%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 18 0 R ] /Count 4 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140818102602+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140818102602+01'00') /Title (Chivalry and Knighthood in Scotland, 1424?1513) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4098 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Chivalry and Knighthood in Scotland, 1424?1513)] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Katie Stevenson, in her )] TJ ET BT 149.000 259.067 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Chivalry and Knighthood in Scotland, 1424?1513)] TJ ET BT 389.012 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, presents a thorough, scholarly, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and informative research monograph. The years 1424 to 1513 carry one from the return to his kingdom of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(James I, after the long detention in England following his capture as a boy of twelve in 1406, to the death of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(James IV at Flodden. The four reigns that they cover saw a steady extension \(outside the minorities of James )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(II and James III\) of the power and authority of the kings of the house of Stewart, largely at the expense of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the high nobility. The dramatic interludes in this story?the murder of James I, the undoing of the Douglases )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(at the `Black Dinner' of 1440 and after the fight at Arkinholm \(1455\), and the death of James III at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sauchieburn?have ensured that the period has caught the eye of historians, but no one until Stevenson has )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(much heeded the significance of the royal patronage of knighthood and chivalric culture in the relations of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the fifteenth-century kings with their aristocratic subjects. Her study ably demonstrates the relevance of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(these topics to the story through that time of the Scottish monarchy.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Two powerful opening chapters \(2 and 3\) focus on knights and knighthood, and Stevenson returns to re-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 75.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(examine her earlier findings on these subjects in her concluding chapter on 'the crown's use of chivalry'. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(absence of any clear dividing line below the rank of baron, between noble and non-noble, in Scottish )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(613)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Saturday, 30 June, 2007)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Katie Stevenson)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9781843831921)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2006)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(45.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(240pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Boydell & Brewer)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.boydell.co.uk/43831929.HTM)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Woodbridge)] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.579 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Maurice Keen)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7685 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(freeholding landed society made knighthood important as an index of high standing, especially for the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(upwardly mobile. That, and the endurance of feudal bonds and of the forty day military service obligation of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(knights, gave the status of knight a social significance that was relatively sharper than that which it enjoyed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in, say, the English sub-baronial genteel society of knights and esquires. The unpaid service of knights, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Stevenson shows, greatly eased for the crown the problem of raising hosts for internal campaigning in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Scotland and on the border. As she also shows, the advancement through royal favour and land grants of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(knights who had given proof on campaign of their military ability reveals how well the Scottish kings )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(understood the advantage to themselves of nourishing among their knights consciousness of their martial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(role and pride in it. Although the fifteenth century saw a good deal less fighting on the border than had the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(preceding age, the eagerness with which so many Scottish knights sought service overseas, especially under )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the French crown, testifies to the abiding strength of knighthood's military tradition and the lure of martial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reputation, which gave it powerful potential as a cohesive force in landed society. The Scottish kings needed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to make sure that that cohesive force worked in the crown's interest; in Scotland's highly localized society it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(could so easily, as Stevenson makes clear, have been exploited to the crown's cost by dissentient magnates, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(like the Douglases or, later the Stewarts of Albany.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It was generally accepted in European chivalrous circles that dubbing established a bonding relationship )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(between he who thereby conferred knighthood and the recipient, and the Stewart kings clearly saw in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ceremony a useful means toward widening the crown's network of political support. With good reason, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(therefore, Stevenson devotes the whole of her chapter 3 to 'the bestowal of knighthood and the dubbing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ceremony'. James I, probably following what he had learned in his captivity was the English custom, set the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pattern of using great court occasions, such as his coronation and the baptism of his children, as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(opportunities for dubbing en masse; later there were mass dubbings to celebrate the weddings of James II )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and James IV, and the coronation of James Ill \(and probably also, Stevenson argues, that of James II\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Through careful exploration of the individual careers of those created knights on these occasions,and of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(continuing royal patronage that many of them enjoyed, she is able to demonstrate illuminatingly the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(significance of the service and support that their loyalty secured to the crown, and in many other fields )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(besides the traditional military one. Men knighted at the coronation of James I went on to do notable service )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for him and for James II in administration, in shrieval office for instance and as auditors of royal revenues, in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(diplomacy, and in offices in the royal household. Stevenson's findings for Scotland here nicely parallel what )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Fionn Pilbrow has found for England in his study of the English knights of the Bath. In both kingdoms, it is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(clear, civilian administrative service, always an element in knightly obligation, was becoming visibly more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(highly appreciated in the fifteenth-century ethos of knighthood.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Another less individualized way in which the kings and princes of late-medieval Europe sought to impress )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their knightly subjects and to cultivate their esteem was through patronage of chivalrous culture and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(activities, in particular jousting and tourneying. The Scots kings were no exception and Stevenson makes the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tournament the subject of her fourth chapter. The sources for Scottish tournaments are not very satisfactory; )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the native Scottish chroniclers are seldom much forthcoming on the subject, and a good many tourneys have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(left no mark beyond notes of expenditure in the royal accounts, which Stevenson has carefully combed for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(references. Since there are substantial gaps in the Treasurer's accounts, there were probably quite a number )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more than we know about. There is only one indisputable record of a tournament in James I's reign and none )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for that of James III, the least chivalrous of the fifteenth-century kings; but James II and above all James IV )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were enthusiastic patrons, and this clearly enhanced their reputation and standing, abroad as well as at home. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The challenges to single combat of the Burgundian champions Jaques and Simon Lalaing and Henri de )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Meriadet, taken up by three Scottish knights \(James and Henry Douglas and John Ross of Hawkshead\) were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fought out before James II at Sterling in 1449, and Chastellain's vivid description of the encounters attests to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the reputation for chivalry far beyond Scotland of James and the knights of his court. Under James IV )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(references to tournaments in the records become frequent, and there were some notably lavish events. In )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1496 a tournament formed part of the celebrations for the marriage of the English pretender Perkin Warbeck )] TJ ET BT 34.016 88.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to Lady Catherine Gordon, and both the king himself and Perkin took part in the jousts. In 1503, for James's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(own marriage to Margaret Tudor there were three days of celebratory jousting. James's tournaments of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 59.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wild Knight in 1507 and of the Wild Knight and the Black Lady in 1508 were theatrically staged with an )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 7362 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(allegorical literary theme after the fashion of some of the famous continental pas d'armes, and James himself )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(jousted as the Wild Knight. The 1508 event was at his invitation presided over by Bernard Stewart, Sire )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(d'Aubigny, Captain of the King of France's Scottish guards, and veteran of the Spanish crusade and of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Italian wars, a knight with a European reputation in chivalry. In knightly culture, as in other respects too, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(court of James IV showed itself impressively cosmopolitan.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Stevenson follows her chapter on tournaments with a chapter \(5\) on `knighthood and the display of piety'. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The knightly enterprise which most obviously combined chivalry with piety was the crusade, and here )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Stevenson encounters \(and recognizes\) a problem at the start of her survey. In the fourteenth century the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Scottish crusading record had been impressive; individual Scottish knights fought with distinction against )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Moors in Spain, on the Alexandrian crusade of King Peter of Cyprus, and alongside the Teutonic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Knights in Lithuania. But the fifteenth century did not offer the same opportunities; with the conversion of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lithuania and the defeat of the Knights at Tannenburg the east European crusading theatre effectively closed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(down, and there were no major expeditions to the east Mediterranean. The eagerness to go on crusade to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Holy Land that James IV expressed to Pope Julius II seems to have been genuine and serious, but his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ambition was still in the future when he fell at Flodden. Stevenson makes the most she can of the scanty )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(evidence relating to Scottish knights of the Hospital, and has interesting comments on the difficulties )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consequent on the Scottish preceptory at Torpichen being subject to the English Prior of the Hospital. She )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(also presents some extremely interesting information about Scottish knights travelling to the Holy Land, not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on crusade but on pilgrimage, and on pilgrimage elsewhere too. Both James III and James IV, she notes, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were visitors to native Scottish saintly shrines, as those of Saint Ninian at Whithorn, of Saint Duthac at Tain, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and Saint Fillan at Scone. Strictly speaking, it might be argued that she is here moving away from the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(express focus of her book, on knighthood, toward what Rosenthal called the `purchase of paradise'. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(same could also be said of her discussion of the endowment of collegiate churches by knights and nobles, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(including some very important foundations, William Sinclair's church at Roslin, Walter Stewart's at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Meethven near Perth, and the Douglas foundations at Bothwell and Dalkeith. It does, however, give her an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(opportunity to take a careful look at the armour and heraldry of the surviving church effigies of founders and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(patrons. Altogether, her very thorough researches in these areas offer enormously-revealing insights into the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(religious culture of the secular Scottish aristocracy, in passages which are among the most perceptive in her )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(book.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Noble culture continues as the centre of attention through Stevenson's chapter 6, on 'chivalry in Scottish )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(literature'. She meets here difficulties comparable to those encountered with the crusade. The Scottish )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(literary achievement of the sixteenth century is deeply impressive, but the subject matter of the very finest )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(works, James I's )] TJ ET BT 115.496 316.277 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Kingis Quair)] TJ ET BT 178.508 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, Henryson's )] TJ ET BT 240.992 316.277 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Testament of Cresseid)] TJ ET BT 347.660 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, the best of Gavin Douglas, is tangental to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chivalry. The most notable Scottish contribution to the literature of chivalry, Barbour's )] TJ ET BT 452.804 302.021 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Bruce)] TJ ET BT 481.460 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, belongs to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fourteenth not the fifteenth century. Stevenson devotes generous space, notwithstanding, to a perceptive )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(scrutiny of Barbour's heavily military interpretation of chivalrous values, and justifiably, since his work )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(retained its influence throughout her period. It is a good deal more revealing of knightly attitudes than the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Blind Harry's )] TJ ET BT 101.504 244.997 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Schir William Wallace)] TJ ET BT 210.164 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, written in the 1470s. Also revealing from this point of view are the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chronicles, a genre ably discussed with particular attention to Wyntoun and Bower; Stevenson through apt )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(quotation brings out the particular importance and interest for them and their patrons and readers of knightly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reputation, for'manly renown' established through `douchty deedis'. At the same time she stresses their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exemplary intention, to)] TJ ET BT 64.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Schaw how young knychttis suld be men of were, / With hardy spreit at euery ieoparde)] TJ ET BT 34.016 111.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and to teach martial men to maintain the 'morall desciplyne' of their elders' time. At the very end of her )] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(period she writes interestingly about the overt signs that she detects of a changing attitude in Dunbar and in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 82.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sir David Lindsay's )] TJ ET BT 131.840 82.949 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Squire Meldrum)] TJ ET BT 210.164 82.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, of a 'dechivalization' of the knightly ideal through a new emphasis on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(civil public service in the style of the renaissance administrator-courtier.)] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 20 0 R 22 0 R 24 0 R ] /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 6244 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(From the point of view of knighthood, the most important section in Stevenson's methodical survey of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chivalrous literature is that on 'manuals of chivalry?, notwithstanding that only one author, Sir Gilbert Hay, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(comes under consideration. Hay's two translations from the French, of Bouvet's )] TJ ET BT 418.616 755.957 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Arbre de Batailles)] TJ ET BT 506.612 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(completed in 1387 \(as the )] TJ ET BT 161.000 741.701 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Buke of the Law of Armys)] TJ ET BT 284.660 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\) and of a French version of Ramon Lull's thirteenth )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century )] TJ ET BT 73.004 727.445 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Ordre de Cavalayria)] TJ ET BT 173.660 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, \(as the )] TJ ET BT 214.316 727.445 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Buke of the Ordre of Knychthede)] TJ ET BT 372.620 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\) were commissioned by William )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sinclair, earl of Orkney and Chancellor to James II. The martial ambitions of his royal master were probably )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the reason for Sinclair's anxiety to see these two very influential works made available in Scottish to Scots )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(knighthood, among whom they clearly struck a chord; there is clear evidence of the multiplication of copies )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and in the late-fifteenth and early-sixteenth century they seem to have been quite widely read. Hay's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(translations were very free and he added to the originals where he thought appropriate. Bouvet's book gave )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(him the chance to lay particular stress on the overriding obligation of knights and men at arms to their king, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a message with very direct relevance in 1456 in the immediate aftermath of James II's final clash with the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Douglases. The )] TJ ET BT 111.668 613.397 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Buke of the Ordre of Knychthede)] TJ ET BT 269.972 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( highlighted what Lull had had to say about the privileged )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(status of knights, and their consequent obligation in honour to work in peace as well as war for the well )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(being of society, in which they should act as `ledaris and governours'.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The title of Stevenson's concluding chapter, 'the crown's use of chivalry', underlines what have been the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(principal themes of her book, the relationship between the Scottish kings of the last medieval century and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(knighthood of their kingdom, and the interactions of knightly values with the royal style of leadership and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(government. The quality of the research that has gone into the book is matched by the perception of its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(analyses; in combination they bring to life the outlook and priorities of the knightly society that gathered )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(round the Scottish kings at court and on campaign, in a period when the assertion of monarchical authority )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(faced crucial tests and overcame them. By opening a fresh line of approach to this story, Stevenson makes a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(major contribution to the political, social, and cultural history of late-medieval Scotland. The individuality of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Scottish knightly experience and outlook is one of the most interesting features elucidated by this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(admirable study, and ideas that Stevenson throws out in the process suggest all sorts of potentially )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(illuminating comparisons with contemporary developments in England and Europe. There are many English )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(medievalists who, like myself, are culpably under informed about the independent kingdom that in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(middle ages lay beyond England's northern border; Stevenson's book offers us an excellent opportunity for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(some useful self education.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(muse)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://muse.jhu.edu/login)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 317.139 m 154.700 317.139 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 157.700 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(oxford journals)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://ehr.oxfordjournals.org/content/CXXII/498/1081.full)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 288.627 m 314.336 288.627 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 317.336 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 285.295 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 267.515 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 267.515 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/613)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 266.121 m 322.316 266.121 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 241.144 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 226.744 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/4070)] TJ ET BT 34.016 212.459 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] )] TJ ET BT 34.016 198.088 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://muse.jhu.edu/login?auth=0&type=summary&url=/journals/scottish_historical_review/v087/87.2.penman.html)] TJ ET BT 34.016 183.688 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3] http://ehr.oxfordjournals.org/content/CXXII/498/1081.full)] TJ ET endstream endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 317.4535 154.6997 329.3335 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://muse.jhu.edu/login?auth=0&type=summary&url=/journals/scottish_historical_review/v087/87.2.penman.html) >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 23 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 288.9415 314.3357 300.8215 ] >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://ehr.oxfordjournals.org/content/CXXII/498/1081.full) >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 25 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 266.4355 322.3157 278.3155 ] >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/613) >> endobj xref 0 26 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000342 00000 n 0000000379 00000 n 0000000549 00000 n 0000000631 00000 n 0000004781 00000 n 0000004890 00000 n 0000005000 00000 n 0000005109 00000 n 0000008670 00000 n 0000008798 00000 n 0000008882 00000 n 0000008947 00000 n 0000016685 00000 n 0000016750 00000 n 0000024165 00000 n 0000024263 00000 n 0000030560 00000 n 0000030687 00000 n 0000030847 00000 n 0000030974 00000 n 0000031083 00000 n 0000031211 00000 n trailer << /Size 26 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 31306 %%EOF