%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 18 0 R 20 0 R 26 0 R ] /Count 6 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140417030433+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140417030433+01'00') /Title (Jewish Girls Coming of Age in America, 1860?1920) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4165 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Jewish Girls Coming of Age in America, 1860?1920)] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Melissa R. Klapper?s )] TJ ET BT 140.000 259.067 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Jewish Girls Coming of Age in America, 1860?1920)] TJ ET BT 391.328 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( explores the identity of middle-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(class Jewish girls through use of a wide range of sources, including letters and diaries. This important )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contribution to the history of American Jews builds on previous work that has emphasized immigrants and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(working class families, the east coast, and urban centres. Klapper opens a window beyond ?sweatshop girls? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(p. 3\) and explores the history of adolescence, formal, alternative, and religious education, and social life )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from 1860?1920. In each of these venues, she analyzes the nature of Jewish girls? participation in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?American girl culture? \(p. 4\) and her subjects? identities?as young women and as Jews. As she notes, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jewish adolescents ?both recognized and were recognized for the role they played in maintaining a particular )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ethnic identity and religious culture while still aiming for integration into American society at large? \(p. 3\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Generally, Jewish girls were quite successful at American integration. According to Klapper, America?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(diverse population, significant pattern of immigration, and intriguing similarities in gendered expectations )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for American and American-Jewish culture eased the process of acculturation during the period she studies. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 75.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Strikingly, Klapper finds that American and Jewish identity complemented each other; Jewish education )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?taught the importance of family as a cornerstone of both American society and traditional Jewish life? \(p. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(612)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Saturday, 30 June, 2007)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Melissa R. Klapper)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780814747803)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2005)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(30.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(320pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(New York University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(https://www.nyupress.org/product_info.php?products_id=3619)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(New York)] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.579 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Susan Tananbaum)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7132 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(145\). Further, the Jewish community developed a broad range of alternative education programs that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?provided both physical and social space for the beginnings of a larger American Jewish culture? \(p. 141\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In many ways Judaism and Jewishness shaped Jewish girls? adolescence, but in other ways adolescent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(experiences were much like those of others boys and girls in America \(p. 55\). Jewish girls from the Civil )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(War era to World War One shared important similarities. They functioned in social circles that were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(primarily Jewish, even if Judaism was not a major influence on their lives \(pp. 186?7\). Judaism did )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(distinguish even acculturated girls, especially with regard to courtship, dating, and marriage \(pp. 56, 57\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Between 1860 and 1920, many girls embraced American mores and moved some distance away from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(families and tradition. The process, however, was complex as many families, too, wanted to acculturate \(p. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(56\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Through an analysis of education, her primary focus, Klapper assessed the pace and nature of acculturation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and suggests that education systems were ?microcosms of the issues of acculturation and tradition that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(continuously confronted Jews? and indicate the ways girls made decisions about their interests and identity )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(p. 5\). Clearly, access to education was pivotal for American Jewish girls and women; the theme appeared in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(writings ?across the decades? \(p. 41\). While Klapper may overstate the novelty, America did offer )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(opportunity for secular education in a wide range of schools and sustained, if generally superficial, religious )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(education. Education enabled young women to exhibit some autonomy, but it seems there were limits to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(challenges Jewish girls considered \(p. 35\). While families supported many of their daughters? educational )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(aspirations, Klapper notes that education could throw ?up a barrier of knowledge and worldliness between )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(them [parents] and their children? \(p. 55\). While education rarely led young women to reject ties to Judaism, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(most also embraced a new future in America.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Compared to other immigrants, Jewish girls had slightly more freedom and were more similar to non-Jewish )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(girls than were other immigrants \(p. 56\). Many Jewish girls had slightly greater access to education than )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(other young women, in part because traditional Judaism accepted women?s public and economic role, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(particularly as enablers of male scholarship \(p. 55\). Jewish parents were willing to let their daughters attend )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(high school, because schools tended to bolster ?widely shared assumptions about gender and class?. Thus, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(schools could sustain traditions ?while still exposing students to the individual benefits of modernization? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(p. 104\). Overall, from 1865 to 1920, American Jewish adolescents? experiences reflected American trends )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of expanded secondary education and the movement of Jewish girls? education out of home and into school )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(p. 103\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Gendered assumptions were extremely influential. For example, middle- and upper-class girls studied )] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cooking at school, even though they came from homes where maids did the washing and the girls would )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(never cook \(p. 84\). The vocational emphasis of many schools, especially for the working class, tended to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reinforce ?divided school experiences of boys and girls? \(p. 90\). Boys were more likely to stay in school )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(than girls and even in the same schools, boys? and girls? curriculum often differed \(p. 189\). Girls who )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(challenged traditional gender boundaries often discovered there were consequences. Those with college )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(degrees found it difficult to meet marital prospects, leading some to ask if ?Jewish doctors, lawyers, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(other professional [were] too busy to enjoy the company of girls who are not only pretty but also )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(intelligent?? \(p. 103, n. 152\). Concerned parents were reluctant to let daughters attend college ?once it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(became more directly threatening to religious and social traditions? \(p. 103\). Gendered expectations also )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(suffused informal educational programs. The Educational Alliance?s David Blaustein considered it his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(obligation to prepare men for citizenship and women for motherhood \(p. 118\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Education provided cultural capital?a crucial marker of class. Thus, middle class Jewish families began to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(take secondary education for granted long before that was possible for the working class. Some educators )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were quite blind to the impact of class and gender on ?the ostensibly democratic nature of American )] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(education? \(p. 83\). Often, families privileged sons because the return on a boy?s education was generally )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(greater than for girls. Over time, work that required school training, especially clerical, became increasingly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(common, and led to a decline of on-the-job training and increased support for formal education. Jewish )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(adolescents ?participated in educational experiences emerging as a cornerstone of American adolescence? )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 7307 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and did so ?without negating their other priorities? \(pp. 62, 61\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Community leaders had a special focus toward immigrants, leading to the rise of free religious classes with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(goals beyond Jewish learning. Dedicated to acculturation, such classes sought to stamp out ?the mental and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(physical depravity into which generations of oppression and persecution have forced them? \(p. 161, n. 59\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Klapper concludes that the late-nineteenth-century Jewish community saw no contradiction between Jewish )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and American identity and religious schools educated in both areas \(p. 161\). Jewish educators used religious )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(education to prepare children for their new lives as Americans. The Columbia Religious and Industrial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(School, for example, hired Jewish Theological Seminary students to provide Jewish education, keep girls off )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the street, and to raise up respectable and religious Jewish women \(pp. 162?3\). These goals constituted a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(change from earlier eras when the community used education to ensure continuity \(p. 161\). As schooling )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(generally gained more acceptance, and as more children remained in school longer, there seemed to be a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(parallel growth in the acceptance of religious education. This in turn resulted in more ?enthusiasm for things )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jewish? \(p. 171\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(While Klapper argues for the alignment of American and Jewish cultural priorities, she also points to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(differences in American and European Jewish culture, particularly with regard to education and religious )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(involvement. Middle-class Americans tended to educate their daughters )] TJ ET BT 381.620 558.629 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(not)] TJ ET BT 396.956 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( to work?and the ability to meet )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this ideal reflected the economic success and cultural adaptation of Jewish families \(p. 32\). America also )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(provided a greater role for women in Judaism?particularly within the Reform movement. This pattern of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(religious participation in the United States gave Jewish women a way to be more like the Protestant )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mainstream, while retaining their Jewish religious heritage \(p. 33\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Communal leaders tended to target immigrants and widespread public education made that process very )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(efficient. Although historians have tended to be critical of Americanization programs, Klapper cautions that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(such efforts were more complex than merely ?the worst kind of social control? \(p. 106\). Americanization )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was, in part, effective because Jews were anxious to adapt to their new country. Schooling though, remained )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a luxury, and the Americanization of working class youth had to occur outside of schools \(p. 107\). American )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jews responded enthusiastically; ?they applied a traditional respect for learning to new educational venues )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and supported a wide array of alternative forms of education?, including print media, lectures, and cultural )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(activities \(p. 107\). Additionally, philanthropic and educational institutions saw their involvement as part of a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(traditional Jewish obligation to provide tzedakah?charity \(p. 108\). Families encouraged their children to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(participate in such offerings because education reflected well on individuals and their families, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(demonstrated ?their ability and willingness to embrace an important component of American life? \(p. 107\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Given the rise of Nativism and antisemitism, Jews, especially native born, concluded that acculturation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(among Jews of all class and levels of observance would undercut negative reactions \(p. 108\). While most of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the host community was quite generous to their new co-religionists, some resented the newcomers and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(encouraged them to eliminate aspects of foreignness, including foreign sounding names that revealed one?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?immigrant origins? \(p. 108\). More established Jews could also be patronizing, and their perceptions often )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(affected the offerings that educators made available. New York?s Young Ladies? Auxiliary offered English, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cooking, and dressmaking downtown, but French and dancing uptown \(p. 109\). Sponsors of the Louisa M. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Alcott club exposed working class girls to art and literature, but also trained them ?to wait at our own tables? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(p. 116, n. 29\). Immigrants who wanted to take advantage of informal education, however, had little choice )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(but to accept services ?regardless of the blatant condescension of the established American Jews who )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(generally ran them? \(p. 108\). Exceptions existed. At Chicago?s Hebrew Institute, Jewish immigrants became )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(involved in leadership roles soon after its establishment \(p. 119\). Klapper suggests that immigrant girls had )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to learn to be American middle-class women and run middle-class homes, ?even if that meant rejecting )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(parental models? \(p. 109\). One might question such a conclusion. Typically, formal and informal working-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(class education tended to reinforce class-based gendered expectations. And Klapper herself notes that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(types of alternative education available for middle-class women differed from that organized for immigrants; )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(middle-class women tended to rely more on family and individual, rather than community, endeavours \(p. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(115\).)] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 7278 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Klapper discusses an inevitable generation gap; while girls flocked to classes, the reality of immigrant life )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(precluded their parents? participation. Some parents accepted the consequences of acculturation as they )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(assumed that such a path meant greater opportunities, even if girls might grow apart from family \(pp. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(130?2\). Young women sometimes found themselves caught between the communal orientation of tradition )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and individualistic orientation of modernization.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 701.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(While Klapper sees Jewish and American identity as compatible, she notes tensions in several arenas and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 686.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prioritizing of American identity over Jewish. For example, despite the availability of synagogue-based )] TJ ET BT 34.016 672.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(schools, most parents sent children to public schools, which showed that ?in the contest between Jewish and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 658.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(American identity that school choice signified, American identity was winning by the 1870s? \(p. 157\). By )] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the late-nineteenth century, the Jewish community had established a systematic program of Jewish )] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(education. This development reflected, in part, the perception of community leaders that it was too risky to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(leave Jewish education in the home \(p. 155\). Samson Benderly, a leader in Jewish education, took over as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the head of New York?s new Bureau of Jewish. He recognized the traditional neglect of girls? education, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and especially sought to expand offerings for girls \(pp. 166?7, 169\). As this pattern developed, various types )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of supplementary Jewish education became the dominant model.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 546.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Klapper recognizes two trends?and arguably, they are not fully compatible. She notes a continuity during )] TJ ET BT 34.016 532.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(late 1800s to early 1900s during which girls ?could see through religious education of one kind or another )] TJ ET BT 34.016 518.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that American and Jewish identity need not negate each other? \(p. 181\). But she also notes resistance to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 503.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jewish education, sometimes emerging from traditional strictures against educating girls, and sometimes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(because Americanization activities took priority. Supplementary education did attract criticism from many )] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(who saw it as too watered down \(p. 158\). In response, Talmud Torahs emerged. These classes met daily and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hebrew was a central feature of the curriculum \(p. 159\). Given this on-going commitment of some Jews to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more intensive and traditional religious education, Klapper may have underestimated some pockets of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(resistance. Alongside this more traditional approach, were innovations such as Confirmation services for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fifteen- and sixteen-year-olds. While training for this ceremony was less intensive than orthodox education, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(it does indicate ?The increasing attention paid to adolescence as a stage of life supported the idea of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(confirmation? \(pp. 172?3\). Some critics believed that confirmation classes emphasized a test or ceremony, as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(opposed to religious commitment; others feared that confirmation became a social, rather than religious )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(event. In response, some leaders recommended a bat mitzvah for girls, which involved more intensive )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(education and practice \(pp. 174,175?6\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(By the late-nineteenth century, it seems parental indifference, not ?theological or cultural opposition?, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(accounted for the limited development of Jewish education \(p. 178\). Complaints of Jewish educators suggest )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that in most cases, parents did not support Jewish education for their daughters. Apparently, families found )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(money for time-consuming lessons that helped one become American and left little opportunity for Jewish )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(education. Many parents who allowed girls to attend supplemental classes at institutions such as the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Educational Alliance, still sent sons to cheder \(p. 179\). Nonetheless, leaders worked to expand and develop )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jewish education, part of an effort ?to develop an organic American Jewish identity? \(p. 182\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 208.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Many Jewish girls absorbed gendered American culture at school where they read many of the same books, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and joined the same clubs, as their non-Jewish classmates. Exposure to both worlds meant that they could )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mediate their families? integration ?without abandoning their religiously defined roles as keepers of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tradition? \(p. 188\). Reading, for example, as individuals and families, both promoted and indicated )] TJ ET BT 34.016 151.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Americanization \(p. 210\). Immigrants, especially, found this route important since many ended their formal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(education quite early. Klapper contends that one?s Jewishness played less of a role in choice of books than )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in other recreational areas \(p. 212\). Jewish girls read the popular works of the day, but also those of Jewish )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interest \(p. 213\). The recording of one?s reading in diaries, suggests the importance of such activities \(pp. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(207?8\). Klapper claims that, like education, middle-class girls? participation in American girl culture tended )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to receive parental support and became part of the family?s strategy for acculturation. In contrast, working-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(class girls who ?wished to become American? risked distancing themselves from their families. Yet, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?middle-class girlhood became the ideal, if not the reality, across class lines,? because their approach )] TJ ET endstream endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 22 0 R 24 0 R ] /Contents 21 0 R >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Length 7047 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(became the model for all classes, even if working class Jews found it harder to reach \(p. 190\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The marriage of things Jewish and American was apparently not perfect and religion did set Jewish girls )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(apart from non-Jews. Nonetheless, the values and behaviours of American girlhood were similar enough to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(those of Jewish girlhood that conflict remained limited and ?was more likely to arise as a result of class )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(issues or family structure? \(p. 190\). Middle-class Jewish girls, in particular, could combine identities, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(participate in American activities and American fashion with Jewish friends and a Jewish boyfriend. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Evidence indicates that tension did not disappear altogether; young women recalled that Friday evening )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sabbath services could compete with activities such as the high school debating society \(p. 196\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 658.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The growth of secondary education, and growing recognition of adolescence as a distinct stage of life, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(supported the development of activities associated with teens \(pp. 190?1\). Thus, working-class girls, who )] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(left school earlier than middle-class ones, found it harder acculturate. Work could contribute to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(acculturation, but it was often ethnically homogenous and therefore offered fewer opportunities than school )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(p. 191\). Girls of all classes enjoyed many of the same activities, both groups spent a lot of time among )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(friends, and the period witnessed the development ?of a broadly observed youth culture? \(p. 191\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 560.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Importantly, organizations dedicated to Americanizing Jewish youth also sought to provide opportunities to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 546.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(socialize \(p. 219\). This led much Jewish youth to participate in typical American activities, but to do so ?in a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 532.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jewish environment? \(p. 213\). While Jewish girls had non-Jewish classmates, friends, and co-workers, they )] TJ ET BT 34.016 518.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rarely dated them; at the turn of the century, only two percent intermarried, and by the 1940s only three )] TJ ET BT 34.016 503.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(percent. It seems that Jewish youth accepted this priority and while factors such as class, education, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ethnicity affected socializing and marriage choices, religion was the crucial one \(pp. 219?20\). To encourage )] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(endogamy, the Jewish community supported activities that helped young men and women meet. These )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(activities tended to combine tradition and modernity; they were exclusively Jewish, but often unchaperoned )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(pp. 221?2\). Though limited to co-religionists, Jews? courtship patterns were otherwise quite similar to those )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of Americans of their class \(p. 223\). For example, Jewish youth exchanged love letters, following the pattern )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(common in the US at the time \(p. 224\). Though highly personal, the letters were reflective of ?new romantic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ideals forming around courtship and marriage at the turn of the century? \(p. 225\). Class, education, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(family background played key role in life choices; Jewish adolescents often chose to embrace, rather than )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reject tradition and parents? lives \(p. 232\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Overall, this is an excellent book. It covers girls and women who tend to get less attention generally, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(focuses a good deal on non-immigrants, a welcome addition to other studies. The text is more thematic than )] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chronological, and, as a result, tends not to emphasize change over time. The majority of the topics relate to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(education in one way or another?formal, informal, or religious. Perhaps a more condensed look at education )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(might have enabled Klapper to offer more consideration of specific clubs, work, and social life. Her )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(treatment of them leads the reader to want to know more. Further, these arenas would provide additional )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(insight into class, gender, economics, and family relations.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Klapper?s book deepens our understanding of the lives of Jewish adolescents and their relationship to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(development of a larger American Jewish culture. She argues convincingly that Jewish adolescents shared )] TJ ET BT 34.016 208.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(common traits regardless of era. Among these were a drive to stand out; many young women wanted to be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(extraordinary without abandoning aspects of tradition they valued \(pp. 34, 35\). Religion was important, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(played a critical role in the formation of girls? Jewish identity, and tended to reinforce family relationships, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(even among families who were not ritually observant. Her attention to class adds nuance to our )] TJ ET BT 34.016 151.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(understanding of acculturation and her study offers an important contribution to both Jewish and American )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 111.461 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historycooperative)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 82.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.historycooperative.org/journals/ahr/112.1/br_80.html)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 81.555 m 347.336 81.555 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 350.336 82.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 78.223 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 60.443 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 60.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/612)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 59.049 m 322.316 59.049 l S endstream endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 23 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 81.8695 347.3357 93.7495 ] >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.historycooperative.org/journals/ahr/112.1/br_80.html) >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 25 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 59.3635 322.3157 71.2435 ] >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/612) >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 27 0 R >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Length 337 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 784.354 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 769.954 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/4068)] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.554 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.historycooperative.org/journals/ahr/112.1/br_80.html)] TJ ET endstream endobj xref 0 28 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000356 00000 n 0000000393 00000 n 0000000565 00000 n 0000000647 00000 n 0000004864 00000 n 0000004973 00000 n 0000005083 00000 n 0000005192 00000 n 0000008753 00000 n 0000008881 00000 n 0000008965 00000 n 0000009030 00000 n 0000016215 00000 n 0000016280 00000 n 0000023640 00000 n 0000023705 00000 n 0000031036 00000 n 0000031127 00000 n 0000038227 00000 n 0000038352 00000 n 0000038467 00000 n 0000038593 00000 n 0000038688 00000 n 0000038753 00000 n trailer << /Size 28 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 39142 %%EOF