%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 18 0 R 20 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140417055433+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140417055433+01'00') /Title (Psychological Subjects: Identity, Culture, and Health in Twentieth-Century Britain) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4162 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Psychological Subjects: Identity, Culture, and Health in Twentieth-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Century Britain)] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Psychological Subjects)] TJ ET BT 145.004 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( ?is a book about how twentieth-century Britons viewed both themselves and their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(world in psychological terms. It examines the extent to which psychological thought and practice could )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mediate not just understanding of the self, but also a wide range of social and economic, political, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ethical issues that rested on assumptions about human nature? \(p. 1\). There are three thematic sections to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(book, which also move the story forward in time, although there is considerable overlap between the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chronological boundaries of most chapters. The first part, ?Psychologies of the New Age?, explores the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 152.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(excitement surrounding the new possibilities of understanding human nature and character raised by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(psychology from around the turn of the century to the mid-1930s. Its chapters respectively tackle popular )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(psychological ideas and practice, academic and professional psychology, and the ?intellectual culture? of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(psychology. The second section, ?Problems and Prospects?, is concerned with how psychology attempted to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 95.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(respond to some of the major dilemmas raised by industrial civilization, and contains chapters on education, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(industry, and medicine and health. The substantive, although by no means exclusive, focus here is on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interwar years. Finally, the two chapters which comprise the final section, ?Ends?, focus on particular )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.355 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historical moments which could serve as ends to the story of popular enthusiasm and opportunity which has )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(621)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Friday, 31 August, 2007)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mathew Thomson)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780199287802)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2006)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(63.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(352pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oxford University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://ukcatalogue.oup.com/product/9780199287802.do)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oxford)] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.195 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Tracey Loughran)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7606 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(emerged: the Second World War, and the era of the permissive society of the 1960s and 70s.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(One of Thomson?s main aims is to move the history of psychology beyond the purely professional or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(academic, and to illuminate the breadth and depth of popular psychological understandings. The opening )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chapter, ?Practical Psychology?, is a vigorous induction. Practical psychology describes an almost )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bewildering array of ideas, techniques, and practices which shared an ?enthusiasm for psychology as a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(practical tool within regimes of self-improvement? \(p. 19\). A series of specific examples are discussed, each )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of which could easily fill a chapter of its own: Pelmanism, a system of mental training conducted via )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(correspondence course, which had enrolled 200,000 by 1915; the London Psycho-Therapeutic Society, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(founded in 1901, which sought to demystify psycho-therapeutic practice; and a variety of other local clubs )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which thrived throughout the interwar years. Practical psychology was anti-expert; it appealed to those with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ambitions of personal improvement and upward social mobility; it was characterized by a belief in the close )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interplay between body and mind; and it involved a reconfiguration \(not rejection\) of Victorian ideals of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(character, with a new emphasis on harnessing the subconscious for the power of good rather than repressing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(it, but an equally strong conception of the social, rather than purely individualist, self. The specific )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(techniques recommended to foster psychological health changed somewhat over the course of the opening )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(decades of the century, but a transcendent strain, a belief in the liberating possibilities of psychology to open )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(up a new and benevolent era, remained remarkably strong until at least the mid-1930s.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This chapter effectively sets the tone for all that follows, in terms both of topics and mode of treatment. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(argument is based on rigorous and impressive research using journals, magazines, books, clubs, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(advertisements, and so on, which will be unfamiliar to most historians of psychology. The psychologies )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(expounded in all these forums are not dismissed as mere quackery, no matter how nave or bizarre they )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(might seem, but analysed as important indicators of the mind of the age. In highlighting the vitality of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(popular psychologies, and the almost evangelical enthusiasm of their adherents, a portrait of early-twentieth )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century psychology emerges which is almost a reverse image of the Freudian-inspired introspection of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(elite Bloomsbury group. Designs for life which stressed self-improvement and social service were based on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a vision of the ideal, integrated self very different to the tortured and fragmented modernist conception: )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(abrupt shifts in ideas of psychological subjectivity were not the order of the day. Practical psychologies )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exploded from the ground up and sought to place power in the hands of ordinary people, rather than being )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(imposed from above by the stereotypical expert in a white coat.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The first impression on reading this chapter, therefore, is of its utter strangeness when set alongside most )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(extant histories of psychology. It would sit most comfortably alongside more recent work on the spiritualist )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dimensions of some early twentieth-century psychological movements, but it also deals with a far wider )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(terrain?venturing in its closing pages, for example, into the proliferation of women?s magazines, with their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(focus on personal relationships, in the 1930s. By the end of the chapter it is evident that the popular )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(psychologies discussed are central to understanding the place of psychology, in its broadest sense, in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cultural history of turn-of-the-century Britain. If this book gains the reception it deserves, future readers will )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not experience this sense of disorientation: for what has been achieved in this opening chapter, and is carried )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(through with appropriately scholarly verve to the close of the book, is a shifting of the entire )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historiographical terrain. This is, without question, the major achievement of )] TJ ET BT 405.644 218.741 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Psychological Subjects)] TJ ET BT 516.632 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As Thomson discusses in his introduction, the history of psychology is dominated by two interpretative )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(models. The first might be described as the ?psychological modernity thesis?. In this model, the reception of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Freud and psychoanalysis is the most important standard by which to measure the development of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(psychological thought, and British psychology emerges as generally resistant and backward. Despite some )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(excellent studies which have argued that psychoanalytic ideas reached a broader audience than is commonly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(assumed, this view still retains a strong hold, perhaps because, as Thomson suggests, it fits ?a more general )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(view that the British were reluctant modernists, culturally conservative, anti-intellectual, and resistant to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sway of ideology just as they were to theory? \(p.17\). The second model is inspired by Foucault: in this view, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(most powerfully argued by David Armstrong and then Nikolas Rose, ?psychological subjectivity is either )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(imposed on the individual through the discipline?s increasing influence as a tool of governance within the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(modern welfare complex, or is internalised in the individual through the growing influence of experts and )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 7099 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their advice in private life? \(p.5\). The history of British psychology emerges from this analysis as a dark tale )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of control, regulation, and the imposition of ever-tightening psychological straitjackets on its curiously )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(docile subjects.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Both models are inadequate to explain or to understand the evidence of widespread popular engagement with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(psychology, in all its multifarious forms, which Thomson has discovered. He demonstrates, most )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(substantially in the chapters on education, industry, and medicine, that efforts at control and regulation faced )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(serious practical obstacles at every turn. To take education as an example: mental testing in schools was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sporadic and inconsistent, dependent on the support of often ill-informed teachers; child guidance clinics, a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(potential tool for regulating behaviour, were numerically limited, unevenly geographically distributed, often )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(operated on a part-time basis, and dealt with only tiny numbers of children per year; while pedagogical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(strategies influenced by behaviourism were ?too markedly out of line with the British attraction to a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(psychological subjectivity of self-realization? \(p.121\) to gain support in more than one or two radical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(schools.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Turning away from top-down narratives of regulation and control, there is ample evidence of popular )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(enthusiasm, bordering on utopianism, for the potential of psychology to reform the problems of industrial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(civilisation. Although workers did not engage with industrial psychology to any great degree, several )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(thousands took courses on psychology run by the National Council of Labour Colleges or the Workers? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Education Association. A 1947 survey of WEA psychology students found that nearly half were motivated )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by the desire to understand and influence themselves and others. In more radical forums, psychology also )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(offered new ways of conceiving class-consciousness and class-conflict, as well as a potential path to self-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(realization for the working class. Histories which focus on governance will be forced to modify their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(accounts to integrate this evidence that workers were also concerned with understanding and constructing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their own psychological subjectivity.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Histories which view the development of psychology through the prism of psychoanalysis are even more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(severely affected by Thomson?s analysis. The book begins with Freud, although he is quickly dismissed as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not a central figure in the British context. Although interest in psychoanalysis was more widespread than )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(once thought, Freud was ?most likely to appear in a bastardized form, usually only once translated into a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more acceptable idiom?. More generally, those qualities ?often associated with an embrace of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(psychotherapeutic?introspection, emotional expression, an interest in sex and relationships, and the use of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(some kind of talking cure??were ?notable far more for their absence than regular presence? \(p.19\) in popular )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(psychologies. The individual will was simply too important a facet in British conceptions of self from the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Victorian era down to at least the 1930s, although its role shifted over this period, for Freudianism to make )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(serious strides. Freud therefore merits several entries in the index, but most often appears in the text to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(highlight the difference between psychoanalytic ideas and popular psychological philosophies.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Relegating psychoanalysis to the sidelines gives Thomson the freedom to discover, explore, and restore to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their rightful place in popular psychological culture a range of hitherto neglected ideas and practices. It also )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mounts a quiet challenge to the standards by which the development of British psychology, and more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(broadly its ?modernity?, has been judged. Often deemed stagnant and backwards, Thomson shows that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(absence of psychoanalysis does not equate to a vacuum in psychological thought, most obviously at the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(popular, but also at the professional, level. The eclecticism of the new British psychology, which ?offered a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(route to higher values in a cultivation of personality that drew on existing discourses of character and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(spiritual growth?, demonstrates that ?psychological popularization was a much broader and pervasive )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(phenomenon, and that much of it was of a rather different hue? to psychoanalysis \(pp. 21, 23\). The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historiographical paradigm of the ?Freudian revolution? is powerful and entrenched. Thomson?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(accomplishment in breaking free of it, and the judgments of ?right? and ?wrong? in psychological )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(knowledge and development which it often implies, cannot be overstated.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This is not the only place where Thomson questions definitions of the modern or progressive which have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(infiltrated the writing of the history of psychology. A similar feat of redefinition is achieved in his chapter )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on psychology in the 1960s and 70s. Histories of ?the permissive society? often assume that the counter-)] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 7384 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cultural vanguard led a rejection of values. Contemporaries levelled the same accusation at popular and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(professional psychology. Thomson shows that on the contrary, ?psychological permissiveness invariably )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rested on its own very clear sense of liberal-democratic values? \(p.257\). Hans Eysenck, the best-known )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(psychologist of the era, is a case in point. Eysenck reached a massive audience through his constant )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(appearances in the press, radio, and television, and his books written for Penguin. His psychology was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(presented as resolutely scientific, offering facts, not values: the psychologist should not measure behaviour )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(according to assumed moral standards, and should offer advice rather than ideal solutions, always avoiding )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the language of right and wrong. So far, so permissive: but Eysenck was also attacked in the 1970s by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?groups who saw themselves as supporters of permissivism?, but objected to ?his assault on a more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(humanist, ethical psychology as unscientific, and his support for behaviourism in its place?. Who here, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thomson asks, was the real permissive?)] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cases in which standard definitions or narratives are questioned and challenged could be multiplied )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(endlessly. An important final example is the respective place of the two world wars. The First World War is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(usually perceived as of far greater importance, with shellshock ushering in a new era of greater acceptance )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of psychoanalysis and other psychodynamic approaches. Thomson argues that the boundaries between pre-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(war, wartime, and post-war psychology are overdrawn in this analysis: pre-war medicine engaged with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(psychology to a far greater degree than is often assumed, and the promotion of psychodynamic medicine in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(its immediate aftermath was limited. Tellingly, although shellshock is mentioned in quite a few places, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(most in-depth discussion takes place over only four pages, nearly half-way through the book, and?an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(absolute anomaly?no original research is used in this section. This is, as Thomson explains, partly because )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(shellshock is one of the only topics discussed throughout the book to have attracted a great deal of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(scholarship. The comparatively minor space it is accorded efficiently conveys the argument that the episode )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(had a very limited influence on civilian psychology. Nevertheless, Thomson undersells the originality of his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conclusions here: none of the historians he references makes the argument that shellshock did not cause a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fundamental shift from organic to psychological modes of explanation for mental breakdown as strongly, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(effectively, or for the same reasons.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The Second World War was, for Thomson, a moment of far greater potential opportunity for psychology, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(although its lasting effects were limited and ambiguous. The national emergency provided a context in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which professional psychology could potentially take centre stage in efforts at social engineering. Despite )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the wartime emphasis on morale, however, psychologists were viewed with suspicion at the highest levels of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(government: several gained an ear, but little more. The rise of fascism throughout the 1930s and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(subsequent international crisis were also the ideal circumstances for a psychoanalytical psychology, with its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(emphasis on potentially destructive instincts and drives, to gain greater influence. In practice, proponents of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(such ideas still had to make the necessary accommodation with existing values to be heard: and in tasks such )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as the management of home front morale, ?more pragmatic behaviourist, statistical, and physically )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(orientated types of psychology often found favour instead? \(p. 248\). In the aftermath of the war, the gap )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(between the aspirations and actual influence of psychology was painfully exposed by the pitifully small role )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and resources awarded to it in the new welfare state. The main legacy of the war was not fundamentally to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(alter psychological practice, or extend the reach of psychological thought, but to accelerate a process in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which psychology was dispensed by experts. This was in marked contrast to the situation for the first half of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the century, when developments in popular and professional psychology often marched hand-in-hand, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(explaining why the war is a possible ?end? to the story told here.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This is a book of many achievements. It is lucidly written, well-organized, based on impeccable original and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(scholarly research, and the footnotes, bibliography, and index are faultless. It fills a gap in the market in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more ways than one. The ?long? history of psychology is most often relayed through multi-author edited )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(collections. Excellent as many of these works are, the single-author approach offers a unified perspective )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and analysis?a more joined-up history?which is fully exploited here. The focus on the particular, and in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(many ways peculiar, development of British psychological thought and practice is also welcome. Britain was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(markedly out of step with developments in America or continental Europe for much of the twentieth century, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and in pan-Western histories this difference can be portrayed as a fundamental lack \(of Freud, of )] TJ ET endstream endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 22 0 R ] /Contents 21 0 R >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Length 3906 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(behaviourism, of any dominant personality or school\). This history reveals rather the existence of manifold )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(culturally-specific, but nevertheless vibrant, discourses on psychology. The majority of the book deals with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(topics which have been, at best, under-researched: but even where a larger body of scholarship exists, as in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the chapter on Orage?s )] TJ ET BT 147.308 753.701 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(New Age)] TJ ET BT 190.304 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, Thomson?s determination to confront and reappraise established )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historiographical narratives means that individuals, movements, and other developments are reassessed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(within an original framework. The history of psychology is also related to the dominant frames of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mainstream modern British history \(the turn-of the century ?new age?, industrial civilization, World War )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Two, and the post-war consensus\) throughout, meaning that social and cultural historians of these eras )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(should also find much find much to interest them here.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thomson shows that the psychological gradually encroached into most, if not all, areas of life over the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(course of the century, and that it did so in a variety of hitherto unexpected or unacknowledged ways. In )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(doing so, the limitations of the history of psychology in its current state, and the manifold possibilities for its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(future, are exposed. )] TJ ET BT 131.648 613.397 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Psychological Subjects)] TJ ET BT 242.636 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( unwittingly reveals the relative paucity of research on certain )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(key areas. Take the popularization of Freud in Britain as the ultimate example: the detailed research )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(referenced \(the only detailed research which can be referenced on this subject\) amounts to one unpublished )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ph.D. thesis and three articles. If this is all the attention that the single most important figure in the world )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history of twentieth-century psychology can muster, is it any wonder that so few of us have ever heard of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Pelmanism? This is a book which is, as much as anything else, a map for future research. The individuals, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(clubs, and movements Thomson has uncovered all merit even more extended analysis. )] TJ ET BT 451.952 527.861 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Psychological )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Subjects)] TJ ET BT 74.012 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( could, and should, spawn a hundred Ph.Ds: for the present, historians of the field will find more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(than enough within the pages of this volume to interest, excite, provoke questions, and force revisions.)] TJ ET 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 482.623 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 464.843 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 464.843 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/621)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 463.449 m 322.316 463.449 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 438.472 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 424.072 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/4122)] TJ ET endstream endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 23 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 463.7635 322.3157 475.6435 ] >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/621) >> endobj xref 0 24 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000349 00000 n 0000000386 00000 n 0000000592 00000 n 0000000674 00000 n 0000004888 00000 n 0000004997 00000 n 0000005107 00000 n 0000005216 00000 n 0000008777 00000 n 0000008905 00000 n 0000008989 00000 n 0000009054 00000 n 0000016713 00000 n 0000016778 00000 n 0000023930 00000 n 0000023995 00000 n 0000031432 00000 n 0000031516 00000 n 0000035475 00000 n 0000035603 00000 n trailer << /Size 24 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 35698 %%EOF