%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 18 0 R 20 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140417164614+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140417164614+01'00') /Title (Black Africans in Renaissance Europe) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 3939 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Black Africans in Renaissance Europe)] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This book might come as a surprise for non-specialists, since black Africans are identified with slave trade to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Americas, while the Renaissance is regarded as a purely European phenomenon, centred on a largely )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(homogeneous ethnicity. Neither of these assertions is true, and this excellent book helps to deconstruct such )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historical stereotypes. Europe received black Africans regularly and in significant numbers from the mid-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fifteenth century onwards. The Mediterranean was a cross-cultural and inter-ethnic space even before )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Classical Greece. The Renaissance reflected not only the rediscovery of classical culture, but also the influx )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of techniques and ideas brought by the Arabs. Intercontinental navigation revealed simultaneous processes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of cultural renovation, which helped to reshape Europe.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(At the outset of the volume, Kate Lowe defines the editors? key question: how were the main stereotypes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concerning black people established in this period? She provides several examples relating to the main set of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prejudices: the African was generally identified as a naked person who would mutilate his/her face and body )] TJ ET BT 34.016 75.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with scarification, piercings, and tattoos; he/she would be considered as carefree and characterized by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(immoderate laughter, unaware of his/her condition, lazy and sexually promiscuous, physically strong, a good )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(619)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Tuesday, 31 July, 2007)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Editor:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thomas F. Earle)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Kate J. P. Lowe)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780521815826)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2005)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(65.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(434pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cambridge University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.cambridge.org/uk/catalogue/catalogue.asp?isbn=0521815827)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cambridge)] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.323 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 271.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Francisco Bethencourt)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7276 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(musician or dancer. Lowe recognizes the existence of noble or ennobled black men in European courts, but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(she stresses the role of black people as a necessary counter-image in the construction of European whiteness )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and ?civilization? \(a notion coined in the eighteenth century\). This is a necessary starting point, although )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(some of the chapters develop a more nuanced vision of race relations in this period.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Anne Marie Jordan, for instance, has a fine chapter on slaves in the Lisbon court of Queen Catherine of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Austria, where mainly women and children of different ethnic origins were used as musicians, cooks, pastry )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chefs, housekeepers, pages, or servants in royal apothecaries, kitchens, gardens, and stables. Jordan points )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(out how white Moorish slaves were favoured because of skin colour prejudices, but black slaves were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(considered trustworthy for religious reasons. The black slaves were a sign of social prestige and distinction )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in a cosmopolitan court: this feature explains why Catherine spent so much money clothing and offering )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(them as exotic gifts to her favourite ladies and relatives in other European courts. The representation of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(small black slaves in the portraits of Iberian princesses, as in the painting of Juana de Austria by Cristvo )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(de Morais, reinforced their image as symbols of empire building.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jorge Fonseca presents the results of his research on sixteenth-century Southern Portugal, where he estimates )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a total of six to seven per cent of blacks in the population, mainly in urban areas, in contrast with the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Northern region, where blacks were scarce. His analysis of the perceptions of black people by Nicholas )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cleynaerts, a Flemish scholar who taught in Louvain, Paris, and Salamanca, spending several years in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Portugal as tutor of infant Henry \(the future cardinal and General Inquisitor\), is less convincing. The scholar )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is presented as an ?exotic visitor?, which is misplaced, since he belonged to the international Renaissance )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(elite who circulated between different European countries. Cleynaerts bought young slaves and taught them )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as assistants. His observation that they were like ?monkeys? \(meaning capable of imitating but not of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(creating\) is considered by Fonseca as a sign of the contrast between two societies, the Flemish and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Portuguese, the first unaware of black people, the second used to them. It is disputable that Cleynaerts? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(classification of the young slaves as ?monkeys? was his own, and not influenced by the Portuguese, but the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(implicit assumption that the Portuguese were less ?racist? than the Flemish is questionable.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Didier Lahon proposes an interesting analysis of the mixed confraternity of Nossa Senhora do Rosrio in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lisbon, which split into two branches of white and black members. The conflict that existed between them )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for more than one century, and the final victory of the white branch in 1646, is interpreted as a shift from a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relatively tolerant society, open to manumission \(one of the privileges of the confraternity\) and to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(intervention against bad treatment of slaves, to a more rigid and intolerant society in the seventeenth century. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The implementation of the obligatory baptism of slaves throughout the second half of the sixteenth century )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is also reconstituted in detail. The analysis of the impact of the notion of blood purity in Portugal is much )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(less convincing, with a deficient chronology and huge gaps, while comprehensive studies are ignored. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(idea that the Iberian Peninsula dealt with the presence of Moors, Jews, and New Christians as an anomaly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from 1350 onwards is simply wrong, as Maria Jos Ferro Tavares and Maria Filomena Lopes de Barros have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(demonstrated.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thomas Earle focuses his study on the work of Afonso lvares, a mulatto poet and playwright, cautiously )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(alerting the reader to the lack of evidence to prove that they were one and the same person. lvares is one of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the few mixed-race intellectuals in Europe in the sixteenth century. He wrote satirical poems and four plays )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(based on saints? lives, commissioned by the Augustinian canons of So Vicente de Fora in Lisbon. Earle )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discusses the quality of the plays and convincingly refuses the historical devaluation of the writer, who has )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(been seen as a minor disciple of Gil Vicente. A particularly interesting section concerns the polemic in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(satirical redondilhas between Afonso lvares and another poet, Antnio Ribeiro Chiado. lvares accused )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chiado of low birth and immorality. Chiado insulted lvares in racist terms, accusing him of being a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mulatto, son of a black woman, a slave freed by marriage. lvares underlined the nobility of his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(father?whose identity was never disclosed; it might have been Dom Afonso de Portugal, bishop of vora, in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(whose household lvares was educated. In his plays, lvares reflects the dominant anti-Semitic mood. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(There is sufficient material here for a deeper reflection on the racial prejudices of the Portuguese )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Renaissance society and on the conflicting mechanisms of social promotion among subaltern groups.)] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 7470 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jeremy Lawrence presents a very good overview of the Black Africans in Spanish literature, identifying the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(main ideas: dehumanization of slaves as chattels, defined by bestiality, nakedness, lascivious vulgarity, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(burlesque behaviour, pidgin language. He focuses his study on the ?habla de negros? enlarging the already )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(significant bibliography on the subject \(the crucial study by Paul Teyssier on Gil Vicente could have been )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mentioned\). The author selects less known texts and provides two excellent critical editions of pliegos in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(appendix. The originality and subversive meaning of the poems is brought out clearly in this chapter, since )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(they staged strong black characters with unconventional relations with white women. Baltasar Fra-Molinero )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is another author who has extensively written on blacks in Spanish literature, and has contributed to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(changing the field. He has shown how this marginal and neglected topic played an important role in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. Here he concentrates on Juan Latino, the only black Latinist, scholar, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and writer in the European Renaissance, who lived in Granada. He has previously pointed out how Juan )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Latino reflected on the black condition and refused a social hierarchy based on skin colour prejudices. Fra-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Molinero analyses now the poem )] TJ ET BT 196.328 613.397 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Austrias Carmen)] TJ ET BT 278.000 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, dedicated by Juan Latino to Juan de Austria after his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(victory over Morisco insurrection in Granada, known as the War of the Alpujarras \(1568?1572\). In the text, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Latino searched to establish the dignity of all black Africans, relating them to biblical Ethiopia and refusing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the idea of natural slavery. He imagines white people subordinated in Ethiopia \(a reversed irony\) and exalts )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(blackness in the final verses.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Debra Blumenthal addresses a very interesting issue: the role of a black African confraternity in Valencia )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(founded in 1472 by forty black freedmen that collected alms and negotiated contracts of manumission on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(behalf of their fellows in captivity. She knows the context of slave trade in Valencia well, the variety of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(black community in the town, and the functions of the confraternity \(?casa dels negres?\) as shelter, hospice, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and hospital. She analyses two cases of manumission, concerning Ursola and Johana, in which all the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(financial, juridical, and social difficulties are analysed, as well as the subsequent barriers to full integration.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Aurelia Marn Casares, who has written a very good book on slavery in Granada, presents here part of her )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(enquiry into free and freed black Africans in the region. She has identified most of their occupations: men )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were stable workers, esparto workers, smelters and casters in foundries, carriers and vendors of water or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(firewood, bakers, butchers, hod carriers, builders, diggers, pavers; women were housewives, farmers, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(embroiders, maids, taverns and inns employees, sorceresses. The author details the confraternities created by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(blacks and mulattos in Granada. The notion of blackness and the different types of black people do not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(become clear in this article, however, since in many cases Moriscos were considered black by the Christian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(population.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The ?Italian section? is one of the most interesting in the book. Paul Kaplan argues that Isabella d?Este and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Andrea Mantegna created a new iconographic type: the black attendant to a white European protagonist. In )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his opinion, Judith?s servant was depicted as black for the first time by Mantegna in a drawing from 1492. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As the author points out, this idea of displaying black servants to suggest the universal reach of imperial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(power had already been coined by Frederick II. Kaplan stresses the diffusion of this idea among European )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rulers, namely the Aragonese kings of Naples or the ruling houses of Ferrara, Mantua, and Milan, in which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(black servants were used as human accessories and depicted as such. The only problem in this stimulating )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chapter is the uniform definition of ?blackness?, while in several paintings \(see for example the )] TJ ET BT 495.260 206.741 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Allegory of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Virtue)] TJ ET BT 64.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( by Correggio\) there is a gradation of skin colour from black to brown.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(John Brakett suggests that Alessandro de? Medici, the first duke of Florence \(1529?1537\) was of mixed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 151.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(race, an illegitimate son of Lorenzo de? Medici, duke of Nemours and ruler of Urbino \(and a direct )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(descendent of Lorenzo ?il Magnifico? and Cosimo ?il Vecchio?\) and a peasant woman, a freed slave, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(generally considered as a ?Moor?, but now depicted as a Black African. The argument is based not on new )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(documents but on the analysis of the set of images of Alessandro de? Medici. The problem lies in the final )] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conclusion: the author considers that there was no intellectual racism in the sixteenth century, since the duke )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was murdered under the accusation of being a tyrant, but his racial status was not used in political debate or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in denigration of his memory, which proves the supremacy of the innate quality of princes. This is an open )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(issue: as the author mentions in his text, the duke was nicknamed ?the Moor? and ?the mule? of the Medici )] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 7155 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in his lifetime, which suggests a more complicated picture.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sergio Tognetti concentrates on the trade in black African slaves in fifteenth-century Florence. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(percentage of East European slaves in North Italian cities was quite important by the end of the fourteenth )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century, mainly in Genoa \(nearly ten per cent\) due to the Genoese trading communities in the Black Sea, but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the fall of Contantinople in 1453 ended this commercial exchange. The slave trade in black Africans spread )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(throughout the fifteenth century, replacing the previous trade. Networks also changed, from Arab merchants )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to Portuguese ones. This careful research, based on the account books of the Cambini bank, shows the value )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of slaves \(proving also how whiter skin was more appreciated than darker skin\) and the overwhelming )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(control of the market from Lisbon, confirming the role of Bartolomeo Marchionni as the biggest slave trader )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in those days.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The pastoral care of black Africans in Renaissance Italy is the subject of Nelson Minnich?s chapter. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(zigzag policies of the Popes from Martin V to Paul III is well documented, with successive bulls prohibiting )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the African slave trade \(1425\) and black slavery \(1462\), then allowing the trade with captive people \(1455, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1456, 1493\), and finally condemning the enslavement of native American people \(1537\), while the citizens )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of Rome were authorized to hold slaves \(1548\). The creation of black confraternities in Naples, Palermo, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Messina was a result of the activity of different religious orders among slaves and freedmen. The access of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(black people \(slaves and freedmen\) to the sacraments of penance, communion, and marriage is well )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(documented, while the ordination of black priests was very rare?one Ethiopian and one Congolese bishop, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(suggested by the Portuguese king in 1513, were exceptional cases.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Anu Korhonen addresses the crucial proverb ?washing the Ethiopian white? in Renaissance England. It )] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(became a metaphor for everything considered useless, irrational, and impossible. It was widespread in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(England, although the relatively frequent literary references to black people in literature were brief and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(stereotyped. Africans were explicitly related to apes, defined by unruly sexuality, a lack of reason, violence, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and ugliness \(English is the only language in which the same term, fair, is used for beauty and blondness\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Although Korhonen quotes an impressive range of sources, some of them from a very early period, it would )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have been interesting to establish the turning point of the process of construction and diffusion of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(stereotype.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lorenz Seelig studies the fascinating case of the ?Moor?s Head? produced circa 1600 by the Nuremberg )] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(goldsmith Christoph Jamnitzer. It shows the features of a young African with full lips, broad nose, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(curled hair, with a headband chased with eight ?T?s. It as a heraldic work of art representing the armorial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bearings of the Florentine Pucci family, coupled with the coat of arms of the Florentine Strozzi family. This )] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(splendid object, made of silver and rock crystal, is also a drinking vessel: the upper part of the head can be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(taken off, like a cover. Seelig relates the object to the German tradition of drinking vessels, the double sense )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the word kopf and the practice of drinking from human skulls \(relics of saints\), which is documented until )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the late-eighteenth century. He points out that, outside of the ecclesiastical sphere, profane drinking vessels )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were considered signs of moral decadence such as in the tradition of fools? head cups. Cups, jugs, or oil )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lamps were represented as black Africans \(Seelig indicates an early example from the workshop of Andrea )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ricci, circa 1500, with deformed face, open mouth, and protruding jaw to hold the wick\). But on the other )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hand, Seelig points to the statues or cameos of the black Venus and black Diana, or the dignified sculptures )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of black prisoners and ambassadors \(namely by Pietro Tacca, Pietro Francavilla, Francesco Bordoni, Nicolas )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cordier, Francesco Caporale\), relating to a notion of a rich Africa which contradicts the ideas of savagery )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and poverty. The only slippery moment in the article comes when Seelig points out a contradiction between )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the role of Roberto Pucci as commander of the order of Santo Stefano, responsible for chasing African )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pirates, and the attractive representation of the African head in his coat of arms. This is exactly the origin of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the fashionable heraldry of African heads in many medieval coats of arms in Europe, following the crusades )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the naval conflicts in Mediterranean.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jean-Michel Massing writes a fascinating article on the representation of lip-plated Africans in Pierre )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Descelier?s world map of 1550. In his typical manner of detective research \(perhaps inspired by the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(paradigma indiziario founded by Giovanni Morelli\), Massing shows the crucial meaning of two figures of )] TJ ET endstream endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 22 0 R 24 0 R 26 0 R ] /Contents 21 0 R >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Length 5472 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(black men with enlarged lips, placed in central Africa, sitting opposite each other, probably bartering a gold )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nugget for a flowery plant. He reconstitutes the first accounts of the enlarged lips found in different parts of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Africa, namely by Isidore of Seville, Rabanus Maurus, Vincent of Beauvis, and Alvise da Mosto. He traces )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the original image of the bartering scene, a woodcut from a Strasbourg edition of Ptolemy?s )] TJ ET BT 478.616 753.701 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Geography)] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(published in 1522. He rightly interprets the scene as an expression of the notion that ?such people? have no )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(idea of the true value of things. But it is at the beginning of the article, when Massing defines the circle of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cartographers in Dieppe and the powerful ship-owners like Jean Ango, who created huge friezes in his house )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and his chapel representing peoples of different continents, that the most interesting hypothesis of the book )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is produced. Massing sustains that Northern Europeans recorded in their drawings the features and material )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(culture of other peoples of the world \(Africans, Indians, or Americans\) with greater care than the southern )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Europeans, namely the Italians, who were looking for aesthetic solutions and became relatively blind to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rich variety of non-European people. This hypothesis requires further enquiry, but it raises a very interesting )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(issue, related to the idea of the art of describing studied by Svetlana Alpers for a later period, in seventeenth )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century Dutch Art.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The only problem of this book is the unbalanced space dedicated to Southern and Northern Europe. We have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(thirteen chapters concerning Southern Europe \(Portugal, Spain, and Italy\), and three about the rest of Europe )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(England, France, and Germany\). We already have a significant number of books and PhDs on black slaves )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and freedmen in Portugal and Spain \(Saunders, Tinhoro, Lahon, Fonseca, Stella, Martn\). We needed to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have more information on Northern Europe to understand how black Africans circulated and stereotypes in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this area developed. This would enable us to answer better the following questions: why was the theory of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(races born in Northern Europe from the 1730s to the 1850s \(Linnus, Camper, Cuvier, Gobineau\)? What )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were the precedents of that theory, not only from a colonial point of view, but also through an internal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(European dynamic of contact with African people?)] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(But we have to be fair with the editors of the volume: the books published on black Africans in Portugal and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Spain have not been translated into English and some of their main authors were invited to participate; the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(final result is a truly excellent, well illustrated set of chapters, which raise new issues and provide much )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(information and analysis.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(h-net-reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.h-net.org/reviews/showrev.php)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 345.651 m 240.992 345.651 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 243.992 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(amazon)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.amazon.co.uk/product-reviews/0521815827/ref=dp_top_cm_cr_acr_txt)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 317.139 m 435.056 317.139 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 438.056 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 313.807 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 296.027 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 296.027 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/619)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 294.633 m 322.316 294.633 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 269.656 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 255.256 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/4117)] TJ ET BT 34.016 240.856 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.h-net.org/reviews/showrev.php?id=11503)] TJ ET BT 34.016 226.571 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3] http://www.amazon.co.uk/product-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 212.200 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reviews/0521815827/ref=dp_top_cm_cr_acr_txt?ie=UTF8&showViewpoints=1)] TJ ET endstream endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 23 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 345.9655 240.9917 357.8455 ] >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.h-net.org/reviews/showrev.php?id=11503) >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 25 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 317.4535 435.0557 329.3335 ] >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.amazon.co.uk/product-reviews/0521815827/ref=dp_top_cm_cr_acr_txt?ie=UTF8&showViewpoints=1) >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 27 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 294.9475 322.3157 306.8275 ] >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/619) >> endobj xref 0 28 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000349 00000 n 0000000386 00000 n 0000000546 00000 n 0000000628 00000 n 0000004619 00000 n 0000004728 00000 n 0000004838 00000 n 0000004947 00000 n 0000008508 00000 n 0000008636 00000 n 0000008720 00000 n 0000008785 00000 n 0000016114 00000 n 0000016179 00000 n 0000023702 00000 n 0000023767 00000 n 0000030975 00000 n 0000031073 00000 n 0000036598 00000 n 0000036725 00000 n 0000036826 00000 n 0000036953 00000 n 0000037105 00000 n 0000037233 00000 n trailer << /Size 28 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 37328 %%EOF