%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 16 0 R 26 0 R 40 0 R 60 0 R 88 0 R ] /Count 6 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140725015048+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140725015048+01'00') /Title (Religious and Laity in Western Europe, 1000?1400: Interaction, Negotiation, and Power) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R 14 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4063 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Religious and Laity in Western Europe, 1000?1400: Interaction, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Negotiation, and Power)] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The first nine studies in this notable book relate directly to monastic patronage, in England, France, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Denmark, and the Empire. Several of these?Marjorie Chibnall \(the much respected doyenne of such studies\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on Henry II, Janet Burton on Roger of Mowbray, Belle Stoddard Tuten on Fontevraud and the great families )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(it attracted, Kim Esmark on Sor? abbey and the light its history throws on Danish noble family politics, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hans-Joachim Schmidt on the mendicants in the imperial court in the fourteenth century?weave patronage )] TJ ET BT 34.016 152.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and politics in intriguing patterns. Emilia Jamroziak makes a close study of Rievaulx?s fascinating twelfth-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century cartulary?London, British Library, MS Cotton Julius D. i?and shows how it reflects the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(community?s interest in its benefactors. It opens with a ?list, in chronological order, with some dates and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(names of the donors? \(p. 66\): it is thus a staging post between the lost Gloucester chronicle of the late-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 95.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(eleventh and early-twelfth centuries, which recorded benefactions as they occurred, and the normal cartulary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of later centuries, which grouped private charters under properties \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 357.920 80.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 357.920 79.473 m 363.920 79.473 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 363.920 80.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The second section shows how a series of key documents brings to life some of the complexities of these )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(608)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Saturday, 30 June, 2007)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Editor:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Emelia Jamroziak)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Janet Burton)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9782503520674)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2007)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(70.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(413pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Brepols)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.brepols.net/catalogue/index.jsp?mpk=20295&art=1533549)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Turnhout)] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.939 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Christopher Brooke)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 15 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 357.9197 79.7875 363.9197 91.6675 ] >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 18 0 R 20 0 R 22 0 R 24 0 R ] /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 8580 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relationships. Stephen White confronts the )] TJ ET BT 241.328 796.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Liber Miraculorum)] TJ ET BT 334.328 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( of Sainte Foy at Conques with legal records )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to show how the dialectic between them can reveal that the insurgent Countess Garsinde had a case as well )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as the saint and her monks?and how legal process combined with more violent methods to settle their affairs. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Marsha Dutton shows us Aelred of Rievaulx as a courtier, instructing the young Henry II, as heir to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(throne, on how to be an English king. In an arresting study of the practical role of some houses of Cistercian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nuns in northern France in the twelfth and thirteenth centuries, Anne Lester shows them caring for lepers. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(William Chester Jordan pillages the canonization records of St Louis to good effect to show the king at work )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as a patron?and revealing how he might set others to work too: making the monks of Royaumont help with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the building of their own house, and obliging his royal brothers, including Charles of Anjou, to push barrow )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(loads of stone as part of the same enterprise. Erin Jordan?s essay illustrates a very different problem of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(patronage: the resistance of ascetic religious to over-generous patrons. This was nothing new: in similar )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fashion, for example, the founders of Llanthony priory in Wales had somehow prevented King Henry I and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his queen from crushing them with too much endowment \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 315.656 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 315.656 624.003 m 321.656 624.003 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 321.656 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\). But its classic expression came in the conflict )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(between Franciscan ideals and the wills of patrons in the thirteenth century?of which the contrast between )] TJ ET BT 34.016 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Basilica of St Francis at Assisi and the churches of San Damiano and the hermitages of the Carceri are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 582.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(vivid symbols \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 108.692 582.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 108.692 581.235 m 114.692 581.235 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 114.692 582.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\). Jordan?s example is the resistance shown by the Franciscans of Valenciennes to the plans )] TJ ET BT 34.016 568.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the Countess of Flanders in 1226. The date, the year of St Francis? death, is itself symbolic. The source )] TJ ET BT 34.016 554.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(may perhaps embroider; but it reflects the issue none the less effectively for that. In the final chapter of this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 539.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(section, Constance Berman illustrates from a group of selected sources some of the ambiguities which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 525.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(surround the word conversus on its way to become canonized in the sense of ?lay brother?.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The third section has perhaps the most evident unity of the three: it explores the fundamental concept of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fraternitas and its role in the history of medieval confraternities. Two of the essays provide a framework for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the whole topic: Arnoud-Jan A. Bijsterveld shows the links in the chain between the early monastic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fraternities and the lay confraternities of the twelfth-century southern Low Countries; and Bram van den )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hoven van Genderen and Paul Trio give an overview of the history of confraternities in the Low Countries )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(between the thirteenth and the sixteenth centuries. Recent work elsewhere has thrown doubt on how )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(effective these continuities were, and James Clark?s study of the )] TJ ET BT 346.952 413.813 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Liber Benefactorum)] TJ ET BT 443.276 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( of St Albans is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(welcome evidence that they could be effective?but not perhaps very commonly so. Jens Rhrkasten looks )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more widely at the relation of the mendicant orders with the city and citizens of London.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Rhrkasten?s is a brilliant case study of one vital element in mendicant history?the friars? role in the towns. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(His first approach to the Franciscans, however, leads naturally into my second theme, the stimulus to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reflection this book has inspired. Speaking of the )] TJ ET BT 272.324 330.533 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Regula Bullata)] TJ ET BT 344.660 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( of St Francis of 1223, he says ?references )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to the laity are rare and indirect? \(p. 335\). But this suggests a paradox. Francis?s Order originally contained )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(very few priests: it mainly comprised laymen serving laymen \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 334.976 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 334.976 300.627 m 340.976 300.627 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 340.976 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Francis did not encourage the laymen who joined him to seek education and consequently ordination. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(success of the Order in attracting educated recruits altered its composition. Educated clerics took control, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and a statute of the early 1240s forbade the recruitment of laymen?but for much of the century, especially in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Italy, lay brethren remained numerous. Brother Salimbene looked down on them: they wore long beards; )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?they were useless for hearing confessions ? they did nothing but eat and sleep?. For Francis, on the other )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hand, they were the spearhead of his movement, the poor, humble lay friars who could work among the laity )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and set them a Christian example, whose prayers were as, or even more, efficacious than those of the most )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(learned doctors.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The lay brothers among the monks and canons, the conversi, had already in the twelfth century come to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(comprise the interface between the laity and religious, and recent study has shown how interesting and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(obscure this interface can be. In the eleventh century entries in the )] TJ ET BT 354.932 121.205 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Liber Vitae)] TJ ET BT 409.268 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( of the New Minster at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Winchester a member of the community is noted as either ?puer??a boy oblate?or ?conversus??a later )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(entrant, converted to the religious life \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 221.648 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(5)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 221.648 91.299 m 227.648 91.299 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 227.648 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\). But as the boy oblates disappeared in later centuries the term )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conversus came increasingly to be used of lay brothers as opposed to choir monks or canons among the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Grandimontines, the Cistercians, the Prmonstratensians, and the Gilbertines. Among the Cistercians in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(particular the distinction of origin became a class distinction ? and in all these orders it led to class war. For )] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 19 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 315.6557 624.3175 321.6557 636.1975 ] >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 108.6917 581.5495 114.6917 593.4295 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 23 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 334.9757 300.9415 340.9757 312.8215 ] >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 25 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 221.6477 91.6135 227.6477 103.4935 ] >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 28 0 R 30 0 R 32 0 R 34 0 R 36 0 R 38 0 R ] /Contents 27 0 R >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Length 8741 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reasons which are quite obscure to us the Cistercians carefully segregated the two classes: like some of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(earlier conversi the lay brothers were expected to wear beards?and a Cistercian abbot of the 1160s wrote a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(patronizing treatise to explain their meaning \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 253.316 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(6)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 253.316 766.563 m 259.316 766.563 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 259.316 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\). The lay brothers? quarters in most Cistercian houses on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(continent disappeared in elaborate rebuilding in early-modern times; but sufficient survives in England )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(where earlier Dissolution helped to preserve architectural evidence\) to show that they had their own walk-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(way to keep them from invading the cloister?and the remains of the lay brothers? choir within the naves of a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(few houses underlines how completely they were cut off from the choir monks, even in church \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 495.584 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(7)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 495.584 709.539 m 501.584 709.539 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 501.584 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Constance Berman rightly emphasizes in her chapter that the lay brothers were not all peasants?indeed, we )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have very little evidence who they were, but it is impossible to explain the nature of early Cistercian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(building programmes unless they included skilled masons and entrepreneurs \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 407.636 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(8)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 407.636 666.771 m 413.636 666.771 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 413.636 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\). Some of the Grandmontine )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lay brothers were evidently managers, and the first conflicts seem to have been a reaction by the clerics )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(against bullying by the lay managers. In due course, however, in all these orders, the clerical element )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(acquired complete control, and this seems to have been a major factor in the rebellions they all suffered in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the late-twelfth and early-thirteenth centuries \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 257.624 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 257.624 609.747 m 263.624 609.747 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 263.624 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\). There has been much discussion whether lay brothers were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(monks?they had a monastic character and were subject to monastic discipline, but in the long run they were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 582.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(denied full monastic status; they were made to feel, in no uncertain terms, second-class citizens. This was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 568.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not a case of social snobbery, but snobbery of caste, of clergy against laity. And that helps to explain the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 554.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(transformation of the early Franciscans from an order which?like the early Grandmontines?made no )] TJ ET BT 34.016 539.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(difference between clerical and lay save in some of the duties they performed, to an order of clerics.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Another theme of great interest, touched on here and there, is the choice of orders which lay patrons might )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wish to help. Janet Burton?s chapter on Roger of Mowbray further illuminates a notable figure documented )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by Diana Greenway in her )] TJ ET BT 163.640 485.093 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Charters of the Honour of Mowbray, 1107?1191)] TJ ET BT 397.976 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 404.972 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(10)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 404.972 483.699 m 416.972 483.699 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 416.972 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\) and by Janet Burton herself )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in earlier studies; and she observes that like some others he founded both a Cistercian and an Augustinian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(house. Roger was a leading baron, frequently in difficulties in the reigns of Stephen and Henry II, but also a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(man of wider vision, a crusader, and the founder of religious houses. He went on the Second Crusade in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1147 and returned to the Holy Land in the 1180s to die. He showed his interest in supporting the crusades by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(helping to endow the Knights Templars, but his monastic adventures lay chiefly in the foundation of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cistercian Byland and Augustinian Newburgh. It is fascinating to follow Janet Burton?s reconstruction of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the complex story of how the origins of both Newburgh and Byland fit into the political story of Roger?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(adventures.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(I am less clear about the endowment of Newburgh. The problem is this: Roger was indeed the founder and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(he and his family claimed founder?s rights?but what he did he give them? He certainly gave them the site of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the priory and numerous charters, but most of these seem to be either confirmations or grants of relatively )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(trivial plots of land. The large gifts are of churches. If )] TJ ET BT 294.956 302.021 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Mowbray Charters)] TJ ET BT 386.624 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, no. 203 were genuine, it was a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rich haul of sixteen churches, some of them very valuable; but it is not genuine; and nos. 196?7 seem to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(suggest that the seven churches of the original gifts were not his to give! Rather they had been given to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Roger?s kinsman and leading clerk Samson of Aubigny by Roger?s father. Roger was involved as overlord, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(but seisin lay with Samson. Yet Roger went on, not more than about ten years later, to give three of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(churches to York Minster to found the prebend of Masham \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 323.960 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(11)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 323.960 229.347 m 335.960 229.347 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 335.960 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It is possible that some of these documents are not genuine: but the transaction described in Samson?s no. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(196 is so peculiar that I cannot believe any forger would have invented it, and it could really only profit )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Samson?s son, Roger of Aubigny, who received the churches anyway as first prebendary of Masham. For it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pretends to grant the churches to Newburgh, but to reserve most of them to Samson and his son Roger )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(during their lifetime, with only a modest pension to Newburgh; it makes careful provision for Roger while )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(he is a minor, but makes clear he is to be rector of?regere?five of them eventually. It reads like a very early )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(anticipation of a grant in use \(to X for the use of Y\), or, in its twelfth-century context, an ingenious way to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(evade the rules against hereditary benefices.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It is extremely puzzling that Roger of Mowbray confirmed the gift of churches to Newburgh c. 1145 and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(gave them to York Minster in the mid-1150s?though such changes of mind did occur. But if the gift was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(always intended to be first and foremost for the benefit of Roger of Aubigny, it becomes easier to )] TJ ET endstream endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 29 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 253.3157 766.8775 259.3157 778.7575 ] >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 31 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 495.5837 709.8535 501.5837 721.7335 ] >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 33 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 407.6357 667.0855 413.6357 678.9655 ] >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 35 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 257.6237 610.0615 263.6237 621.9415 ] >> endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 36 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 37 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 404.9717 484.0135 416.9717 495.8935 ] >> endobj 37 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 38 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 39 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 323.9597 229.6615 335.9597 241.5415 ] >> endobj 39 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 40 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 42 0 R 44 0 R 46 0 R 48 0 R 50 0 R 52 0 R 54 0 R 56 0 R 58 0 R ] /Contents 41 0 R >> endobj 41 0 obj << /Length 8816 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(understand. In around 1145 Roger of Mowbray was contemplating a crusade, which Samson may have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(helped to finance, and in any case the removal from the scene of Samson?s overlord and protector may have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(inspired him with the idea of putting his rich haul of churches under the protection of a religious house. In )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the mid-1150s Roger of Mowbray was evidently in deep trouble with the York authorities for damage done )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by his troops late in the Anarchy \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.660 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(12)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.660 738.051 m 209.660 738.051 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 209.660 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\); and he endowed the two prebends of South Cave and Masham in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(recompense. Samson of Aubigny meanwhile had become a canon at Newburgh \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 421.928 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(13)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 421.928 723.795 m 433.928 723.795 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 433.928 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(But if this is so, what did Roger really give to Newburgh to earn, and retain, the title of founder? It seems )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that he gave, or confirmed, grants of other churches on his extensive domains; and it seems likely that he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(made a financial arrangement with Samson of Aubigny which helped to finance the building of the priory )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and also Roger?s crusade. The later prebend of Masham comprised only three of the seven churches and yet )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was one of the most valuable prebends in the land \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 280.640 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(14)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 280.640 640.515 m 292.640 640.515 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 292.640 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\). While he retained his grip on Mowbray churches )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Samson evidently commanded substantial wealth. His problem was to make his holdings hereditary.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(There are two morals to this story. The first is that the endowment of religious houses with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(churches?especially common in the formation of Augustinian priories but also, and increasingly as the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(twelfth century went on, enriching the Benedictines too?is part of the complex story by which parish )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(churches gradually ceased to be the property of their lords or of their priests and became subject to canon )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(law and the jurisdiction of bishops. The other is that the complex processes of foundation and endowment )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cannot be understood by taking charters at their face value: many disguise as much as they reveal about the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tortuous paths by which rights and privileges were genuinely established.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A striking example of the problems of evidence is the story of Aelred of Rievaulx?s )] TJ ET BT 439.616 489.605 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Genealogy of the Kings )] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(of England)] TJ ET BT 87.020 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 94.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(15)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 94.016 473.955 m 106.016 473.955 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 106.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\). It tells the young Henry II, duke of Normandy, count of Anjou, duke of Aquitaine, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(accepted heir to the throne of England, that he will be an English king. It lists and describes his English )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ancestry?via his mother and grandmother to St Margaret of Scotland, an English princess, and on to her )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(English royal ancestors. It totally ignores the early Norman kings. It provides this French dynast with an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(English identity; it seems to blow the trumpet of Englishness. Or does it? Two or three years later \(if it is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(correctly dated\) Aelred wrote his account of the Battle of the Standard of 1138, in which Aelred?s original )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(patron, King David I of Scotland, was defeated by the English army, whose main leader \(in Aelred?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(presentation\) was the founder of Rievaulx, Walter Espec; and the long speech which Aelred puts into )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Walter?s mouth before the battle talks only of Norman prowess?reveals a purely Norman identity. Less than )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ten years later, in 1162?3, Aelred was rewriting Osbert of Clare?s )] TJ ET BT 352.268 347.045 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Life of Edward the Confessor)] TJ ET BT 493.616 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, recently )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(canonized. The Confessor on his deathbed was supposed to have made an obscure prophecy of future )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(doom?unless a green tree, split down the middle, could be reunited and made to grow again. Osbert of Clare )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and William of Malmesbury assumed this could not happen; but Aelred?s optimism overcame his botany, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and he claimed that this was precisely what had happened when the two royal families had been united in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(person of the Empress Matilda \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 188.324 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(16)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 188.324 274.371 m 200.324 274.371 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 200.324 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\). Thus in 1154 Aelred deployed an English identity, in 1155?7 a Norman, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in 1162?3 a mingling of the two. Yet this purveyor of national identities was one of the supreme humanists )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the twelfth century and also an ascetic Cistercian, and so a representative of the most cosmopolitan )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(culture and a member of the most international religious order of his day.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(These are some of the paradoxes which this very stimulating book has brought to my mind.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 171.843 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 141.226 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 141.221 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(On the Gloucester chronicle see ?St Peter of Gloucester and St Cadoc of Llancarfan?, reprinted in C. )] TJ ET BT 64.016 126.965 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(N. L. Brooke, )] TJ ET BT 133.340 126.965 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Church and the Welsh Border)] TJ ET BT 298.328 126.965 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Woodbridge, 1986\), pp. 50?94, at pp. 50?60. )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 523.628 126.965 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back )] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 523.628 125.571 m 551.288 125.571 l S BT 64.016 112.709 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 111.315 m 90.344 111.315 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 98.458 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 98.453 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(On Llanthony, see C. N. L. Brooke, )] TJ ET BT 238.664 98.453 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Churches and Churchmen in Medieval Europe)] TJ ET BT 462.968 98.453 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(henceforth )] TJ ET BT 64.016 84.197 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Brooke, )] TJ ET BT 105.344 84.197 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Churches)] TJ ET BT 151.340 84.197 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\) \(London, 1999\), pp. 32?4, 227?9. )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 322.316 84.197 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 322.316 82.803 m 376.304 82.803 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 69.946 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 69.941 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(See R. B. Brooke, )] TJ ET BT 153.680 69.941 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Image of St Francis)] TJ ET BT 269.672 69.941 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Cambridge, 2006\), chs. 4, 9, especially pp. 51?3,73?6, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 55.685 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(280?quoting on p. 51 the famous rhetorical outburst on this contrast by Paul Sabatier. )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 477.320 55.685 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 477.320 54.291 m 531.308 54.291 l S endstream endobj 42 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 43 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.6597 738.3655 209.6597 750.2455 ] >> endobj 43 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 44 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 45 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 421.9277 724.1095 433.9277 735.9895 ] >> endobj 45 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 46 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 47 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 280.6397 640.8295 292.6397 652.7095 ] >> endobj 47 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 48 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 49 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 94.0157 474.2695 106.0157 486.1495 ] >> endobj 49 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 50 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 51 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 188.3237 274.6855 200.3237 286.5655 ] >> endobj 51 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 52 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 53 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 523.6277 125.8855 551.2877 137.7655 ] >> endobj 53 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 54 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 55 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 64.0157 111.6295 90.3437 123.5095 ] >> endobj 55 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 56 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 57 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 322.3157 83.1175 376.3037 94.9975 ] >> endobj 57 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 58 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 59 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 477.3197 54.6055 531.3077 66.4855 ] >> endobj 59 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 60 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 62 0 R 64 0 R 66 0 R 68 0 R 70 0 R 72 0 R 74 0 R 76 0 R 78 0 R 80 0 R 82 0 R 84 0 R 86 0 R ] /Contents 61 0 R >> endobj 61 0 obj << /Length 11910 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 796.474 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For what follows, see Brooke, )] TJ ET BT 211.664 796.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Churches)] TJ ET BT 257.660 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, pp. 249?51; on the place of the lay brothers in the Franciscan )] TJ ET BT 64.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Order, see R. B. Brooke, )] TJ ET BT 185.660 782.213 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(From Elias to Bonaventure)] TJ ET BT 316.652 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Cambridge, 1959, repr. 2004\), pp. 243?5; )] TJ ET BT 64.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(eadem, )] TJ ET BT 101.336 767.957 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Image of St Francis)] TJ ET BT 196.328 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, p. 12. On pp. 338?9 Rhrkasten refers to the )] TJ ET BT 418.292 767.957 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Expositio Regulae)] TJ ET BT 505.952 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( printed in )] TJ ET BT 64.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(St Bonaventure?s works as ?ascribed? to Bonaventure. C. Harkins has shown that it was much more )] TJ ET BT 64.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(probably the work of John Pecham, the English friar who became archbishop of Canterbury: ?The )] TJ ET BT 64.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(authorship of a commentary on the Franciscan Rule published among the works of St Bonaventure?, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 710.933 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Franciscan Studies)] TJ ET BT 156.344 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 29 \(1969\), 157?248. )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 262.664 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 262.664 709.539 m 316.652 709.539 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 696.682 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(5.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 696.677 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Liber Vitae of New Minster, Winchester)] TJ ET BT 276.344 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, facs. edn. ed. S. Keynes, )] TJ ET BT 402.980 696.677 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Early English Manuscripts in )] TJ ET BT 64.016 682.421 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Facsimile)] TJ ET BT 111.344 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 26 \(Copenhagen, 1996\). The leaves showing the first entries in and after 1031 are )] TJ ET BT 64.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reproduced and discussed in C. N. L. Brooke, )] TJ ET BT 285.980 668.165 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Monastic World)] TJ ET BT 384.644 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London, 1974\), pls. 142?3 and p. )] TJ ET BT 64.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(88; 3rd edn = )] TJ ET BT 131.444 653.909 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Rise and Fall of the Medieval Monastery)] TJ ET BT 349.088 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London, 2006\), pl. 29, and pp. 69?71. )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 64.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 638.259 m 118.004 638.259 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 625.402 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(6.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 625.397 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Corpus Christianorum, Continuatio mediaevalis)] TJ ET BT 296.708 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. R. B. C. Huygens, vol 62 \(Turnhout, 1985\), with )] TJ ET BT 64.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(introduction by Giles Constable on the significance of beards and tonsures \(ibid. pp. 72?5\), a )] TJ ET BT 64.016 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fundamental study for the history of lay brothers. On the lay brothers and their rebellions, see C. N. L. )] TJ ET BT 64.016 582.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Brooke, ?Priest, deacon and layman from St Peter Damian to St Francis?, in Brooke, )] TJ ET BT 473.300 582.629 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Churches)] TJ ET BT 519.296 582.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, pp. )] TJ ET BT 64.016 568.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(233?53, especially pp. 244 ff.; Brooke, )] TJ ET BT 253.988 568.373 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Rise and Fall of the Medieval Monastery)] TJ ET BT 450.632 568.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, pp. 255?6; )] TJ ET BT 510.296 568.373 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Book )] TJ ET BT 64.016 554.117 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(of St Gilbert)] TJ ET BT 123.356 554.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. R. Foreville and G. Keir \(Oxford, 1987\), pp. lv?lxii, 76?85, 134?67; cf. corrections in )] TJ ET BT 64.016 539.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(B. Golding, )] TJ ET BT 123.356 539.861 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Gilbert of Sempringham and the Gilbertine Order)] TJ ET BT 363.344 539.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Oxford, 1995\), pp. 40?51, 458?62. )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 64.016 525.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 524.211 m 118.004 524.211 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 511.354 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(7.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 511.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For the architectural evidence, see Brooke, )] TJ ET BT 272.624 511.349 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Churches)] TJ ET BT 318.620 511.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, p. 247 and refs. in nn. 49?51, especially to )] TJ ET BT 64.016 497.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Brooke, )] TJ ET BT 105.344 497.093 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Monastic World)] TJ ET BT 183.008 497.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, pp. 139?50, figs. 11?12 and pls. 235, 238, 243 \(= Brooke, )] TJ ET BT 469.088 497.093 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Rise and Fall)] TJ ET BT 533.756 497.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, pp. )] TJ ET BT 64.016 482.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(133?9, figs. 9?10 and pls. 66?7, 71\). The stonework at Buildwas \(Shropshire\) indicates most clearly )] TJ ET BT 64.016 468.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the main elements in Cistercian design for accommodating lay brothers in the mid-twelfth century; the )] TJ ET BT 64.016 454.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(screen at Maulbronn, though much restored, still indicates the scale of the separation of lay brothers )] TJ ET BT 64.016 440.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from choir monks in church. )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 203.996 440.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(7\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 203.996 438.675 m 257.984 438.675 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 425.818 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(8.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 425.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For the lay brothers as craftsmen and masons, see the discussion in Brooke, )] TJ ET BT 429.632 425.813 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Churches)] TJ ET BT 475.628 425.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, pp. 202?4, 211. )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 64.016 411.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(8\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 410.163 m 118.004 410.163 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 397.306 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 397.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The fullest evidence of these rebellions is in the Gilbertine sources cited above, n. 6, though the )] TJ ET BT 64.016 383.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(account comes entirely from St Gilbert?s supporters and is evidently very biased. The ringleaders, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 368.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(according to Gilbert?s own account, were all craftsmen: a weaver, a blacksmith, and two carpenters \()] TJ ET BT 64.016 354.533 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Book of St Gilbert)] TJ ET BT 151.016 354.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, pp. 78?9\). They were evidently men of some enterprise and ability, and were able )] TJ ET BT 64.016 340.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to win a sympathetic hearing at Rome from Pope Alexander III \(cf. Golding, )] TJ ET BT 434.948 340.277 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Gilbert of Sempringham)] TJ ET BT 551.612 340.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 326.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(p. 42\). )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 98.012 326.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(9\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 98.012 324.627 m 152.000 324.627 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 311.770 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(10.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 311.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London, British Academy 1972, henceforth )] TJ ET BT 276.320 311.765 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Mowbray Charters)] TJ ET BT 367.988 311.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 373.988 311.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(10\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 373.988 310.371 m 433.976 310.371 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 297.514 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(11.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 297.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The evidence is summarized by D. E. Greenway in J. Le Neve, )] TJ ET BT 369.272 297.509 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Fasti Ecclesiae Anglicanae 1066?1300)] TJ ET BT 64.016 283.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, vol. 6 \(London, 1999\), p. 87, and laid out in full in )] TJ ET BT 315.680 283.253 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Mowbray Charters)] TJ ET BT 407.348 283.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, nos. 194?213, 322?7. )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 518.672 283.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to )] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 518.672 281.859 m 558.668 281.859 l S BT 64.016 268.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(11\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 267.603 m 84.008 267.603 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 254.746 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(12.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 254.741 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Mowbray Charters)] TJ ET BT 155.684 254.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, nos. 322?4. )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 219.680 254.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(12\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 219.680 253.347 m 279.668 253.347 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 240.490 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(13.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 240.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(On Samson as canon, see )] TJ ET BT 188.660 240.485 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Mowbray Charters)] TJ ET BT 280.328 240.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, p. lxvi and no. 178, which shows Samson, as canon of )] TJ ET BT 64.016 226.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Newburgh, with a lavish hand, giving two of his churches to Kenilworth priory. )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 449.972 226.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(13\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 449.972 224.835 m 509.960 224.835 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 211.978 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(14.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 211.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Greenway in Le Neve, )] TJ ET BT 175.640 211.973 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Fasti)] TJ ET BT 200.312 211.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(n. 11\), vi. 87. Samson?s role is reminiscent of that of the wealthy clerk )] TJ ET BT 64.016 197.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Master Serlo in the strange story of the churches of the Berkeley Hernesse, which he and various lay )] TJ ET BT 64.016 183.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(potentates succeeded in giving to three different religious houses, Reading, Bristol, and Gloucester )] TJ ET BT 64.016 169.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(abbeys \(for this cause clbre, see B. R. Kemp, ?The churches of Berkeley Hernesse?, )] TJ ET BT 480.884 169.205 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Transactions of )] TJ ET BT 64.016 154.949 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(the Bristol and Gloucestershire Archaeological Society)] TJ ET BT 329.660 154.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 87 \(1968\), 96?110\). )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 433.976 154.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(14\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 433.976 153.555 m 493.964 153.555 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 140.698 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(15.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 140.693 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Rerum Anglicarum Scriptores X)] TJ ET BT 218.336 140.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. R. Twysden \(London, 1652\), pp. 347?70; also in Migne?s )] TJ ET BT 64.016 126.437 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Patrologia Latina)] TJ ET BT 150.368 126.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 195, 711?38, English translation in Aelred of Rievaulx, )] TJ ET BT 425.348 126.437 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Historical Works)] TJ ET BT 528.680 126.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. )] TJ ET BT 64.016 112.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(M. L. Dutton and J. P. Freeland \(Kalamazoo, 2005\)?and the subject of Marsha Dutton?s paper in this )] TJ ET BT 64.016 97.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(volume, pp. 183?95. )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 165.344 97.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(15\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 165.344 96.531 m 225.332 96.531 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 83.674 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(16.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 83.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For what follows, see especially Aelred of Rievaulx, )] TJ ET BT 319.304 83.669 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Historical Works)] TJ ET BT 422.636 83.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, and R. Ransford, ?A kind )] TJ ET BT 64.016 69.413 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of Noah?s ark: Aelred of Rievaux and national identity?, )] TJ ET BT 339.296 69.413 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Studies in Church History)] TJ ET BT 464.300 69.413 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 18 \(1982\), )] TJ ET BT 64.016 55.157 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(137?46. The attempt to give the young Henry an English identity savours to us of fantasy; but it is )] TJ ET endstream endobj 62 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 63 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 262.6637 709.8535 316.6517 721.7335 ] >> endobj 63 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 64 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 65 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 64.0157 638.5735 118.0037 650.4535 ] >> endobj 65 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 66 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 67 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 64.0157 524.5255 118.0037 536.4055 ] >> endobj 67 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 68 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 69 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 203.9957 438.9895 257.9837 450.8695 ] >> endobj 69 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 70 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 71 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 64.0157 410.4775 118.0037 422.3575 ] >> endobj 71 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 72 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 73 0 R /Border [0 0 0] 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