJ ET BT 456.236 230.741 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(reality)] TJ ET BT 487.568 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( happened in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(another time, in another place, and to someone else.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Culture of History)] TJ ET BT 143.024 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is therefore best seen as part of a work in progress, albeit one that succeeds in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(challenging and disrupting existing orthodoxies and consensuses. Melman has contrived to produce a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(complex and unsettling account of popular culture that will stimulate a lively debate over the ways in which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(English history was constructed and understood in the past, and the way in which those narratives were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(impacted upon by changing technologies and contemporary economic and political developments. In doing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(so, she has blazed a trail that others will undoubtedly follow.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 84.051 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 53.434 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 53.429 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For example, P. Mandler, ??In the Olden Time?: Romantic history and English national identity, )] TJ ET endstream endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 27 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 382.9157 315.1975 388.9157 327.0775 ] >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 30 0 R 32 0 R 34 0 R 36 0 R 38 0 R 40 0 R ] /Contents 29 0 R >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Length 2888 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 64.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1820?50?, in )] TJ ET BT 129.008 796.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(A Union of Multiple Identities: The British Isles c. 1750? c. 1850)] TJ ET BT 441.332 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. L. Brockliss and )] TJ ET BT 64.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(D. Eastwood \(Manchester, 1997\). )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 228.980 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 228.980 780.819 m 282.968 780.819 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 767.962 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(V. A. C. Gattrell, )] TJ ET BT 150.008 767.957 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Hanging Tree: Execution and the English People 1770?1868)] TJ ET BT 464.648 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Oxford, 1996\). )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 64.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 752.307 m 118.004 752.307 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 739.450 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(H. Trevor-Roper, ?The Invention of Tradition: The Highland Tradition of Scotland?, in )] TJ ET BT 486.284 739.445 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Invention )] TJ ET BT 64.016 725.189 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(of Tradition)] TJ ET BT 121.700 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. E. Hobsbawm and T. Ranger \(Cambridge, 1983\). )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 384.656 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 384.656 723.795 m 438.644 723.795 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 710.938 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(P. Joyce, )] TJ ET BT 110.012 710.933 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Rule of Freedom: Liberalism and the Modern City)] TJ ET BT 373.328 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(New York, 2003\). )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 470.636 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 470.636 709.539 m 524.624 709.539 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(H-Net Reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.h-net.org/reviews/showrev.php)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 654.771 m 240.992 654.771 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 243.992 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 651.439 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 633.659 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 633.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/605)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 632.265 m 322.316 632.265 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 607.288 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 592.888 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/4038)] TJ ET BT 34.016 578.488 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.h-net.org/reviews/showrev.php?id=21390)] TJ ET endstream endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 31 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 228.9797 781.1335 282.9677 793.0135 ] >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 33 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 64.0157 752.6215 118.0037 764.5015 ] >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 35 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 384.6557 724.1095 438.6437 735.9895 ] >> endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 36 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 37 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 470.6357 709.8535 524.6237 721.7335 ] >> endobj 37 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 38 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 39 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 655.0855 240.9917 666.9655 ] >> endobj 39 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.h-net.org/reviews/showrev.php?id=21390) >> endobj 40 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 41 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 632.5795 322.3157 644.4595 ] >> endobj 41 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/605) >> endobj xref 0 42 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000349 00000 n 0000000386 00000 n 0000000568 00000 n 0000000650 00000 n 0000004806 00000 n 0000004915 00000 n 0000005025 00000 n 0000005134 00000 n 0000008695 00000 n 0000008823 00000 n 0000008907 00000 n 0000008991 00000 n 0000017128 00000 n 0000017256 00000 n 0000017292 00000 n 0000017383 00000 n 0000025576 00000 n 0000025704 00000 n 0000025740 00000 n 0000025866 00000 n 0000025902 00000 n 0000025986 00000 n 0000033650 00000 n 0000033778 00000 n 0000033814 00000 n 0000033933 00000 n 0000036874 00000 n 0000037002 00000 n 0000037038 00000 n 0000037165 00000 n 0000037201 00000 n 0000037329 00000 n 0000037365 00000 n 0000037493 00000 n 0000037529 00000 n 0000037656 00000 n 0000037757 00000 n 0000037885 00000 n trailer << /Size 42 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 37980 %%EOF