%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 18 0 R ] /Count 4 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140818062408+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140818062408+01'00') /Title (Dissolution: The Crisis of Communism and the End of East Germany) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4315 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Dissolution: The Crisis of Communism and the End of East )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Germany)] TJ ET BT 34.016 294.707 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(There is a sense in which, in the twentieth century, the history of Europe is the history of Germany: German )] TJ ET BT 34.016 280.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history cannot be isolated from war, cold war, superpower conflict, European integration, and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(developments of Germany's European neighbours to the west, east, north and south. for the twists and turns )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of its history have shaped the major moments in European history. Since 1990, there has been an outpouring )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of work that has sought to address the latest turn of its history, as the German Democratic Republic \(GDR\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(has been dissolved into a new, unified Germany. Eye witness accounts and instant histories, the works of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(creative writers, diplomatic historians and political scientists exist in abundance. European integration is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(often compared to a laboratory that provides the data for political scientists interested in how and why and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(how far states will cooperate. How much more true is the laboratory analogy for the GDR, where each factor )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and moral assumption that underpinned social relationships, political-power relationships, ideology and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 152.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(identity have now been exposed to the public eye. Pride and legitimacy, retribution and retrospective justice, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the problems of identity and nation-building have emerged as delicate questions that resonate in many other )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(countries. The economic and political ideology of unifying Germany has further been meshed with debates )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(about the economic and political reconstruction of all post-communist Europe, and how states and regions )] TJ ET BT 34.016 95.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(can best cope with, and manage large-scale economic change. And, if this was not enough, a mass of new )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(documentary and archival evidence is appearing which enriches, but complicates these already complex )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(questions. It is further clear that there is still much to be learned about the history of the GDR itself.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(61)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sunday, 1 November, 1998)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Charles Maier)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(691078793X)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1997)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(440pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Princeton University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Princeton, NJ)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Anne Deighton)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7512 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Charles Maier, the Krupp Foundation Professor of European Studies at the University of Harvard, must be as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(well placed as any to offer an interpretation of events. His numerous books and articles on Europe in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(twentieth century, his knowledge of economics, of European languages, and his capacity to look at European )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history not simply through the prism of American diplomacy and American power make him)] TJ ET BT 483.968 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(well suited to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(undertake a book on the collapse of the GDR)] TJ ET BT 250.640 727.445 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(. )] TJ ET BT 256.640 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Moreover, he spent much of his time 'in the field' as events )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were unrolling, and he was on the board of the Potsdam Centre after unification - of which more later. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Dissolution is )] TJ ET BT 103.364 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(intended as a synthetic history rather than as an elaboration of a particular view or thesis. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Much of the book is a chronological account of the diplomacy of the dissolution of the GDR, although )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Maier's emphasis upon the East German dimension is quite different from that of Zelikow and Rice, or Pond. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Without rehearsing here the whole 'dissolution' story, it is worth recounting two moments in particular of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Maier's account. They tell a great deal about the inflexibility of the established leaders of the GDR, and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(structural weakness of the GDR in the international system, and go a long way to answering the question of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(whether the GDR's dissolution was inevitable, and why its collapse happened so quickly.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The first moment that Maier describes occurred before 1989, but after Gorbachev had achieved power and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was beginning his experiment of domestic reform, and was starting to re-think the role of the Soviet Union )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in Europe and the world. Domestic change in the Soviet Union posed a profound problem for the GDR )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(leadership, a country that had remained the most orthodox of the Eastern European bloc. As the discussions )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on perestroika and glasnost were pursued in the Soviet Union, Honecker took the decision to prohibit )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(German language editions of Sputnik and New Times, and to ban the term 'perestroika' from official Soviet )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(documents distributed in East Germany. The reason? ' We are against the practice of the slander of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(CPSU history and socialist)] TJ ET BT 166.028 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(construction in the USSR. We are surprised by doubtful economic experiments, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not to speak of the information sphere. For years we educated GDR citizens about the example of the CPSU )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the heroic struggle of the Soviet people. Now we learn, however, that it was all a string of failures.' )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(220\) Thus whilst Gorbachev was prepared to experiment with domestic reform, Honecker retreated into )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(stasis. Real change in the Soviet Union exposed the core weakness of the GDR: its very existence was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(premised upon its ideology. Although Honecker may only have sensed this subconsciously at the time, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(truth was that the traditional Soviet model was the only raison d'tre for the status quo in the GDR. When, at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(last, reforming leaders came to power in the GDR, it was too late to change and survive, although the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chances of a successful reform would always have been slight.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(That this was so is shown by another striking moment recalled by Maier. This occurred in the early summer )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of 1990. By then the GDR Foreign Minister was Markus Meckel. After the June 2+4 meeting finished in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Paris, Maier cites Meckel as admitting that, with respect to foreign policy, there was now nothing to do but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wind up the GDR. The GDR had no diplomatic leverage, no room for manoeuvre, no voice in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(international diplomacy of unification. `Unification had overtaken them. The effort to use the time until)] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unification to conduct an independent foreign policy had failed; the government possessed no real authority. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(They had reverted once again to become if not mere objects of history, at best bystanders.' \(279-80\))] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(But did the GDR ever have the scope for independent action, which would have enabled it to prevent its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dissolution, or at least have a greater input into the frantic diplomacy of 1989-90? The answer, as Maier )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(explains, was probably not. Until the 1980s, the Soviets had actively discouraged any GDR/FRG contact, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(stipulating that a triangle of diplomatic relationships did lie between the three, but in a way that was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(controlled by the Soviet Union itself. But after 1986, the drive for perestroika and glasnost within the Soviet )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Union was paralleled by new Soviet strategic thinking, which was to downgrade the importance of the GDR )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the search for a 'common European House'. Relations with the West took an increasingly important role, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and this was at the price of downplaying 'demonstrative friendship' with old style despotic Communists like )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Castro, Ceausescu - and Honecker. \(221\) After 1986, Honecker thought that he had been granted greater )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(latitude of diplomatic freedom, and relished his state visit to Bonn in 1987. But this freedom was illusory, as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(it had only come about because the Soviets had begun to think that German unification might be the price of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(better relations with Bonn and the West.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(After November 1989, Maier argues that the last chance for the East Germans to play a diplomatic role )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 7736 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(arrived, although he also quotes Kvitsinsky's remark that the 'death sentence of the GDR was signed in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(moment when it was decided to open the border.' \(282\) Modrow, in particular hoped for a confederally )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(structured 'Treaty Community' \(227\). He anticipated that, with the belated reforms of 1989-90, the GDR )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(would have an enhanced status in any unification talks; assumed that the West German CDU's previous )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(commitment to Ostpolitik would ensure a voice for the GDR; and further thought that the Soviet Union )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(would insist upon a role for its loyal clients. But the GDR leadership was thwarted by the speed of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(negotiations, by the increasing weakness of the Soviet Union, and by the decision of the West Germans )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(themselves to bypass the GDR, and deal directly with the Soviet Union.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wolfram Hanrieder has talked of the FRG as a penetrated state. This was even more true of the GDR. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Neither in its ideology, nor in its diplomacy, had the state any room for)] TJ ET BT 378.656 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(manoeuvre. It depended ultimately )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(upon its ideological underpinnings, and its geo-strategic relationship with the Soviet Union. Change to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(status quo was a threat, for the East Germans had virtually no cards to play to prevent change or to influence )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the fast moving developments in Soviet policy. Maier's account also implies that, in the end, it was, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(policies of Gorbachev that destroyed East Germany. Yet Gorbachev was himself a victim of the general )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(disarray that had overtaken the Communist system. \(282\) If Gorbachev could not take the old East German )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(leadership with him in his quest for reform, the Eastern bloc as it had been constructed for forty years would )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(become ideologically and strategically meaningless; if he would not continue to value his Eastern bloc allies )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more than Bonn and Washington, he could not ensure that the bloc itself would survive as a loyal partner.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(However, Dissolution is more than a diplomatic history from the perspective of the GDR. Maier has been )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(motivated by two themes which weave their way through the book. The first, in the language of the political )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(scientist, is the agency-structure debate, in which Maier highlights the role of agency. Or, to put it another )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(way, he is fascinated by the way in which the people can shape their own history. He asserts that, 'the East )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Germans, when they came to act)] TJ ET BT 193.640 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(collectively, had a decisive impact on their own history' \(xiii\), but that this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was short-lived. He charts the extraordinary events of the escape from the GDR of an alienated people - by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the time the Wall was opened, over 30000 had left \(131\); the sieges of the embassies of neighbouring )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(countries; the candlelit processions and prayer meetings; the growing divisions between those who wanted to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(change the GDR, those who wanted unification with the FRG, and those who simply wanted out. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Meanwhile, the political authorities tried, but failed, to ride the tiger. Maier writes movingly about the sense )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of 'peaceful compassion', of the bravery of the citizens who did not know how the authorities would react, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the demand for an alternative public sphere, of mobilisation, of the debate about civil society. But he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concludes that this was all essentially oppositional - the force of the people n including the Communists - )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was quickly dissipated as organised parties recaptured the political arena from civic movements.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(What was left after 1990 for the German people were the deeply perturbing civic consequences of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unification, and the need to comes to terms with their past and to put the old)] TJ ET BT 402.320 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(regime on trial. Not only did )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Germans have to explore the legitimacy of what had happened in the East over the previous forty years, but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(had to do so amidst passionate discussion about the Third Reich. Maier, writing, as he says, as a comparative )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historian, argues that this comparison is not valid, and that it obscures the radically different regimes, and, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(indeed, that the comparisons with the Third Reich were sometimes used as a strategy for 'normalising' the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nazi regime. \(315\) He is particularly interesting on the academic purges of the former GDR, examining the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(impact of unification upon the university and research sector, which was an area in which he had some direct )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(involvement. This makes gripping reading, not only because he says that, whilst the universities were being )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cleansed of those tainted by contacts with the)] TJ ET BT 254.648 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Stasi, or with a reputation for dismissing dissenting students, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(even those who were not politically tarnished but who 'did not seem worth retaining' were removed. \(305\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Age and rank also came into the equation, as did research output. The Academy of Science, which had no )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(West German equivalent, was decimated. It was a day of judgment for the politically compromised, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(intellectually lazy, for the Mittelbau. As Maier remarks, the changes to the university and research system )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were became a way of slashing expensive white-collar labour. This section is essential reading for those in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(open societies who nevertheless hope that academic endeavour will of itself sanctify donations from dubious )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sources; for those whose 'academic' work may involve contracted-out research that could compromise their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(independent academic judgement. The speed at which these changes happened in the former GDR was )] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 20 0 R ] /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 6073 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(terrifying, and this section is a reminder that, while the Stasi-culture was of course particular to the GDR, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(moral choices cannot simply be put to one side by academics in the quest for funds and research output.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The second theme that runs through this book is an analysis of the economic environment of the GDR, of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(why the economics of the Eastern bloc had gone so badly wrong by 1989, and of the subsequent attempts at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(economic reconstruction. Writing now as a comparative economic historian, he dates the beginning of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(end to the 1970s. What is particularly interesting here is that he does not deal with the GDR alone, but sets )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the GDR into the wider changes in the global economy, arguing that 'the Communist collapse came about as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a reaction to forces for transformation that gripped West and East alike, but which Western Europeans \(and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(North Americans\) had responded to earlier and with less cataclysmic an upheaval. In their divergent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(responses to the seismic pressures of the 1970s lay the subsequent history of the 1980s.' \(91\) This collapse )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was postponed, though, first by the Eastern subsidisation of prices, and then by Western credits to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Eastern bloc in the 1980s. Orthodoxy and conservatism, and continued concentration in the Eastern bloc )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(upon what Maier calls the 'archaeology of coal and steel' \(97\), prevented the modernisation that the Western )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(world undertook in the aftermath of the economic crisis of the early 1970s. The dissolution of the GDR thus )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(followed on from the disabling difficulties that overtook the Communist planned system. Maier's assessment )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(here is measured, but stark: 'Both sides in the cold war had to cope for almost two decades with a set of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fundamental transitions in the world economy and the ideologies that supported their respective ways of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(doing business. The harsh pressures of relative backwardness brought down the Soviet system in the 1980s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and helped to liquidate the East German State that incorporated Russia's claim to have shared post-1945 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(leadership with the West. The pressures encroaching on the capitalist world from the 1970s to the 1990s led )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to the end of full employment, an acceptance of increasing inequality, and increasing dissension over )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(economic integration.' \(329\) In the Eastern bloc, it brouqht complete collapse. Through this prism, it would )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(seem that the East Germans themselves were victims, first of the global economic pressures of the 1970s, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and then of the very economic orthodoxy that underpinned it. We should hear more from Maier on this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(theme. In the sections on economic collapse, he takes forward the debates about the role of large-scale )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(economic change upon politics, and uses his expertise as an economic and comparative historian to best )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(advantage.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(These two big themes - the role of peoples, and that of grim economic pressures - that run through Maier's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(book can be considered as complementary; but they do jostle against each other. He is the first to admit this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dissonance as he argues that 'political action in its own right first beckons and then certainly only succeeds )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(when long-term conditions permit. Conversely, the same events reveal that political activity, at least if )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pursued with stamina and persistence, helps shape the causal environment critical to its own success'.\(xv\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thus he allows himself to accept the uncertainties and difficulties of identifying the mainsprings of historical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(change, and does not try to squeeze the evidence into one particular theoretical or ideological model. This )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(subtle historical approach certainly enriches his story, although, as the dust really settles on)] TJ ET BT 475.292 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1989, a more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(decisive ordering of the hierarchy of causality may be yet possible.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 228.271 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 210.491 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 210.491 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/61)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 209.097 m 316.316 209.097 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 184.120 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 169.720 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/447)] TJ ET BT 34.016 155.320 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 209.4115 316.3157 221.2915 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/61) >> endobj xref 0 22 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000342 00000 n 0000000379 00000 n 0000000567 00000 n 0000000649 00000 n 0000005016 00000 n 0000005125 00000 n 0000005235 00000 n 0000005344 00000 n 0000008905 00000 n 0000009033 00000 n 0000009117 00000 n 0000009182 00000 n 0000016747 00000 n 0000016812 00000 n 0000024601 00000 n 0000024685 00000 n 0000030811 00000 n 0000030939 00000 n trailer << /Size 22 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 31033 %%EOF