%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 18 0 R 20 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140722062507+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140722062507+01'00') /Title (Crowds and Popular Politics in Early Modern England) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4242 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Crowds and Popular Politics in Early Modern England)] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This collection of essays is the latest contribution to the series published by Manchester University Press )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which focuses on the interactions, interconnections, and challenges between politics, culture, and society in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(early-modern Britain. The author, John Walter, has over the last twenty years or so established himself as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(one of the most perceptive historians researching in the broad fields of popular politics, crowds, and riots. In )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his introduction, Walter provides an historiographical overview for the study of popular politics in early-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(modern England. The starting-point was the belief that most popular protest in early-modern England was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(small-scale and endemic and, as such, required little in the way of explanation. Popular protest, it was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(argued, had its roots in the social and economic changes of the period and was, politically, virtually )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(powerless. Lives were dominated by the continuous struggle for subsistence and, for most, political matters )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(scarcely existed. However, in the late 1960s new studies emerged with the common core that there was a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(politics to rebellion. Anxious to avoid the dreadful fate awaiting rebels, Church and state promoted a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?culture of obedience?. Yet there was an insistence by some historians \(most notably M. E. James\) that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 87.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rebellion could only be fully understood in the context of a political culture and the range of institutions and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sources required for the reconstruction of that culture. The 1970s witnessed the next stage in a changing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 59.483 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(understanding with ?the crowd in history?. Charles Tilly and others vested crowds, composed of respectable )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(618)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Tuesday, 31 July, 2007)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(John Walter)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780719074752)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2006)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(55.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(256pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Manchester University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.manchesteruniversitypress.co.uk/catalogue/book.asp?id=1157)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Manchester)] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.579 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Keith Lindley)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 6142 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(figures, with a sense of purpose and rationality, replacing the slum-dwellers and criminals of myth. To this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was added the emergence of class-consciousness as an essential element in the beliefs of the crowd and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(labelling of earlier stages as ?pre-modern?.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It was at this stage that Walter began to make his scholarly presence felt. He began by developing an interest )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the study of lesser riots and popular disorders and how problematic sources could be interpreted. He was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fortunate in two respects?he benefited both from the influences of the new social history at Cambridge and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the interdisciplinary approach encouraged by his home university, Essex. His research led him to two early )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conclusions. Despite contemporary fears, work on the actual sources did not support the view that riots in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the period were frequent events. Furthermore, their regional distribution was uneven, as the study of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(geography of early-modern food riots has revealed?they were more frequent, but never common, in some )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(areas, and totally absent from others. Developing these themes, Walter has also gone on to challenge the idea )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that there was an automatic connection between economic crisis and collective protest. Instead he argues that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the key to whether or not grievances led to collective protest is to be found in popular beliefs, attitudes, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(expectations, and the experience of change. It was the very effectiveness in securing concessions and redress )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that made the resort to popular protest an exceptional event.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(One of the major themes developed in the essays is that crowd actions were by their very nature political, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and that they need to be viewed and understood in the context of a popular political culture. Monarchs, only )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(too aware of their own limitations when it came to coercing or repressing unruly or rebellious subjects, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sought to head off the threat of popular disorder by endeavouring to police social and economic change. This )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(they did in a public manner when they espoused policies to protect their subjects, especially the weak and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(poor, and thereby secured popular legitimacy for their rule. Walter condemns the way in which some )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contemporary historians, as he sees it, have produced definitions of the political which restricts popular )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(politics to the realm of ?high politics?.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapter one examines popular culture and popular protest in early-modern England. England in this period, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(it is argued, was undergoing changes which, by the later-seventeenth century, had left about a half of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(population landless or land-poor. This in turn shaped the way in which the gentry viewed the poor in a state )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that possessed neither a standing army nor a police force. Faced with popular disorder, the gentry castigated )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rioters as the ?many-headed monster? or ?brute beasts? and denied the great majority of people both political )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(participation and political consciousness. However, Walter and others have challenged this view, reminding )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historians of the roles and importance of the ?middling sort? as voters, local office-holders, and other active )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(members of the polity. Recent studies of English rebellions make it clear that people of below gentry level )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were quite capable of developing their own leadership and infrastructure \(often based on their experience in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(provincial government\) and in the process proved themselves to be politically well-informed and articulate.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(More recent studies have focussed on crowds engaged in smaller-scale forms of collective action usually )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(termed ?riots?. These were riots against enclosure, the price and distribution of food, religion, and taxes, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(they could be regarded as being more frequent, more representative, and more contextual. However, a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reification of ?the crowd? probably encourages a tendency to see the people as fickle in their political beliefs )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and allegiances. In this context, the present reviewer and others have subscribed to the view that riots were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(essentially defensive and conservative events in which rioters did not express political feelings but drew )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attention to specific grievances of immediate concern, and that there is little to suggest any generalized )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(political stance. Thus rural riots were essentially non-ideological and non-revolutionary in character.)] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 7242 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The two most common forms of riot in the period were enclosure riots and food riots. In both cases, those )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(engaged in protest enjoyed a strong sense of legitimation as they took direct action. Protesters could draw )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(upon the central idea of the ?good king? who would not tolerate the oppression of his people. In enclosure )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(riots, rioters were keen to display themselves as obedient subjects rather than rioters. In the case of food )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(riots, whenever the harvest failed the government ordered the putting into effect of the requisite measures )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contained within the Book of Orders regulating the movement and market of grain. When food riots took )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(place those engaged could draw upon the notion of the ?just price? which gave the poor a form of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(preferential treatment in the market-place.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 658.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapter two affords an opportunity to provide a case study of two grain riots in the Essex port of Maldon, in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the crisis of 1629. Our knowledge of food riots, and their absence during periods of dearth, already owes a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(great debt to the earlier joint research of Walter and Keith Wrightson who have established that years of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(harvest failure in England in this period did not produce widespread food riots, and that when disorder did )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(take place it was ?largely confined to the weak points within an as-yet immature national marketing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(structure?. Furthermore, when the authorities did take action they did so with a surprising sensitivity. Riot )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was seldom a simple and unpremeditated reaction to hunger and starvation; it was often the culmination of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(earlier exchanges between the poor and the authorities designed to coerce the latter into taking remedial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(action on the former?s behalf.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 518.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(There were, in fact, two grain riots in Maldon in 1629. In March, over one hundred women and their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 503.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(children boarded a Flemish ship and forced its crew to fill their caps and aprons with grain from its hold. In )] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the following May, a much larger crowd, composed mainly of 200?300 unemployed clothworkers, again )] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attacked ships taking on grain. The essential background to the disorder was industrial depression and death; )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(an increase in the price of basic foodstuffs; and the extensive buying up of grain within Essex for export to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(European markets. In the first Maldon riot it was the failure of the government to take action against rising )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(food prices that prompted the action. Yet, in addition, some of the women, and their husbands, had already )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(earned local notoriety for being previously found guilty of a range of petty offences in the town. It is also )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(noteworthy that it was a crowd of women, for women were involved in almost every food riot in the period. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In the short term, the riot was successful in its aims and the main grievances were removed. Grain was to be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(kept within the local economy and purchased for distribution to the poor at favourable rates.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The second riot took place after a worsening slump prompted poor clothworkers to petition the authorities )] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and even to address the king directly. With no adequate response to their pleas, they resorted to direct action, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(boarding a ship taking on grain, assaulting the crew, taking away some of the grain, and forcing the ship to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(put to sea. This riot alarmed the government; a large number of people had been involved, nor was it just a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(matter of staying some grain, as some of the rioters had taken away a considerable quantity. Furthermore, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(property had been challenged when a house had been broken into. But utmost significance was attached to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the fact that this was a second riot, others might be about to follow and there were suspected )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(political/rebellious overtones. The government took firm action, arresting and interrogating alleged )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ringleaders and hanging four of them. Yet very few of them in fact ended up in court \(eight of 200?300 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rioters\). The government took swift reprisals in a show of strength, but also displayed mercy in the case of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(three of the prisoners.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A preliminary study of the geography of food riots during the years 1585?1649 is attempted in chapter three. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Yet this chapter fits uncomfortably into the structure of the book; it is only six pages in length and, ?because )] TJ ET BT 34.016 151.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of their number and detail?, there are no footnotes. From his research Walter has reached some familiar and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(important conclusions. Firstly, grain riots were generally geographically limited and mostly confined to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(years of crisis. Secondly, there were areas where food riots were noticeably absent as, for example, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(northern upland and the Midlands. However, in the latter case, disorder took a different form in enclosure )] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(riots. Larger urban centres were also generally free of food riots because the government took care to satisfy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their grievances. In contrast, grain riots were most likely to occur in areas bordering on traditional arable )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(regions which normally produced surpluses which went on to feed larger towns. Riots ensued when local )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(grain supplies were siphoned off to meet urban demand. However, urban demand provides only part of the )] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 7431 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(explanation and disorder was most likely to occur in two areas. The first was the small market and/or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(industrial centre which drew in grain from its rural hinterland, thereby easing its passage to the larger urban )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(centres. And the second was in areas of proto-industrialization in the countryside where grain often had to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pass through regions that were equally dependent upon imported grain but, faced with dearth, could not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(compete with urban demand.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapter four is a thoroughly-researched and incisive piece. Its subject is the Oxfordshire rising of 1596. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(precise nature and scale of the rising has been open to doubt, but Walter has been able to combine together )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(local and other forms of evidence which permit him to study the rising in its immediate context. As a third )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(year of harvest failure was being endured in England in 1596, there were the first rumblings of discontent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with talk of a lack of work and threats to knock down gentlemen and the rich. An Oxfordshire servant, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bartholomew Steer, put himself forward as the rising?s leader and, with three others, sought to rally local )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(support. In November, as the dearth continued to worsen, there were threats against enclosing gentry and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reports of procuring armour for one hundred men as well as artillery and horse. Once armed, the plan was to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(advance towards London where apprentices would be ready to join up with them. Steer and three of his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(supporters waited for two hours before they disbanded and were subsequently arrested by the authorities. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Walter devotes the rest of his chapter to explaining why Steer and his fellows failed.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The failure was not due to a lack of planning, but Steer might have misread the amount of discontent that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dearth and enclosure had produced. Those denounced by Steer and others were all recent enclosers in areas )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of Oxfordshire with a history of enclosure. If enclosure was a genuine grievance, therefore, other )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(explanations have to be found for the inactivity of the poor and the most important was the rising?s failure to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attract sufficient initial support. Both socially and geographically support for the rising was limited; there )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was no urban support, no gentry leadership, no clerical involvement, and, more surprisingly, no support from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the ?middling sort?. Few of Steer?s supporters had land and most were artisans or servants. Most were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(young and unmarried, and there were no women involved. The rising was prosecuted as treason for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(compassing to levy war against the queen, but no further details about the trial or executions have survived. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Yet the uncovering of the rising did have some positive outcomes; it encouraged the government to launch a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(general enquiry into enclosure and also to reform abuses in the grain trade.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapter five returns to a broader spectrum with an account of the social economy of dearth in early-modern )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(England. Walter argues that, by the middle decades of the sixteenth century, crises of subsistence were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(absent from the record of many regions of early-modern England and, after the mid-seventeenth century, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(even areas that had earlier experienced such crises were free of them. Furthermore, years of harvest failure )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were not marked by widespread and frequent foot riots, although there was a sharp growth in the proportion )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the population that could be described as ?harvest sensitive?. The authorities feared that harvest failure )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(threatened the very fabric of the social order. Yet improvements in agricultural techniques in the seventeenth )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century lifted population pressure on food resources and by the end of the century England had become a net )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exporter of grain. Walter accuses historians of exaggerating levels of poverty in the later-seventeenth )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century. So far as expenditure on food is concerned, it is suggested that it probably accounted for just over )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(one-half of the poorer households? expenditure and therefore would have allowed greater flexibility in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(face of harvest failure. In particular, there was the ability of poorer consumers to trade down to less )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(expensive grains and grow spring-sown crops of oats and barley. Communities most seriously hit by harvest )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(failure were those practising monoculture but fortunately much of English agriculture was mixed. Further )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(protection was afforded by the high numbers of both agricultural and urban workers who lived in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(households of their employers. Rural labourers might purchase grain from their employers, often at below )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(market prices, or negotiate forms of credit. The households of the gentry continued to give bread doles and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(other forms of relief against market failure until well into the eighteenth century. Other sources of help were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(charity, an observing of neighbourliness, toleration of local begging, and the continuance of informal relief )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(alongside of parochial levies.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The social impact of the English Civil War, and the extent to which it seemed to threaten social inversion, is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the theme explored in chapter six. Walter lays stress on the necessity to achieve a balance between those )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(changes that seemed to presage a social revolution and those which help to explain the failure of a revolution )] TJ ET endstream endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 22 0 R 24 0 R ] /Contents 21 0 R >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Length 6143 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(within the revolution. Thus the early 1640s saw widespread crowd action with the collapse of the personal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rule, the end of Laud, protests and demonstrations, and attacks on enclosures. However, the latter were not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(indiscriminate attacks on the landed classes but were aimed at those who were royal courtiers and others )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(who were behind the enclosures in fens and forests. The image of the king as protector of his people, and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(maintenance of social deference, also suffered. The civil war itself brought further violence as troops pulled )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(down altar rails and killed a Catholic officer. There were clubman risings in the mid-1640s, political )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(agitation in the New Model Army in 1647, and harvest failures in 1647 and 1649 from which the Levellers )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and Diggers might have hoped to benefit. There was an attempted cultural revolution, sects with radical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(social views too, and some limited opportunities for women. But the stress was on spiritual equality. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(political revolution saw the execution of the king, the abolition of monarchy and the House of Lords, and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(end of bishops, and it was accompanied by a moral panic. Yet leading radicals like the Independents sought )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(godly reformation and not social revolution. So far as enclosure riots in the 1640s were concerned, they )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(posed less of a threat than has been supposed. There was no general rising of the countryside and most riots )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were a continuation of an earlier tradition of rural protest. The Levellers gave only limited attention to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(enclosures, while the Diggers ignored the importance attached to common rights.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In his final chapter, Walter largely draws upon the previous work of James Scott and his delineation of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?weapons of the weak?. The first of such weapons was ?grumbling?, which was least likely to have left an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historical trace. Grumbling took place in unregulated venues such as the alehouse or at the bakehouse or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(market. Years of dearth undoubtedly led to increased grumbling as the poor called for contributions from the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rich and drew upon this weapon. Grumbling might in turn shade into ?cursing?. The ritual curse might be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(deployed against enclosers, middlemen, and those who refused requests for relief. It gained considerable )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(strength from the belief that God had given the poors? curse its power. The ?appeal? was a more formal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(negotiation and it might be made directly to named individuals or addressed to intermediaries such as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(neighbouring gentry or local clergy. A more formal weapon, and hence one which has left more historical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(evidence, was the ?petition? which might be made in person or in number. In view of the duty of crown and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(magistracy to prevent dearth, it comes as no surprise that petitions to authority were frequent in years of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(harvest failure. The last major ?weapon of the weak? was ?coercion? which might be delivered in person to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the subject of popular grievance or be drawn from a sympathetic audience or when deploying the ?crime of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(anonymity?. The text could be familiar and powerful such as ?necessity hath no law?.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This book will become required reading for those historians working in the broad field of early-modern )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(English social history. It will provide convenient access to some seminal articles and bring together the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(results of long-term sustained research. However, there are some criticisms so far as presentation is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concerned. There is no bibliography and two of the chapters have no references. I also wish that Manchester )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(University Press would provide footnotes rather than endnotes. Finally, the index is weak and generally )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unhelpful.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(h-net)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.h-net.org/reviews/showpdf.php)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 231.603 m 241.664 231.603 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 244.664 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 228.271 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 210.491 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 210.491 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/618)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 209.097 m 322.316 209.097 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 184.120 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 169.720 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/4115)] TJ ET BT 34.016 155.320 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.h-net.org/reviews/showpdf.php?id=13863)] TJ ET endstream endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 23 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 231.9175 241.6637 243.7975 ] >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.h-net.org/reviews/showpdf.php?id=13863) >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 25 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 209.4115 322.3157 221.2915 ] >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/618) >> endobj xref 0 26 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000349 00000 n 0000000386 00000 n 0000000561 00000 n 0000000643 00000 n 0000004937 00000 n 0000005046 00000 n 0000005156 00000 n 0000005265 00000 n 0000008826 00000 n 0000008954 00000 n 0000009038 00000 n 0000009103 00000 n 0000015298 00000 n 0000015363 00000 n 0000022658 00000 n 0000022723 00000 n 0000030207 00000 n 0000030298 00000 n 0000036494 00000 n 0000036621 00000 n 0000036722 00000 n 0000036850 00000 n trailer << /Size 26 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 36945 %%EOF