%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 18 0 R 20 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140417172218+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140417172218+01'00') /Title (Hitler's Forgotten Ally: Ion Antonescu and His Regime, Romania 1940?1944) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 3362 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Hitler's Forgotten Ally: Ion Antonescu and His Regime, Romania )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(1940?1944)] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Dennis Deletant is one of the leading authorities on the history of Romania since the 1930s. His well-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(deserved scholarly reputation for thoroughness, fairness, and honesty is amply demonstrated in this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exhaustively-researched and well-written study which aims to describe in detail, and to render historical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(judgment on, the wartime Romanian government of Ion Antonescu \(p. 277\). His book fills a significant )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historiographical gap while providing a balance sheet for this hotly-controverted era in the Romanian past )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(p. 1\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 140.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The author introduces his subject by pointing out that the career of Ion Antonescu is riddled with paradoxes. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 125.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(He was an honest politician in a society not noted for integrity in politics. He was reportedly one of the few )] TJ ET BT 34.016 111.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Axis leaders that Hitler respected or even allowed to contradict him. On the other hand, he was never a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Germanophile. Further, as Deletant notes, he)] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(606)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Friday, 1 June, 2007)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Dennis Deletant)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9781403993410)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2006)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(58.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(392pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Palgrave Macmillan)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.palgrave.com/products/title.aspx?PID=271347)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Basingstoke)] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.195 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Paul E. Michelson)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7027 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 64.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was a war criminal who sent tens of thousands of Jews to their death in Transnistria, and yet he )] TJ ET BT 64.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(refused to send other Romanian Jews to the death camps in Poland. He was a definite anti-)] TJ ET BT 64.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Semite and yet ... more Jews survived under his rule than in any other country within Axis )] TJ ET BT 64.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Europe .... For five months he led a Fascist-style government, yet in January 1941, he removed )] TJ ET BT 64.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that government ... and installed a military dictatorship \(p. 2\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 689.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Antonescu was a pragmatist, but he also was an ardent Romanian nationalist and anti-communist. His )] TJ ET BT 34.016 674.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pragmatism was, in typically Romanian fashion, subordinated to his nationalism.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 648.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapter One covers the evolution of Romanian policy from its reliance on the League of Nations system )] TJ ET BT 34.016 634.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(through to the German drive through Western Europe in 1940. In this interval, Romanian political )] TJ ET BT 34.016 620.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(calculations and the machinations of King Carol II were completely overturned. As soon as the defeat of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 605.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(France was certain, the Soviet Union ruthlessly seized Bessarabia and Northern Bukovina by ultimatum. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 591.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This was followed by the loss of forty per cent of Transylvania to Hungary and the Southern Dobrogea to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 577.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bulgaria. All in all, by September 1940 Romania had lost one third of its 1939 territory and population. One )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consequence, Deletant stresses, was the proliferation of claims in Romania of Jewish collaboration with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 548.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Soviet occupying forces. This contributed to the scapegoating of the Jews for territorial losses to the Soviets )] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(a kind of Romanian version of the infamous Weimar 'Stab in the Back' theory\), and thereby provided a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(convenient cover for the supine and humiliating retreat of the Romanians from the region. On the domestic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(front \(again because of the manoeuvres of Carol II\), democracy came to a complete collapse in the late )] TJ ET BT 34.016 491.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1930s. The notorious Iron Guard \(the Legionary Movement\) had thrived as anti-Semitism grew into official )] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(policy in 1937.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 451.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The stage was set for Antonescu's accession to power, which Deletant covers in Chapter Two. He reviews )] TJ ET BT 34.016 437.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Antonescu's career, which was varied and distinguished \(the general did not suddenly materialize out of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 422.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nowhere\), culminating with a stint as Minister of Defence in 1937. In the 1930s, Antonescu had been an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 408.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(opponent of Romania's flirtations with Germany, and regarded the Hungarians as Romania's primary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 394.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(military threat, not the Soviets. As popular reaction to Romania's territorial losses mounted in 1940, he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 380.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(emerged as King Carol II's successor. This was not due, as is often assumed, to German pressure. Deletant )] TJ ET BT 34.016 365.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concludes that prior to September 1940, Antonescu 'had no close ties to the Reich ... He came to power in a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 351.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(vacuum, inheriting a situation which was not of his own making. ?I went with Germany because I found the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 337.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(country committed to this policy, and no one then, whoever he might have been, could have given it a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 323.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(different direction without the risk of bringing ruin to the entire country?? \(p. 51\). And in 1941, following )] TJ ET BT 34.016 308.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Pearl Harbor, Antonescu opined: 'I am an ally of the Reich against Russia. I am neutral in the conflict )] TJ ET BT 34.016 294.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(between Great Britain and Germany. I am for America against the Japanese? \(p. 92\). This led in September )] TJ ET BT 34.016 280.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1940 to the abdication of Carol II and the establishment of the National Legionary State, with Antonescu as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Conducator \(Leader\), the subject of Chapter Three. Deletant points out that 'Antonescu brought to office the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mental hardware of a general, one which placed discipline at the head of his priorities ... As he himself put it, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [("in today's circumstances a small country which is under threat, such as ours, does not do what it wishes, but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(what it can" ... In essence, after 1940, any Romanian policy was going to be a military policy? \(p. 52\). This )] TJ ET BT 34.016 208.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(quickly led to differences between the austere general and increasingly unhinged Legionary extremists. By )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(January 1941, Antonescu was able to obtain German neutrality in a looming conflict with the Guard. When )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Guard tried to oust Antonescu by force, he was able to crush it and establish a military dictatorship with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a cabinet dominated by officers. In the end?because they needed stability in Romanian society, especially in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 151.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the economy?the Germans were not unhappy to see the Guardist rabble replaced by reliable military men )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(who would presumably ensure order.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 111.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapter Four is devoted to the subject of 'Military Dictatorship and War?. 'Antonescu was a soldier who saw )] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the solution to problems in terms of raison d'tat.? As he stated in late 1941, ??I now want to declare before )] TJ ET BT 34.016 82.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the world that this state is a militaristic one?... But unlike the dictatorships of Hitler and Mussolini, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Antonescu's dictatorship was not based on a mass political party or ideology. Antonescu's programme was a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(simple one: order within Romania and security for her frontiers? \(pp. 69?70\). This raises the question: ?To )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 6472 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(what degree was Antonescu's Romania a totalitarian state?? Deletant's answer is that 'Antonescu is perhaps )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(best described as authoritarian rather than totalitarian' \(pp. 70?1\). Antonescu was a dictator, ruled by decree, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and ran a generally repressive regime for which he claimed sole responsibility. On the other hand, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('Antonescu did tolerate what might be termed dissent rather than opposition? \(p. 74\). Indeed, in a 1943 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Antonescu meeting with Hitler and von Ribbentrop, the German foreign minister described the conduct of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Maniu, the leader of Romanian internal opposition, as treasonous: 'In Germany, a man such as Maniu would )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have been hanged long ago' \(p. 75\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Was Antonescu a fascist? Deletant's response is that while the Legionary Movement was fascist, Antonescu )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was not, although 'his rule was overtly anti-Semitic' \(p. 71\). He was also strongly anti-Communist: 'I )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consider Communism to be the greatest enemy of the nation, it is a betrayal of the fatherland and I shall )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(punish it with death ...' \(p. 72\). Of course, Jews were often considered likely to be both Communists and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Russian sympathisers; for Romanian nationalists it is hard to determine which was the worst offense.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In the course of the war, Hitler profited from Antonescu's reflexive anti-Russianism, which led to significant )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Romanian contributions to the Axis war effort. The June 1941 attack on the Soviet Union was genuinely )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(popular in Romania, where the majority agreed with Antonescu's description of the campaign to regain )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bessarabia and northern Bukovina as a 'holy war' \(p. 83\). However, once these provinces had been reunited )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with Romania, Romanian opinion opposed continuing the battle across the Dniester, that is beyond )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Romania's traditional frontiers. Antonescu rejected this line of thought: 'I confirm that I will pursue )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(operations in the east to the end against that great enemy of civilization, of Europe, and of my country: )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Russian bolshevism ... I will not be swayed by anyone not to extend this military cooperation into new )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(territory' \(p. 85\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Antonescu agreed to participate in the military occupation of Transnistria as well as in the eventually )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(disastrous German campaigns up to Stalingrad. At the same time he was careful to reject suggestions by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hitler and others that Romania might annex trans-Dniestrian lands in exchange for its losses in Transylvania. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(He repeatedly raised the Transylvanian issue in his meetings with Hitler, and though the Romanians took )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(military control of Transnistria, they pointedly refused to annex it.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Once the war turned against the Axis, Antonescu moderated his unequivocal support of the Germans. He )] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('began to temper his anti-Semitic zeal and sought to present a more favorable image of himself to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Western Allies, seeking to distance himself from the genocidal measures for which he was partly responsible )] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the summer of 1941. Aware that a reckoning with the Allies was ever more likely, he was anxious to show )] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(himself as a saviour of the Jews' \(p. 100\). This leads into the second major section of the book, five chapters )] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dealing with Antonescu, the Jews, and the Holocaust.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 280.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(When Antonescu took power in 1940, anti-Semitic measures increased, usually under the guise of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('Romanianization' of the economy and the professions. Later efforts to blame the Legionaries for anti-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Semitic legislation, Deletant notes, are false: after January 1941?when Antonescu took sole charge of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(regime? Romanianization actually accelerated. Particularly egregious was the conscripting of all Jews )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(between the ages of twenty and fifty into forced labour in 1941. Antonescu also taxed the Jewish community )] TJ ET BT 34.016 208.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for those who could not work because of illness or other causes, and decreed reprisal shootings and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(deportations for violation of forced-labour regulations. In the final analysis, although it has been claimed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that Antonescu was not an anti-Semite as such, Deletant argues that Antonescu's correspondence and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(recorded comments in cabinet meetings clearly are the language of the anti-Semite \(including disparaging )] TJ ET BT 34.016 151.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(references to 'yids', to proofs 'that Satan is the Jew', to advocacy of 'purification' of the Romanian lands\) \(pp. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(116?20, 128?30\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 111.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This is borne out in the author's examination of 'Antonescu and the Holocaust', which could not be blunter:)] TJ ET BT 64.016 73.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The Jews were the principal victims of Ion Antonescu's regime ... their deportation constituted )] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 7001 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 64.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the principal means for Antonescu to satisfy his desire to "purify" and "homogenize" Romania's )] TJ ET BT 64.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(population. But deportation was not the only fate of the Jews. Romania is part of the geography )] TJ ET BT 64.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the Holocaust because on its territory, and in lands under Romanian control, Antonescu was )] TJ ET BT 64.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(responsible for the systematic murder of Jews \(p. 127\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 715.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The statistical story is grim: 'mass murder' was 'carried out by the Romanian authorities under Antonescu's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 701.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(military dictatorship'. The death toll was 'the result not only of systematic killing, but also of deportation and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 686.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(its consequences ? These figures?almost 300,000 Jews in all?give the Antonescu regime the sinister )] TJ ET BT 34.016 672.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(distinction of being responsible for the largest number of deaths of Jews after Hitler?s Germany? \(p. 127\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 646.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The Romanian Holocaust began with the attempt to establish security zones behind the German-Romanian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 632.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lines in the looming attack on the Soviet Union by attempting to deport all Jews in these areas. This led to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 617.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the well-known Pogrom of Iasi, 28?30 June 1941, as a result of which some 4,000 or more Jews were shot or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 603.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(perished through deportation. This and subsequent tragedies were justified by Antonescu by reference to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 589.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(alleged Jewish collaboration with the Soviet Union. Once the invasion of the USSR occurred, the level of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 575.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(violence against Jews skyrocketed. Although the German Einsatzgruppe D was deeply involved in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 560.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(systematic extermination of Jews in the war zone, even their leaders were reportedly unhappy 'with the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 546.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(arbitrary fashion in which Romanian troops carried out their murders' in their sector \(p. 146\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Much more deadly was the Romanian deportation program designed to ethnically cleanse the re-claimed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(provinces of Bessarabia and Bukovina. This gained momentum in 1941, after the Romanians were given )] TJ ET BT 34.016 491.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(control of the area between the Dniester and the Bug usually referred to as Transnistria. Thousands of Jews )] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were herded across the Dniester; those who could not make it because of illness or age were executed on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(spot. In the end, by Deletant's calculations, 220,000?260,000 Jews died there under Romanian auspices. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Antonescu's responsibility for all of this is clear. In his own words, he urged a 'policy of purification of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 434.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Romanian race, and I will not give way before any obstacle in achieving this historical goal of our nation. If )] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(we do not take advantage of the situation which presents itself today ... we shall miss the last chance that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history offers to us. And I do not wish to miss it, because if I do so further generations will blame me? \(p. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(155\). The irony is that future generations of Romanians have tried so hard to excuse or exculpate him.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 365.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The tragedy of Transnistria between 1941?44 is carefully described in Chapter Eight. The fall of Odessa in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 351.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(October 1941 was followed by the blowing up of the Romanian military headquarters there. Antonescu )] TJ ET BT 34.016 337.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ordered reprisals, leading to the massacre of 20,000 Jews. This was followed by the deportation of thousands )] TJ ET BT 34.016 323.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more to Transnistria in winter conditions, partly because of fears that a Soviet attack on Odessa was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 308.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(imminent. Antonescu told the governor of Transnistria, Gh. Alexianu, to 'get them out of Odessa. I don't )] TJ ET BT 34.016 294.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(want to know. A hundred can die, a thousand can die, all of them can die ...' \(p. 176\). And die they did, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 280.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(herded into pigsties or left in the open in subfreezing temperatures, often unfed, suffering from illnesses \(the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(worst of which was typhus\), and in some cases simply butchered. This was all solely under Romanian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(auspices. 'Through his initial decision to deport the Jews from Bessarabia and Bukovina, and the later one )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(regarding those from Odessa, Ion Antonescu bears the responsibility for the deaths from typhus, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(starvation, and for the mass shooting of the Jews' \(p. 182\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 196.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jews were not the only ones to die in Transnistria. Deletant includes a discussion of the deportation of some )] TJ ET BT 34.016 182.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(25,000 Romas to Transnistria in 1942?43. This was primarily for eugenic reasons, although those targeted )] TJ ET BT 34.016 168.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(out of the 200,000 Romas in Romania were just the nomadic, unassimilated Romas and those with criminal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 154.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(records. The death toll is unknown; Deletant thinks that more than half died as a result. At the same time, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 139.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(around a thousand Communists were deported to Transnistria, where an unknown number perished. All of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 125.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(these were Jews, as non-Jewish Communists continued to be interned at Targu-Jiu. The chapter concludes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 111.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with a discussion of the response of the Roman Catholic Church to the Transnistrian situation, whose nuncio )] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was very active in trying to protect Jews who had converted to Catholicism and supported Jewish appeals to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 82.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the government, interventions on behalf of Jewish orphans, and financial assistance for Jews in Romania.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 56.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In 1942, Antonescu began to alter his Jewish policy. This is the subject of Chapter Nine. Not only were )] TJ ET endstream endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 22 0 R ] /Contents 21 0 R >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Length 6297 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(deportations to Transnistria suspended, those already there were repatriated; the Romanians refused to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(participate in the Final Solution by withholding its own Jews from deportation to the death camps in Poland; )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the Romanians cooperated with efforts to allow emigration of Jews to Palestine. Why? Deletant says )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that no definitive explanation can be given. Initially, the Romanians supported the policies formulated at the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(January 1942 Wansee conference on the 'Jewish Problem' and made preparations for deportations to Poland. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(One possibility is that Antonescu saw German pressure as an infringement on Romanian sovereignty. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Another is that Antonescu was aware of the further blot on Romania's image that this would make abroad. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thirdly, there was considerable internal opposition to the idea, including formal protests by the influential )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Metropolitan of Transylvania, Nicolae Balan, and Maniu, and pressure from King Mihai and the Queen )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mother, Helen, who told Mihai that the royal family 'would be permanently associated in Romanian history )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with the crimes committed against the Jews, while she would be known as the mother of "Michael the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wicked". She is said to have warned the king that if the deportations were not immediately halted, she would )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(leave the country' \(p. 212\). Fourthly, it may be that the stream of appeals from the leader of the Romanian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jewish community, Wilhelm Filderman \(with whom Antonescu was in continual dialogue\), had had some )] TJ ET BT 34.016 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(effect. Finally, German reversals at Stalingrad had Antonescu thinking about Romania's fate at an eventual )] TJ ET BT 34.016 582.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(peace settlement, something that became more and more of a factor as the war went on and Soviet forces )] TJ ET BT 34.016 568.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(moved closer to Romanian borders. It seems clear that Antonescu's change in Jewish policy was motivated )] TJ ET BT 34.016 554.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more by opportunism than any changed convictions.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The last two chapters, which cover the Coup of 23 August 1944 and the Trial of Ion Antonescu, bring )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Deletant's analysis of the Antonescu era to a close. These add details to what is already known about these )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(matters, while providing brief, but useful, summary accounts. Though Antonescu had allowed informal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(overtures to be made to the Allies in the waning years of the war, his stubborn sense of honour prevented )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(him from breaking with the Germans. This had two effects. On the one hand, it kept the Germans from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(simply occupying Romania as it had Hungary. On the other, it led King Mihai and the civilian opposition to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(plan Antonescu's overthrow and Romania's exit from the Axis. The coup, in turn, had the ironical effect of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(placing Romania under the domination of the Russians for over four decades. Deletant's conclusion is that it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was only with the fall of the Romanian Communist regime in 1989 that ?the Second World War ... finally )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(came to an end for Romania? \(p. 277\). The book concludes with an interesting and helpful review of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(treatment of Antonescu and his legacy since 1946.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Criticisms of this reliable and reasoned account of Ion Antonescu's responsibility for the Holocaust in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Romania are few. The scope of this book is somewhat narrower than the title indicates as the author )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(explicitly omits treatment of Romania's actual military activities under Antonescu \(dealt with by others\). He )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(also does not present an analysis of the day-to-day organization and functioning of Antonescu's regime, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(partly because the Antonescu regime was run in a military fashion in 'which senior officers took their orders )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(only from him and usually disregarded any decisions taken by other ministers in the government' \(p. 69\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(There are still gaps in this story, but most of them \(including exact numbers killed\) by the nature of things )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(are not likely to be filled. A better map of Transnistria would have made the story of the central section )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(clearer. In short, this is a fine piece of work, meticulously researched, and reasonably argued.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 199.759 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 181.979 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 181.979 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/606)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 180.585 m 322.316 180.585 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 155.608 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 141.208 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/4041)] TJ ET BT 34.016 126.808 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 23 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 180.8995 322.3157 192.7795 ] >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/606) >> endobj xref 0 24 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000349 00000 n 0000000386 00000 n 0000000582 00000 n 0000000664 00000 n 0000004078 00000 n 0000004187 00000 n 0000004297 00000 n 0000004406 00000 n 0000007967 00000 n 0000008095 00000 n 0000008179 00000 n 0000008244 00000 n 0000015324 00000 n 0000015389 00000 n 0000021914 00000 n 0000021979 00000 n 0000029033 00000 n 0000029117 00000 n 0000035467 00000 n 0000035595 00000 n trailer << /Size 24 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 35690 %%EOF