%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 22 0 R 24 0 R 40 0 R ] /Count 6 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140729024325+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140729024325+01'00') /Title (Using History, Making British Policy: the Treasury and the Foreign Office, 1950?76) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 2642 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Using History, Making British Policy: the Treasury and the Foreign )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Office, 1950?76)] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(To historians, the intrinsic value of history is self-evident. However, the study of history as an intellectual )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(activity extends beyond the careful reconstruction and critical analysis of the past. For the past seeps into the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(present: it shapes the identities, perceptions, and attitudes of individuals and institutions. ?History? and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historical analogies are also widely used?and abused?in public life, and can affect policy outcomes.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(614)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Saturday, 30 June, 2007)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Peter J. Beck)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9781403947062)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2006)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(50.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(328pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Palgrave Macmillan)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.palgrave.com/products/title.aspx?is=1403947066)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Basingstoke)] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.195 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Anne Deighton)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 6866 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Peter Beck?s volume is concerned with Whitehall in the 1960s and 1970s. He has written an assiduous, if )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(occasionally disjointed, reconstruction of how senior civil servants who wanted a ?meaningful common )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(meeting ground between public policy and history in Britain? \(p. 251\) thought history could be used by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Whitehall for this purpose. Beck uses a wide range of archival sources from the United Kingdom National )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Archive, as well as the private papers of those who found themselves debating these issues over these years. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(He focuses upon the Treasury and the Foreign Office in particular, while also looking at the Cabinet Office )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and a number of other departments, and teases out his themes by using case studies that cover the period )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from the Public Records Act 1958 \(which established the fifty-year rule\), to the Public Records Act 1967 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(which established the thirty-year rule\), and then to the closure of the Treasury Historical Section in 1976.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This may sound dry, but the underlying significance of his theme is not only of marginal intellectual or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(public importance. This micro-history reveals broader themes. The key theme is how historical experience )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(can, or should, contribute to the education of civil servants and the formulation of policy in Whitehall. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(However, the book also tells us about what senior civil servants thought about their relationship with the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(general public, and how much they thought the general public should be told, or be able to find out, about )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their own past. Issues relating to freedom of information run like a thread through the book.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.691 Td /F3 14.0 Tf [(Beck?s narrative account)] TJ ET BT 34.016 517.950 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(By 1957, the series of wartime civil histories that had been commissioned first for Whitehall and later for the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 503.694 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(general public were coming to a close. Some of these histories had been commissioned by Edward Bridges )] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.438 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(during the war. Bridges was Cabinet Secretary from 1938 to 1956, then Permanent Secretary to the Treasury, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.182 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and he was Head of the Home Civil Service, 1945?56. The volumes drew upon privileged access to records, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 460.926 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as well as oral testimony from officials and politicians. They had been seen as indicators of both the value of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.670 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sharing the wartime experience with the general public, and also as a means of passing on to future )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.414 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(generations of civil servants the administrative efforts of those who had had to evolve policy by trial and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.158 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(error during exceptional times?part of what, in very curious language, came to be known as a ?funding )] TJ ET BT 34.016 403.902 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(experience? \(p. 26\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.646 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Although the publication of these wartime histories took years if not decades, Sir Norman Brook, who took )] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.390 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(over from Lord Bridges in 1957, sought to develop the role of the historian in Whitehall in ways that would )] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.134 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cover the postwar period too, but without falling prey to the party politics which were now a greater part of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 334.878 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(political life than they had been during the coalition period of the war. He thought that internal, rather than )] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.622 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(official, histories would therefore be the best way forward: indeed the Treasury was already doing this kind )] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.366 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of work.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 280.110 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The name that recurs with greatest frequency in Beck?s narrative of this period is that of the distinguished )] TJ ET BT 34.016 265.854 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historian, Margaret Gowing. She was clearly a formidable presence in Whitehall, delivering a vast range of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.598 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(work that related first to the official war histories, and then, in the Treasury, material on domestic issues: )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.342 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Acts of God)] TJ ET BT 90.680 237.342 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(floods\), an unfinished piece on colonial aid, as well as shorter memoranda on specific themes. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.086 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(She left the Treasury in 1959, and went to the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority where she wrote )] TJ ET BT 34.016 208.830 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(her seminal works on postwar Britain and atomic energy \(pp. 11?13\). She was a tireless advocate of the need )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.574 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to have historians working in government amongst those who were developing policies and taking often )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.318 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(difficult decisions on a day-to-day basis, and whose reflex position was that the ?day before yesterday is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.062 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dead? \(quoted at p. 13\). It was her example that encouraged Brook, and his successor, Burke Trend, to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 151.806 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(promote the idea of internal histories, ?seeded files? \(briefer accounts drawn from key files\), and ?briefing? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.550 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(memoranda for the Treasury.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 111.294 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Historians were also at work in the Home and Overseas Planning Section. Likewise, in the Overseas Finance )] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.038 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Divison, research was carried out on the relationship between the Treasury and the British Petroleum )] TJ ET BT 34.016 82.782 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Company, and on the 1947 convertibility crisis. The Board of Trade, as well as the Public Enterprises )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.526 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Division, also produced studies, although not all plans reached completion \(a 1965 atomic energy project )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.270 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was one\). It seems that the main constraint to the progress of the ?funding experience? project was always )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 18 0 R 20 0 R ] /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 8391 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(time, rather than funds.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(By the mid 1970s, the Treasury ?funding experience?, although delivering considerable numbers of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(volumes?including ones on sterling and exchange control; control of demand; external financial relations; )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and incomes policy?was under threat. Beck?s account indicates that the project had by then lost the backing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the most senior civil servants. Sir John Hunt, who became Cabinet Secretary in 1973, sought output that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(explained the lessons of the past and was more relevant \(p. 164\). By 1976, money for the ?funding )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(experience? was itself under pressure as it was not possible to show that recent memoranda had actually )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(made a policy impact \(p. 169\). Despite the volume and range of output, it seemed that even the shorter )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(memoranda were not being read, let alone acted upon by those who mattered most?so the histories ?were, on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the whole, not what the Department needed? \(p. 181\). As a result, the Treasury Historical Section was closed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(down in 1976. Unintentionally, many of the histories that were intended as a form of on-the-job training, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as guidance for officials, became, in the end, documents ?for the record? and for future historians.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(At the same time, official histories, in which a chosen historian would be given unrestricted access to certain )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sets of records, were still being encouraged. These would allow government to keep the process under )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(control, first through a parliamentary committee which would choose each topic and give final clearance for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(publication, and then by the overall management by the Cabinet Office history section. It was hoped that this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(would also stem the tide of demands from historians and also from specialist journalists for further access to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the official records of government including the distinguished academic historian Professor Peter Hennessy, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(who was then working for )] TJ ET BT 162.992 515.861 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Times)] TJ ET BT 212.660 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. Prime Minister Harold Wilson appears to have personally pushed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(forward this agenda of greater openness \(p. 39\). He also supported new legislation to reduce the closed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(period for archives from fifty down to thirty years which was achieved with the Public Records Act 1967.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The track record of the Foreign Office was rather different, as it had long been publishing sets of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(documentary records, the )] TJ ET BT 158.648 446.837 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Documents on British Foreign Policy)] TJ ET BT 338.636 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( series being only the most recent in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(series that stretched back to the )] TJ ET BT 187.316 432.581 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Blue Books)] TJ ET BT 241.640 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and the )] TJ ET BT 282.632 432.581 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(British and Foreign State Papers)] TJ ET BT 441.968 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(p. 198\), and forward )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to the distinguished )] TJ ET BT 131.024 418.325 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Documents on British Policy Overseas)] TJ ET BT 317.000 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( series. The Foreign Office was not enthusiastic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(about official histories, as they might undermine or compromise contemporary policy-making in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(international sphere. Sir Llewellyn Woodward?s massive history of British foreign policy during the Second )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(World War took decades to clear security for publication. Nor did the Foreign Office commission many )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(internal histories: that on the abortive 1963 application to the EEC was written in the Treasury. However, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Con O?Neill?s work on the successful application was well received, and this was then published to some )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(acclaim in 2000 \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 117.668 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 117.668 331.395 m 123.668 331.395 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 123.668 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Beck devotes considerable attention to the Foreign Office?s 1962 internal history, )] TJ ET BT 429.956 306.533 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(British Policy in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Relinquishment of Abadan in 1951)] TJ ET BT 200.684 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, and this analysis is the high point of his narrative \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 449.336 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 449.336 290.883 m 455.336 290.883 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 455.336 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\). The Abadan )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history was written as an internal history, and was an experiment to test the value of history as a formal input )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to the policymaking process \(although the history took nearly a decade to write\). Its author was Rohan )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Butler, and the history established his personal reputation within Whitehall, where he was to remain as the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(foreign secretary?s historical advisor for the next twenty years \(p. 228\). Beck?s treatment of this internal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history is different from the rest of the book, as here we see him as an international rather than an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(institutional historian. This is particularly true when he reveals how Abadan was later seen in the context of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Suez \(possibly ?a cause and a dress rehearsal for 1956?: p. 233\) and its impact?especially in comparison to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the 1930s appeasement analogies used in 1956?upon Britain?s role in the world. Beck outlines the Abadan )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dispute which arose when Mohammad Mossadegh nationalized the Anglo-Iranian Oil Company in 1951, a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(move which resulted in the British evacuation of the refinery several months later, and then, two years later, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the M16/CIA operation to secure the overthrow of Mossadegh and install the dictatorship of Mohammad )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Reza Shah \(p. 195\). He explains that Butler was not allowed complete access to all the files of the FO, or to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(those of other departments that had played a part in the crisis \(p. 200\). What is especially fascinating about )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this section is the account that Beck gives of how important the Abadan episode was seen to be in Whitehall )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(itself, and how it reflected upon not only Britain?s Middle East policies and how policy was managed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(between departments, but also upon decisions about the use of force, the energy dimension of foreign policy, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and, of course, the American dimension to Western?and Cold War?policies in the region. He also points out )] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 19 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 117.6677 331.7095 123.6677 343.5895 ] >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 449.3357 291.1975 455.3357 303.0775 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 23 0 R >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Length 7030 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(how hard it was for the FO to drive policy in an area in which inter-departmental rivalries were necessarily )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(strong \(p. 207\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In the aftermath of the appearance of the publication within Whitehall, foreign secretaries and civil servants )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were quick to comment on both the episode \(with some deft buck-passing by retired civil servants\) and on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the reduced role of Britain in the world, and how this could be managed by better planning \(p. 223\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(However, Beck also demonstrates not only that the learning process that took place in Whitehall as a result )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the publication was ?influential only on the margins? \(p. 235\), but, more interestingly, adds a new )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dimension to how Whitehall, and the Foreign Office in particular, did not really know how to manage the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(downward spiral of British power in the world from Abadan, to Suez, and then to British withdrawal from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(east of Suez.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.971 Td /F3 14.0 Tf [(Lessons learned)] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.230 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(What does Beck?s volume add to the debate about how British policy was, or should have been, formulated )] TJ ET BT 34.016 586.974 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the 1960s and 1970s? Was the experience of the past considered to be a suitable form of training, or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.718 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(experience-building for civil servants? It is clear that the civil servants who were tasked with devising a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.462 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(strategy for the use of history in Whitehall were deeply divided amongst themselves on these subjects, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.206 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the reader?s conclusions have to be somewhat negative about the value of the Whitehall exercise and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 529.950 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(extent to which the efforts of those who were writing were seriously put to good use.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 503.694 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The arguments against ?bringing history in? were deployed at one time or another over this period. These )] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.438 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(included the time factor: those who had the influence did not have the time to do much background reading. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.182 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Further, there was an understandable interpretation of each current event as being unique, and therefore not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 460.926 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(subject to the use of analogies or perhaps even an understanding of what had happened earlier, and a sense )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.670 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by bureaucrats that the roots of an issue were not relevant. Departmental rivalries and boundaries, the extent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.414 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to which ministers could know about the work of historians, and the fact that there appears to have been very )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.158 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(little constructive sharing of files speaks volumes about the domestic and bureaucratic contexts of policy-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 403.902 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(making and analysis. Of course, civil servants have also to be aware of the political agendas of their current )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.646 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(elected bosses; this tension between the ?functional? approach and a ?political? approach to policy is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.390 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(impossible to avoid completely. The ministerial argument was a particularly interesting one?for historical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.134 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(research could indeed throw light on earlier political failures. But the lesson taken from this was that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 346.878 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ministers should not be allowed to see what had been done by earlier administrations, although the civil )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.622 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(servants of the Foreign Office got round this problem of informing their political bosses by arguing that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.366 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(there was a distinction between ministers reading old files, complete with the reflections and annotations of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.110 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their political opponents, and being allowed to read secondary material generated from the files.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 277.854 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(On the other hand, the arguments for continuity, for lessons to be learned, and for educating civil servants )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.598 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(about the past were also advocated. There were civil servants who saw that ?what goes round, comes round?, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.342 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and that analogies abound, especially in foreign policy decision-making, but also in areas in which large )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.086 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(amounts of public money are spent on high-profile projects. \(One hopes that this book, and the sources that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.830 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(refer to the difficulties of funding for the Festival of Britain are placed, perhaps in abbreviated form, on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.574 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(desks of those trying to manage and control expenditure on the current Olympics project.\) The fact that civil )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.318 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(servants were moved on to new tasks after only a few years meant that institutional memory was often weak, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.062 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and therefore resources needed to be made available to bring civil servants with new responsibilities up to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.806 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(speed on the context of their work. The past can, at first sight, seem a very distant place, and some did see )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.550 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that this issue had to be addressed and overcome. Indeed, every scholar and teacher of international relations, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.294 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(politics, and contemporary history in higher education will have experienced working with students for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.038 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(whom the Cold War is now little more than a historical curiosity, yet even a cursory examination of Beck?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.782 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(major case study on Iran reveals how regional policies are not susceptible to the division of history into )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.526 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sharp Cold War, and post-Cold War categories. Indeed, events in April 2007 show the extent to which the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.270 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(aftermath of British policy to Iran in the1950s still resonates in the region, while the Iraq dbacle cannot )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.014 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(begin to be understood without knowledge of what has happened there in the past.)] TJ ET endstream endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 26 0 R 28 0 R 30 0 R 32 0 R 34 0 R 36 0 R 38 0 R ] /Contents 25 0 R >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Length 7908 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It is clear that what was hoped by those who wished to develop the ?funding experience? was that they )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(would support and encourage greater ?wisdom?, rather than simply more ?background facts?: ?wisdom? in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(civil servants should mean genuine flexibility based upon knowledge that extends beyond the latest )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(memorandum. This would mean that policy-making would neither be a predictable and unimaginative )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(display of institutional path-dependency, nor would officials think that every crisis or episode was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(completely unique and without precedent \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 239.648 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 239.648 711.795 m 245.648 711.795 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 245.648 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 686.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The other big issues that Beck raises, albeit without very much discussion as they are beyond the specific )] TJ ET BT 34.016 672.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(remit of the book, are those that relate to how much the general public should be told about the workings of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 658.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(government; and the quantity of materials that should be made available to scholarly researchers. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(framework of both these topics has changed with the introduction of the Freedom of Information Act. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(However, Beck shows that there are a number of general issues that preoccupied senior civil servants from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the 1950s onwards and which are still germane.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 589.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(On the issue of official histories, it is clear that the intention was as much to ?set the record straight? in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 575.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interests of the country, as to explore and admit to the mistakes and disasters that often befall policy-makers )] TJ ET BT 34.016 560.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and their political bosses. This purpose underlay the wartime history project. For many within Whitehall, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 546.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(purpose of official histories was also more pragmatic, and was intended to pre-empt demands for greater )] TJ ET BT 34.016 532.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(access to primary, archival sources, while generating an authoritative account of British policy that was not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 518.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(written from the records of other states. This explains in part why official histories have sometimes had a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 503.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rough ride before they have been published \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 248.960 503.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 248.960 502.467 m 254.960 502.467 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 254.960 503.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\). Yet it is clear that official histories do have a part to play in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(defining an authoritative, but relatively impartial, narrative on key issues. A scholar is chosen, vetted, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(then funded. That scholar will have the right to see virtually all relevant documentation, but then can only )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(publish after agreement within Whitehall. This can be seen as the gilded cage for the scholar who is writing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on a theme chosen by the state \(histories on MI5 and MI6 have been most recently commissioned\) and who )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(may then be censored by the state. On the other hand, it is an opportunity for a distinguished scholar to write )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(at length on a subject of her or his expertise, using some material that is inaccessible to other scholars \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 528.608 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(5)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 528.608 416.931 m 534.608 416.931 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 534.608 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\). So )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the problem seems essentially to be how a balance can be struck between allowing official historians full and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unrestricted access to documents, and encouraging the oral testimony of those who were involved, while, at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the same time, not allowing the historians to be too devastating in their critiques in a way that might )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(undermine party politics, key individuals in Whitehall, or the interests of the government on the national or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(international stage. In practice, it would seem that full access is often not given, or not sought. Professor )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Alan Milward?s official history neither uses intelligence material \(whether this would have added to his rich )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(narrative thus remains unknown\), nor interviews \(although the passage of time since 1963 might make this a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(less important dimension, and of course the eagerly-awaited second volume may have such testimony\) \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 533.600 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(6)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 533.600 302.883 m 539.600 302.883 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 539.600 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(However, the pressure for releases continued apace. Indeed, ironically, it is those who have been in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(government, either as politicians or as civil servants, who now appear to present the greatest challenges to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(keeping knowledge about the workings of government under wraps. It was the access that Sir Anthony Eden )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(had to records for his volume of memoirs, )] TJ ET BT 238.988 235.253 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Full Circle)] TJ ET BT 291.992 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, that stimulated the access debate in the 1960s \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 523.292 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(7)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 523.292 233.859 m 529.292 233.859 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 529.292 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Indeed, the politician who took the greatest liberties in demanding and getting access to the primary record )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for his own historical work was, of course, Sir Winston Churchill, whose relationship with documents has )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(been brilliantly charted by Professor David Reynolds \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 296.312 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(8)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 296.312 191.091 m 302.312 191.091 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 302.312 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\). Today, we witness the skills of Sir Christopher )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Meyer, former UK ambassador to the US, in getting his memoir account to press; yet we also know of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(failure of the UK ambassador to the UN at the time of the invasion of Iraq, Sir Jeremy Greenstock, to secure )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(clearance for his publication on an issue of burning national and international importance \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 469.604 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 469.604 148.323 m 475.604 148.323 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 475.604 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\).)] TJ ET endstream endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 27 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 239.6477 712.1095 245.6477 723.9895 ] >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 29 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 248.9597 502.7815 254.9597 514.6615 ] >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 31 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 528.6077 417.2455 534.6077 429.1255 ] >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 33 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 533.5997 303.1975 539.5997 315.0775 ] >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 35 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 523.2917 234.1735 529.2917 246.0535 ] >> endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 36 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 37 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 296.3117 191.4055 302.3117 203.2855 ] >> endobj 37 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 38 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 39 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 469.6037 148.6375 475.6037 160.5175 ] >> endobj 39 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 40 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 42 0 R 44 0 R 46 0 R 48 0 R 50 0 R 52 0 R 54 0 R 56 0 R 58 0 R 60 0 R 62 0 R 64 0 R ] /Contents 41 0 R >> endobj 41 0 obj << /Length 8182 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It seems obvious that the trend to greater transparency will and must continue?unpleasant intimations about )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(future restrictions upon the Freedom of Information Act notwithstanding. In a high-tech world, the capacity )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of governments to block access to information from abroad is relatively limited. Of course, the other way to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(promote secrecy is not to keep a proper paper trail. This may seem attractive, but it is actually dangerous, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(naturally for the citizens of a democracy, but also for civil servants themselves, who know that the accurate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(recording events can actually protect them too.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 686.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(So the core arguments in favour of access to records remain persuasive: if we do not record our history, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 672.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(others will do it for us. The history of our public policy is our history, and its ownership should not be over-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 658.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mediated by officials with their own complex agendas. The civil servants themselves need to remain one )] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(step ahead, and to know about the broader historical context in which they are operating, but the ?funding )] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(experience? was not very effective in the postwar years as senior civil servants failed to put to best )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pedagogical use the historical output of a succession of historians who were writing about important topics )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of enduring policy significance. The implications of his book for policy-makers and for the public remain as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(important today as they were in the decades that followed the Second World War.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 552.243 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 521.626 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 521.621 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(C. O?Neill, )] TJ ET BT 122.012 521.621 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Britain?s Entry into the European Community: Report on the Negotiations of 1970?1972)] TJ ET BT 64.016 507.365 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Frank Cass, 2000\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 158.672 507.365 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 158.672 505.971 m 212.660 505.971 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 493.114 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 493.109 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The list of internal histories remains classified, although )] TJ ET BT 336.992 493.109 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Abadan)] TJ ET BT 374.324 493.109 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, an internal history on Katyn, and )] TJ ET BT 64.016 478.853 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Con O?Neill?s have been made public.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 251.312 478.853 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 251.312 477.459 m 305.300 477.459 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 464.602 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 464.597 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The ?History and Policy? website at )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 240.656 464.597 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.historyandpolicy.org/)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 240.656 463.203 m 401.324 463.203 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 404.324 464.597 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET BT 418.316 464.597 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( contains a number of very )] TJ ET BT 64.016 450.341 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interesting and succinct examples of how a greater depth of historical understanding of the past can )] TJ ET BT 64.016 436.085 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(throw contemporary policy-making into a new and different light.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 380.300 436.085 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 380.300 434.691 m 434.288 434.691 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 421.834 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 421.829 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It was a missed opportunity for Beck not to include a full list of the official histories in the book, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 407.573 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(although the Treasury Historical Memoranda are listed.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 330.296 407.573 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 330.296 406.179 m 384.284 406.179 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 393.322 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(5.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 393.317 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The official history of Desmond Morton was, however, written from inside Whitehall by Gill Bennett, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 379.061 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the then Chief Historian of the FCO, from 1995?2005: )] TJ ET BT 328.664 379.061 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Churchill?s Man of Mystery: Desmond Morton )] TJ ET BT 64.016 364.805 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(and the World of Intelligence)] TJ ET BT 204.668 364.805 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Routledge, 2007\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 297.992 364.805 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 297.992 363.411 m 351.980 363.411 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 350.554 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(6.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 350.549 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A. S. Milward, )] TJ ET BT 138.680 350.549 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The United Kingdom and the European Community: Volume I: The Rise and Fall of a )] TJ ET BT 64.016 336.293 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(National Strategy, 1945?1963)] TJ ET BT 209.024 336.293 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Frank Cass, 2002\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 306.680 336.293 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 306.680 334.899 m 360.668 334.899 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 322.042 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(7.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 322.037 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sir A. Eden, Earl of Avon, )] TJ ET BT 194.996 322.037 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Full Circle: the Memoirs of the Rt. Hon. Sir Anthony Eden)] TJ ET BT 476.312 322.037 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Cassell, 1960\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 64.016 307.781 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(7\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 306.387 m 118.004 306.387 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 293.530 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(8.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 293.525 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(D. Reynolds, )] TJ ET BT 130.016 293.525 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(In Command of History: Churchill fighting and writing the Second World War)] TJ ET BT 507.692 293.525 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Allen )] TJ ET BT 64.016 279.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lane, 2004\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 125.000 279.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(8\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 125.000 277.875 m 178.988 277.875 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 265.018 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 265.013 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(C. Meyer, )] TJ ET BT 115.340 265.013 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(DC Confidential: the Controversial [sic] Memoirs of Britain?s Ambassador to the US at )] TJ ET BT 64.016 250.757 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(the Time of 9/11 and the Iraq War)] TJ ET BT 228.344 250.757 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 2004\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 386.984 250.757 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(9\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 386.984 249.363 m 440.972 249.363 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 224.501 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 210.245 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(oxford journals)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 195.989 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://ehr.oxfordjournals.org/content/CXXIII/501/528.full)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 194.595 m 312.332 194.595 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 315.332 195.989 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 191.263 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 173.483 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 173.483 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/614)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 172.089 m 322.316 172.089 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 147.112 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 132.712 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/4073)] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.312 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.historyandpolicy.org/)] TJ ET BT 34.016 103.912 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3] http://ehr.oxfordjournals.org/content/CXXIII/501/528.full)] TJ ET endstream endobj 42 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 43 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 158.6717 506.2855 212.6597 518.1655 ] >> endobj 43 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 44 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 45 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 251.3117 477.7735 305.2997 489.6535 ] >> endobj 45 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 46 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 47 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 240.6557 463.5175 401.3237 475.3975 ] >> endobj 47 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.historyandpolicy.org/) >> endobj 48 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 49 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 380.2997 435.0055 434.2877 446.8855 ] >> endobj 49 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 50 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 51 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 330.2957 406.4935 384.2837 418.3735 ] >> endobj 51 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 52 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 53 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 297.9917 363.7255 351.9797 375.6055 ] >> endobj 53 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 54 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 55 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 306.6797 335.2135 360.6677 347.0935 ] >> endobj 55 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 56 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 57 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 64.0157 306.7015 118.0037 318.5815 ] >> endobj 57 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 58 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 59 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 124.9997 278.1895 178.9877 290.0695 ] >> endobj 59 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 60 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 61 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 386.9837 249.6775 440.9717 261.5575 ] >> endobj 61 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 62 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 63 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 194.9095 312.3317 206.7895 ] >> endobj 63 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://ehr.oxfordjournals.org/content/CXXIII/501/528.full) >> endobj 64 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 65 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 172.4035 322.3157 184.2835 ] >> endobj 65 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/614) >> endobj xref 0 66 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000356 00000 n 0000000393 00000 n 0000000599 00000 n 0000000681 00000 n 0000003375 00000 n 0000003484 00000 n 0000003594 00000 n 0000003703 00000 n 0000007264 00000 n 0000007392 00000 n 0000007476 00000 n 0000007541 00000 n 0000014460 00000 n 0000014551 00000 n 0000022995 00000 n 0000023123 00000 n 0000023159 00000 n 0000023287 00000 n 0000023323 00000 n 0000023388 00000 n 0000030471 00000 n 0000030597 00000 n 0000038558 00000 n 0000038686 00000 n 0000038722 00000 n 0000038850 00000 n 0000038886 00000 n 0000039014 00000 n 0000039050 00000 n 0000039178 00000 n 0000039214 00000 n 0000039342 00000 n 0000039378 00000 n 0000039506 00000 n 0000039542 00000 n 0000039670 00000 n 0000039706 00000 n 0000039867 00000 n 0000048102 00000 n 0000048230 00000 n 0000048266 00000 n 0000048394 00000 n 0000048430 00000 n 0000048558 00000 n 0000048642 00000 n 0000048770 00000 n 0000048806 00000 n 0000048934 00000 n 0000048970 00000 n 0000049098 00000 n 0000049134 00000 n 0000049262 00000 n 0000049298 00000 n 0000049425 00000 n 0000049461 00000 n 0000049589 00000 n 0000049625 00000 n 0000049753 00000 n 0000049789 00000 n 0000049916 00000 n 0000050025 00000 n 0000050153 00000 n trailer << /Size 66 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 50248 %%EOF