%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 18 0 R 20 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20150825221743+01'00') /ModDate (D:20150825221743+01'00') /Title (The Emergence of a Ruling Order: English Landed Society 1650-1750) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4144 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(The Emergence of a Ruling Order: English Landed Society 1650-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(1750)] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(James M. Rosenheim is the author of )] TJ ET BT 215.336 266.195 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Townshends of Raynham)] TJ ET BT 356.336 266.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1989\) and a number of other studies of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(landownership and county government, with particular reference to the county of Norfolk. In this new book )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(he draws on a wide variety of printed primary and secondary sources in the hundred years after 1650. His )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(thesis is that from a situation of division and uncertainty which prevailed in the second half op the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(seventeenth century, the landowners emerged by 1750 as a unified elite, confident in their position as a body )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of "natural rulers".)] TJ ET BT 34.016 168.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The middle seventeenth-century hostilities and doubts which weakened landowners as a ruling order sprang )] TJ ET BT 34.016 154.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from a variety of political, religious, and economic influences: the civil wars and leveling threats of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 140.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1640s and 1650s; the deeply-felt doctrinal differences which set owner against owner and split families in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 125.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(two; and the problems which beset the country's economy, most notably the fall in agricultural prices and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 111.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rents. Added to these were the more slowly developing causes of concern: a demographic crisis which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(appeared to put the very survival of the lite at risk from a failure of male heirs; and social changes which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 83.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(threatened to undermine stability - such, for example, as manifestations of disrespect among the lower )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(orders, and even the growth of tea-drinking, which some held responsible for such untoward developments )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as a supposed decline in female beauty and the rather more certain agricultural depression of the 1730s and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(62)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Monday, 1 February, 1999)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(James M. Rosenheim)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780582087422)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1997)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(290pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Longman)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.pearsoned.co.uk/Imprints/Longman/)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Gordon Mingay)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 6977 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1740s.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The regaining of political control and the renewed social dominance of the superior landowners resulted )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from a discarding, or modification, of old views and practices, and also from a grasping of the opportunities )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for profit and patronage offered by the political and constitutional changes which followed the accession of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(William and Mary. The lite moved away from excessive partisanship in politics as well as towards a more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relaxed view of religious doctrines. The more influential landowners took advantages of their domination of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a Parliament which had gained extended powers, and they seized, and sought to retain, the advantages to be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(derived from supporting the Hanoverian monarchy; witness the guarded response of English men of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(influence to the 'Fifteen and the 'Forty-five.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(They also adopted a more detached view of their role in local and provincial affairs and became more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cosmopolitan in their life-style, traveling more, and becoming increasingly taken up by life in towns, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(particularly that in London. They continued, moreover, to withdraw from active estate management, leasing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(out their farms to large tenants whose tenancies were regulated by specially-appointed land stewards. Some )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(owners, however, assumed responsibility for encouraging agricultural improvement and were influential )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(advocates of new crops and novel practices. An old and continuing influence which served to characterise )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the landed lite was the sharing of a common classical education, the grand tour, and a common life-style )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which, when not diverted towards urban, and particularly London, diversions, revolved round country )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(houses, country sports, entertaining and being entertained. Often the differences in wealth and in life-style )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were emphasised by a growing physical separation, evidenced by the building of grander houses, isolated )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from the lesser country people by their exclusiveness as well as by great stretches of parkland.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In general, this argument, and its supporting evidence will not appear novel to well-informed readers. Taken )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(separately, the changes and characteristics that are elaborated in the book are familiar; it is the bringing of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(them together in a comprehensive, connected argument which is illuminating, shedding new light on the age )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as a whole.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(There are, however, a number of comments to be made. First, the argument is most valid when limited to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(landed lite. The author is necessarily concerned with the greater landowners \(including the greater gentry\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Necessarily, because it is their records which have most frequently survived and in sufficient quantity and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(quality for historians to have studied them. The minor squires, professor Rosenheim states, are discussed in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his book less than the greater gentry and nobles, 'largely because the former had a smaller part in ruling, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more significantly, in defining what rule meant and what a ruler was over the course of the period' \(p. 5\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Included in his argument, nevertheless, are those lesser squires who were Justices, or who managed to send a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(son on a tour of Europe, or who were sufficiently enterprising to find marriage partners for their offspring )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from among the prospects available in London or Bath. And even the squires of more limited ambition or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fewer contacts, he considers, were likely to be touched nevertheless by metropolitan influences.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This said, the discussion does concentrate, however, on the superior elements of the landowning class, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the reader may feel that the minor squire is neglected. There is also throughout the book a failure to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(recognise that the argument has geographical limitations - that it is considerably invalidated in some quite )] TJ ET BT 34.016 208.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(extensive regions by the nature of the landed society to be found there. In remote and isolated districts, such )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as large areas of Wales and parts of northern and south-western England, marked differences existed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(between the local squires and the bulk of English landowners. The persistence of regional differences was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(largely due to physical factors, especially primitive roads which made distance a discouraging and costly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 151.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(obstacle, an obstacle which prevailed even in parts of the home counties in winter-time. Such areas often )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exhibited differences, too\)in wealth, with even the best families subsisting on incomes which would not have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(supported the most modest country gentlemen elsewhere. A low level of wealth \(by national standards\) led )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of course -to differences in the way of life and in the scale of country residences, while remoteness from a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(broader culture fostered an enthusiasm for regional interests, as in the Welsh squires' support of Welsh-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(speaking poets and bards.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(There were of course, some important differences, if less marked ones, in the ranks of those who made up )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 7373 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the main body of the English gentry. While recognising that they had interests in common with the greater )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(landowners, the minor English gentry and country gentlemen perforce lived in a different way, and their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(perennial concerns were much more local in character. For many of these even a visit to the county town )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was a rare event, especially where a journey of as much as fifty miles was involved. A stay in London was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(such a rarity as to have the power of furnishing conversation for many years after. It is true, as Professor )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Rosenheim argues, that regular participation in the London season came to form a link between members of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the landed class, but this is true only of the wealthier ones. In practice it was a factor dividing the wealthy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lite from those numerous lesser owners who could not afford it, or who could afford it only occasionally, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Indeed, even in 1750, at the end of the author's period, landed society was more diverse and divided - by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(geographical situation income and life-style - than he appears to accept. And with the rise in aristocratic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wealth, made evident by great new country houses and extensive parks, as well as by the London season, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(gap between greater owners and lesser was made even wider. Differences in culture, again, were created by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the grand tour. Experience of foreign travel no doubt helped to provide a common background for those )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fortunate enough to enjoy it. But again it was often confined in practice to the eldest son only, and less )] TJ ET BT 34.016 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wealthy owners could afford a mere truncated version for their eldest sons, while the generality of owners )] TJ ET BT 34.016 582.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(could not afford it at all.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The author argues not only for the influence of London in creating a national identity among the lite, but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(also for town life generally as reducing the old identity with county affairs. One may have reservations about )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this when the argument is extended beyond London and the few major provincial-cities and spas Minor )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(gentry could, and did, take advantage of little-known local spas, of which scores existed - in Lancashire even )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wigan was in this age a place of resort. But many such spas and country towns had rather limited social life )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to offer at a time when their population was little more than that of villages today. Even some of the county )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(towns were far from impressive: Leicester, for example, had an estimated 6,000 inhabitants in 1700, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Northampton only 5,000 as late as 1750, and Defoe's 'antient, ragged, decay'd' Lincoln a mere 3,000 in 1705.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Yet another consideration is the increase in provincial towns, in some villages, and London too, of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(successful people from trade, industry, and the professions. True, some of the most successful of these )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(eventually bought an estate and country house, and in time became accepted pillars of the landed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(community. But not all wished to do this or could afford to do it. The capital cost of acquiring sufficient )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(land, and the low return yielded by the rents, combined to make other kinds of assets much more attractive. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The larger towns, especially if they were ports or centers of industry and trade had always been dominated )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by merchants and manufacturers, some of them men of great wealth. The incomes of urban grandees, indeed, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(could rival those of all but the greatest landed magnates, and in their own environment they were persons of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consequence Towns which were increasingly dominated by merchants, manufacturers, craftsmen, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tradesmen of all descriptions became more and more independent of, and alien to, country landowners. In )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(addition to major provincial centres like Bristol, Liverpool, Hull, Leeds and Birmingham, the centres of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cloth and iron districts and even the smaller country towns of the home counties were subject to similar )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(developments. By 1750 when as Rosenheim declares, the landed elite had regained the role of natural rulers, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(its hegemony was already under challenge from powerful mercantile and industrial interests And in less than )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a century the first reform of Parliament, modest and conservative as it was, began the process by which the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rulers of 1750 were to be swiftly superseded)] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In their landowning functions the changes in train among the in 1650-1750 were limited and far from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(complete. It may have been the objective of many owners to convert lands held on ancient, outmoded forms )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of tenure into rack-rented estates, but the obstacles to be overcome were substantial, The average duration of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a lease for lives may have been only some twenty years, but landlords who began a policy of refusing to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(enter new lives faced a lengthy period of diminished income as the periodical receipts of fines were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(foregone. Also involved might be a certain loss of local popularity and political support. At all events, lands )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(let on leases for lives and on copyhold tenure were still common in some parts of the country for many years )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(after 1750.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Even if it were fortunate to possess no such lands, the typical large estate, built up through marriage and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(inheritance, was scattered geographically and consequently was difficult and costly to manage.When the )] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 6804 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(landlord employed no steward, the work involved in looking after diverse and perhaps distant enterprises )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was substantial. For instance, the first Lord Ashburnham \(born in 1656\) possessed a variety of enterprises in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sussex as well as in Bedfordshire and Wales, but the press of business was so great that he could rarely find )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the time to visit his Welsh lands and coal mine. Subsequently, a succession of handsomely-dowried bride )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(brought more lands into the hands of Ashburnham's heirs, adding property in Suffolk, Dorset, Lancashire )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and elsewhere to the original nucleus. With such a degree of scattering and diversity the problems of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(management were so great that the appointment of a land steward, supervising a number of local rent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(collectors, was the only answer for an owner who valued his leisure and respected his social and political )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(responsibilities. But the creation of a management structure neither guaranteed the maximizing of income )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nor obviated the risk of fraud, particularly where the estates were so highly scattered that even a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conscientious steward could not visit every property at all regularly. Indeed, although the large estates of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(elite formed the basis of an impressive income and of political and social eminence they were far from being )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(always efficient economic entities.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As improvers, some owners \(such as the first Lord Ashburnham\) did take an interest in new crops, improved )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(farming techniques, and the development of mines, timber resources, and other enterprises on their estates. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(But the work of improvement was expensive, slow, and uncertain, and numbers of large owners showed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(little interest in it. Many of the agricultural innovations of the period, as Joan Thirsk has shown recently in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(her Alternative Agriculture \(1997\), were in fact undertaken by merchants, industrialists, farmers and other )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(enterprising individuals, as well as by landed gentlemen. And, of course, there were failures as well as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(successes, and in 1750 a great deal s-till had to be done to modernise the structure as well as the output of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(English farming.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Professor Rosenheim does not attempt to calculate the numbers of landowners who made up his ruling elite )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of 1750, nor the extent of their landed property, and indeed such calculations are beset by a host of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(difficulties and are bound to be imprecise. But it seems likely that the owners who made up his ruling lite )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(controlled less than a half of the country's agricultural land, perhaps considerably less than a half. Their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(governing role, in fact, was dependent on the acquiescence of the various elements which made up the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(governed: lesser landowners who largely dominated many individual parishes the large body of independent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(farmers and tenant-farmers who together with leading tradesmen and craftsmen and the parish clergy, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(worked the machinery of local government; the merchants, manufacturers, tradesmen and others who were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the ruling force in many country parishes as well as in towns; and the bulk of disregarded labourers rural and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(urban. It is this acquiescence which perhaps is more in need of explanation than that resurgence of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(landed lite which forms the core of this book. Acceptance of the ordered society headed by landowners, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(under attack at the beginning of the book's period, was again under attack less than fifty years after the end )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of that hundred years. Professor Rosenheim has given us part of the story here but not, it seems, the whole )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(story. The nation which the landed lite ruled was not divided simply into rural and urban: there were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(important commercial and industrial enterprises in the countryside, just as landowners owned valuable )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(property in towns. The structure of the national society was undoubtedly more complex than might be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(supposed from the argument here.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It may well be that the acquiescence of the nation in the rule of a landed lite was in some part due to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(intermeshing of economic and social interests, as when country squires risked funds in mills mines. shipping )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and other industrial and commercial ventures, and landowners in search of a handsome dowry sought brides )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(among the daughters of merchants and industrialists - and of course when men of new wealth looked to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(acquire country houses and estates.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(These are only some of the reflections about the nature of the England of 1650 and 1750 which are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(stimulated by this most interesting volume Its admirable scholarship, it wide range of materials, and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(importance of its argument make it a book to be read, and read again)] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 61.711 526.499 1.500 re S endstream endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 22 0 R ] /Contents 21 0 R >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Length 549 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/62)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 795.075 m 316.316 795.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 770.098 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.698 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/376)] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.298 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 23 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 795.3895 316.3157 807.2695 ] >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/62) >> endobj xref 0 24 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000349 00000 n 0000000386 00000 n 0000000575 00000 n 0000000657 00000 n 0000004853 00000 n 0000004962 00000 n 0000005072 00000 n 0000005181 00000 n 0000008742 00000 n 0000008870 00000 n 0000008954 00000 n 0000009019 00000 n 0000016049 00000 n 0000016114 00000 n 0000023540 00000 n 0000023605 00000 n 0000030462 00000 n 0000030546 00000 n 0000031147 00000 n 0000031275 00000 n trailer << /Size 24 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 31369 %%EOF