%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 18 0 R 24 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140417165044+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140417165044+01'00') /Title (The Origins of Beowulf: From Vergil to Wiglaf) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4513 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(The Origins of Beowulf: From Vergil to Wiglaf)] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Beowulf)] TJ ET BT 73.352 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is an anonymous Old English poem about a hero from Geatland \(in modern Sweden\) who travels to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Denmark where he kills man-eating monsters, and who, in later life, back home in Sweden, confronts and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(kills a fire-breathing dragon, but dies in the effort. In spite of its fairy-tale subject, the poem has attracted )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(serious scholarly interest for nearly two hundred years. But since, like most Old English poetry, it carries no )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(overt indication of where or when it was composed, or by whom, its origins have always attracted )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(speculation. The framework within which the speculation can be conducted is that, on one hand, one of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(characters in the poem \(Hygelac, the king of the Geats\) can be identified with a warlord mentioned by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Gregory of Tours who invaded Francia and was killed there c.520, and, on the other, that the poem is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(preserved in a single manuscript written within a few years of 1000. Most students of the poem opt for a date )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the eighth, ninth or tenth century, and do not attempt greater precision. But since there is no agreed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(evidence indicating where, let alone by whom, the poem was composed, there has never been a shortage of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(crackpot theories about its origins, such as those by A.S. Cook, who assigned )] TJ ET BT 408.320 102.251 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Beowulf)] TJ ET BT 447.656 102.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( to the court of King )] TJ ET BT 34.016 87.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Aldfrith of Northumbria \(d. 706\), or by D.R. Howlett, who argued that the poet has encoded his name in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lines 887?8 \(?under harne )] TJ ET BT 161.312 73.739 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(stan)] TJ ET BT 182.648 73.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( / )] TJ ET BT 191.984 73.739 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(el)] TJ ET BT 215.984 73.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(inges bearn?\) and was to be identified as the thelstan who was a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 59.483 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(priest in the service of King Alfred, with 887?8 representing the years in which he composed the poem; or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(617)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Tuesday, 31 July, 2007)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Richard North)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780199206612)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2007)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(65.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(400pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oxford University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://ukcatalogue.oup.com/product/9780199206612.do)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oxford)] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.579 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Michael Lapidge)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 8395 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by K.S. Kiernan, who, in violation of the palaeographical dating of the unique manuscript, argued that it was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(composed during the reign of King Cnut \(1016?35\), when its Danish subject-matter would have found a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(receptive audience in England. But Richard North?s recent book is the mother of all crackpot theories.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The cornerstone of North?s theory is an apparent coincidence of names: that, at the end of )] TJ ET BT 468.908 741.701 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Beowulf)] TJ ET BT 508.244 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, old King )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Beowulf is killed by a fiery dragon, but before he expires he manages to consign his kingdom to a young )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(kinsman named Wiglaf. North begins with the fact that, in 825, a king of Mercia named Beornwulf was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(killed in battle with the East Angles \(but note: the name ?Beornwulf? is philologically distinct from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?Beowulf?\), and within a couple of years one Wiglaf became king of Mercia \(827\), a successor of sorts to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Beornwulf \(it is inconvenient that Beornwulf was in fact succeeded not by Wiglaf but by one Ludeca, who )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was killed soon afterwards\). It is North?s argument that )] TJ ET BT 303.968 656.165 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Beowulf)] TJ ET BT 343.304 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( may be read as ?an Anglo-Saxon roman )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(clef? \(p. 294\) on the succession of Mercian kings in the late-eighth and early-ninth centuries, focussed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(principally on Kings Offa, Cenwulf, Beornwulf, and Wiglaf. Now in the poem there is indeed a character )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(named Offa \(who is in fact a king of Angeln in Denmark\), and, as we have seen, a character named Wiglaf. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Beornwulf, who in real life is not known to have killed either man-eating monsters or dragons, is supposed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to be represented by Beowulf, and Cenwulf by the character Hygelac. According to North, )] TJ ET BT 471.572 584.885 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Beowulf)] TJ ET BT 510.908 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(composed in 826?7, shortly after Beornwulf?s death, and he situates its composition in the Mercian minster )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of Breedon, and suggests that the abbot of Breedon at about this time, one Eanmund, was the author of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(poem. In order to give substance to these \(apparently preposterous\) identifications, North is obliged to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(provide a detailed analysis of early-ninth-century Mercian history. Herein lies the potential interest of his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(book for readers of )] TJ ET BT 128.648 513.605 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 219.308 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Unfortunately, ninth-century Mercian regnal succession is little more than a list of names because, leaving )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(aside the )] TJ ET BT 79.340 473.093 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Anglo-Saxon Chronicle)] TJ ET BT 192.332 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, there are no pre-Conquest narrative sources to speak of. North therefore )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(turns to the evidence of Mercian charters. Basing himself principally on Simon Keynes?s )] TJ ET BT 465.284 458.837 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Atlas of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Attestations)] TJ ET BT 90.692 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, North attempts to deduce kinship affiliations from recurring name-elements in the witness-lists )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of Mercian charters. For example, he deduces that ealdormen named Beornheard and Beornnoth must be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(kinsmen of King Beornwulf \(pp. 272?4\); from Worcestershire place-names which have the same elements )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(such as ?Barnesleyhall? from OE ?Beornoesleah?\), he then deduces ?a policy of territorial enlargement? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(into Worcestershire by the ?Beorn? kinship group, including King Beornwulf himself. He then notes that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?Burghal Hidage? reckoned the value of the territory of the Hwicce \(which corresponds roughly to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Worcestershire\) at 7,000 hides, a figure which is quickly linked by North to the fact that Beowulf in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(poem was given 7,000 hides by King Hygelac \(p. 272\). Overall, however, North?s handling of charter )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(evidence fails to inspire confidence. He seizes on the names in witness-lists without ever asking himself )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(whether the charters in question are authentic ninth-century instruments \(or whether they are much later post-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Conquest forgeries, in which case the names may have been lifted, and corrupted, from earlier documents\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(He often misunderstands the language of the charters themselves \(as when he translates tempore clericorum )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ibidem degentium as ?at a time when degenerate clergy lived there? \(p. 273\): degentium simply means )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?were living? and has nothing to do with degeneracy\). He attempts to argue that Eanmund, abbot of Breedon )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the 840s, was a literate scholar, on the grounds that he allegedly drafted charters in favour of Breedon: )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?From the principle that the beneficiary drafts the privilege, it follows that the writing of these charters of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(840s was done or supervised by Abbot Eanmund himself? \(p. 327\); but the ?principle? is not one that any )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(student of Anglo-Saxon diplomatic could accept without qualification. A beneficiary )] TJ ET BT 444.296 202.229 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(might)] TJ ET BT 471.632 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( sometimes have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(been involved in the production of a charter, but such involvement is very far from being the general rule. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(North then turns to consider S 193 \(BCS 434\) which, since it includes a line quoted from Aldhelm?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Carmina ecclesiastica)] TJ ET BT 141.008 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, marks ?the draftsman as a poet? \(p. 327\); and since )] TJ ET BT 395.948 159.461 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Beowulf)] TJ ET BT 435.284 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( refers at one point to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Eanmundes laf \(?Eanmund?s legacy? [2611]\)?Eanmund was a Swedish warrior whose sword was handed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(down to Wiglaf?North hypothesizes that Eanmund was the author of )] TJ ET BT 366.632 130.949 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Beowulf)] TJ ET BT 405.968 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, and that ?Eanmund?s legacy? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(refers to the poem itself.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Another aspect of North?s reconstruction of ninth-century Mercian history which fails to convince is his use )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of post-Conquest narrative sources to supply details of family alliances lacking in the charters. The sources )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on which he most often relies are Thomas of Marlborough?s thirteenth-century )] TJ ET BT 416.276 61.925 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(History of Evesham)] TJ ET BT 510.932 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(which )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 6226 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(North quotes from the nineteenth-century Rolls Series edition, rather than from the recent Oxford Medieval )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Text by J. Sayers and L. Watkiss\) and the fifteenth-century pseudo-Ingulf )] TJ ET BT 390.944 782.213 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Historia Croylandensis)] TJ ET BT 503.288 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. Leaving )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(aside the doubtful value of such sources for the reconstruction of Anglo-Saxon history?I suspect that no )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Anglo-Saxon historian would be caught dead quoting the pseudo-Ingulf?it is worrying that North often fails )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to understand the Latin which he quotes, as when he translates a sentence from the )] TJ ET BT 433.268 739.445 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Vita duorum Offarum)] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(another post-Conquest text of dubious reliability\), prospere veneris, fili et gener as ?prosper from this, O )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(son and offspring of love? \(p. 236\), where prospere is an adverb, not an imperative, and veneris is the future )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(perfect of venio \(?opportunely you?ll have come, my son and son-in-law?\), not the genitive of the noun )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(venus; or when, quoting from Thomas of Marlborough?s )] TJ ET BT 310.316 682.421 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Vita S. Wistani)] TJ ET BT 381.992 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( the words Brifardum videlicet )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consulem \(p. 319\), he translates them as ?Berhtfrith the consul?, and then comments: ?with the term consul )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thomas presents Berhtfrith as one of two caretaker rulers, of whom neither is king? \(ibid.\)?as if the author )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were referring to the Roman republic, when two consuls were elected at the beginning of each year. In fact )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consul in Anglo-Saxon sources is simply a fancy word for ?ealdorman?, as H. M. Chadwick established long )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ago. If North?s use of historical sources is a pervasive cause of alarm, so, too, is his specious reasoning. One )] TJ ET BT 34.016 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(example will have to suffice. North wishes to situate the composition of )] TJ ET BT 382.316 596.885 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Beowulf)] TJ ET BT 421.652 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( at Breedon, as we have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 582.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(seen. But there is no evidence that Breedon in the ninth century had a library of any kind \(certainly no )] TJ ET BT 34.016 568.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(manuscripts written at Breedon survive\), and )] TJ ET BT 252.980 568.373 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Beowulf)] TJ ET BT 292.316 568.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is obviously the work of a Christian poet who had )] TJ ET BT 34.016 554.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(some knowledge of Latin texts, not least the Bible. So North must somehow establish that ninth-century )] TJ ET BT 34.016 539.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Breedon did indeed have a library. His convoluted argument occupies his chapter 6 \(pp. 157?93\), and runs as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 525.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(follows. An early-eighth-century scholar from Breedon, one Tatwine, refers in one of his poems to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 511.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(philosophia \(North misquotes the relevant lines on p. 177\), and some aspects of )] TJ ET BT 418.976 511.349 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Beowulf)] TJ ET BT 458.312 511.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( suggest that its poet )] TJ ET BT 34.016 497.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(had read Boethius, )] TJ ET BT 126.668 497.093 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(De consolatione Philosophiae)] TJ ET BT 271.328 497.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, so perhaps a copy of that work was available at Breedon )] TJ ET BT 34.016 482.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(the lines of Tatwine refer to philosophia, not to Boethius, and are doubtful evidence at best\); furthermore, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 468.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the )] TJ ET BT 51.680 468.581 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Beowulf)] TJ ET BT 91.016 468.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(-poet takes care to make a \(philosophical\) distinction between things perceived by the senses and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 454.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(things understood by the intellect \(pp. 173-5\), a distinction like that made in Cicero?s )] TJ ET BT 447.320 454.325 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Academica priora)] TJ ET BT 534.308 454.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 440.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(subsequently by Augustine in his )] TJ ET BT 196.352 440.069 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Contra Academicos)] TJ ET BT 291.344 440.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. Neither text was known in ninth-century England. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 425.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(However, Augustine?s treatise, as well as Boethius?s )] TJ ET BT 292.304 425.813 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(De consolatione Philosophiae)] TJ ET BT 436.964 425.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, are recorded as being )] TJ ET BT 34.016 411.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(present in the ninth-century library of Corbie \(in Picardy\). Now, North continues, the ninth-century )] TJ ET BT 34.016 397.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sculptured frieze at Breedon shows Carolingian influence; in particular, the design of one of the mounted )] TJ ET BT 34.016 383.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(spearmen in the frieze has a parallel in the so-called ?Corbie Psalter? of c. 800 \(p. 178\). North concludes in a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 368.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(specious piece of reasoning: ?Breedon?s carvings show that this minster looked up to what Corbie had to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 354.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(provide. The fact, therefore, that Corbie held the )] TJ ET BT 269.624 354.533 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(De consolatione)] TJ ET BT 347.948 354.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, )] TJ ET BT 353.948 354.533 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Contra Academicos)] TJ ET BT 448.940 354.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, and )] TJ ET BT 475.268 354.533 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Conlationes)] TJ ET BT 34.016 340.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(goes some way to showing that Breedon did also? \(p. 181\). How? Why?)] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 20 0 R 22 0 R ] /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 7768 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The logic which governs North?s treatment of literary parallels is equally specious. One of the texts which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Tatwine?who, as we have seen, was active at Breedon in the early-eighth century?knew well was Vergil?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Aeneid)] TJ ET BT 67.340 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. As various scholars have suggested, the )] TJ ET BT 266.972 755.957 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Beowulf)] TJ ET BT 306.308 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(-poet was also familiar with the )] TJ ET BT 460.952 755.957 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Aeneid)] TJ ET BT 494.276 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. But in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(order to strengthen his case for the composition of )] TJ ET BT 278.312 741.701 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Beowulf)] TJ ET BT 317.648 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( at Breedon, North evidently felt obliged to add to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the evidence for the poet?s knowledge of Vergil. Some of the parallels which he adduces are simply )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(preposterous, as when he suggests \(pp. 90-3\) that the old Danish king, Hrothgar, who in the poem gives )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Beowulf some spiritual guidance, is modelled on Vergil?s sibyl, who guides Aeneas through the underworld )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(it is worrying that he often misquotes Vergil during this discussion: note, for example, horridum stridens )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(misquoted from Aeneid VI. 288 on p. 93\). But the real problem is not with misquotation, but with North?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(special pleading, as when he argues that the )] TJ ET BT 246.968 656.165 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Beowulf)] TJ ET BT 286.304 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(-poet modelled his portrait of Hrothgar?s queen, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wealtheow, on Vergil?s Amata, the daughter of King Latinus. Thus he adduces as evidence of the English )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(poet?s debt the fact that at one point Wealtheow set out from her bower with ?a retinue of maidens?, mga )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hose \(924\), a statement which ?appears to owe something? \(p. 127\) to Vergil?s description of Amata in book )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(XI of the )] TJ ET BT 80.336 599.141 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Aeneid)] TJ ET BT 113.660 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, who was borne along ?with a great company of mothers? \(XI. 478: subuehitur magna )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(matrum regina caterua\). It is not clear to me why a model needs to be found for the English poet?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(description of a queen walking in the company of her hand-maidens; but in any case ?maidens? are scarcely )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the same thing as ?matrons? \(North quickly effaces the distinction by speaking thereafter simply of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?women?: p. 128\). I offer this example as characteristic of North?s tendentious arguments for the )] TJ ET BT 503.576 542.117 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Beowulf)] TJ ET BT 542.912 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(poet?s indebtedness to Vergil, and for his method of argumentation in general.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(When he confines himself to discussing the narrative of )] TJ ET BT 304.304 501.605 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Beowulf)] TJ ET BT 343.640 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, North is often capable of sensitive )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(analysis, as, for example, his discussion of the motivation of Queen Wealtheow in wishing to use her )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(daughter Freowaru to form a marriage alliance with King Ingeld, rather than with the newly-arrived Beowulf )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(pp. 101-10\); but even the value of this helpful discussion is quickly submerged in a sea of silly \(and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unnecessary\) hypotheses, namely that the )] TJ ET BT 235.976 444.581 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Beowulf)] TJ ET BT 275.312 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(-poet had access to an earlier, but now lost, Mercian poem )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on Ingeld and Freawaru, and that it was to this poem that Alcuin was referring when he admonished Bishop )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Speratus \(whom North, following a suggestion by Donald Bullough, identifies with one Unwona, bishop of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Leicester\) to keep Christian worship separate from pagan poetry, in the famous words ?Quid Hinieldus cum )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Christo?. The letter in which Alcuin refers to Ingeld contains alliterating phrases \(for example, paganis et )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(perditis\), from which North concludes: ?This alliteration captures the technique of an eighth-century )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mercian poem? \(p. 134\). \(It also captures the technique of Latin prose from its very beginnings, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(medieval Germanic verse written most anywhere at any time, but it is not in North?s interest to mention )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this.\) And since Breedon is in the diocese of Leicester, Alcuin must have been referring to the \(entirely )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hypothetical\) eighth-century poem on Ingeld which, on North?s wild interpretation of the evidence, was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(subsequently used by the poet of )] TJ ET BT 194.000 302.021 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Beowulf)] TJ ET BT 233.336 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(One?s overall impression of this book is deep disappointment: that a scholar so evidently familiar with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Beowulf)] TJ ET BT 73.352 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, and possessed of wide-ranging \(if not always accurate\) learning, should spawn hypothesis upon )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hypothesis without ever taking the trouble to subject these hypotheses to common sense. One can only )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wonder about the process, and the readers? reports, by which such a book came to be accepted for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(publication by the Oxford University Press. Because of the outrageous and uncontrolled nature of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(speculation which it contains, )] TJ ET BT 179.672 204.485 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Origins of Beowulf)] TJ ET BT 292.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is, in this reviewer?s opinion, unlikely to have any )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(impact whatsoever on the field of Anglo-Saxon studies.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(oxford journals)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://res.oxfordjournals.org/content/59/238/134.full)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 134.067 m 285.680 134.067 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 288.680 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 130.735 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 112.955 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 112.955 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/617)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 111.561 m 322.316 111.561 l S endstream endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 134.3815 285.6797 146.2615 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://res.oxfordjournals.org/content/59/238/134.full) >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 23 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 111.8755 322.3157 123.7555 ] >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/617) >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 25 0 R >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Length 327 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 784.354 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 769.954 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/4113)] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.554 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://res.oxfordjournals.org/content/59/238/134.full)] TJ ET endstream endobj xref 0 26 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000349 00000 n 0000000386 00000 n 0000000555 00000 n 0000000637 00000 n 0000005202 00000 n 0000005311 00000 n 0000005421 00000 n 0000005530 00000 n 0000009091 00000 n 0000009219 00000 n 0000009303 00000 n 0000009368 00000 n 0000017816 00000 n 0000017881 00000 n 0000024160 00000 n 0000024251 00000 n 0000032072 00000 n 0000032199 00000 n 0000032304 00000 n 0000032432 00000 n 0000032527 00000 n 0000032592 00000 n trailer << /Size 26 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 32971 %%EOF