%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 18 0 R 20 0 R 22 0 R 24 0 R 46 0 R ] /Count 7 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140830170843+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140830170843+01'00') /Title (The Scandal of Empire: India and the Creation of Imperial Britain) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 1973 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(The Scandal of Empire: India and the Creation of Imperial Britain)] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(622)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Friday, 31 August, 2007)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nicholas B. Dirks)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780674021662)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2006)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(18.95)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(416pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Harvard University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.hup.harvard.edu/catalog/DIRSCA.html)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cambridge \(Mass.\))] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.579 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Michael Dodson)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 16 0 R ] /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 8224 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The anti-imperialist credentials of Nicholas Dirks are beyond dispute. Trained at the University of Chicago )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(under the tutelage of Bernard Cohn, Dirks is the author of )] TJ ET BT 314.636 770.213 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Hollow Crown)] TJ ET BT 406.652 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1987\), a compelling work of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(anthropological history which traces the political and social transformations of the ?little kingdom? of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Pudukkotai \(in southern India\) into the colonial period and the ?native state? system of administration, as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(well as )] TJ ET BT 70.676 727.445 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Castes of Mind)] TJ ET BT 143.348 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(2001\), which examines the \(re-/de-\)formation of ?caste? during British colonial rule \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 711.795 m 40.016 711.795 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 40.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\). In each book, Dirks has been concerned to explicate the ways in which the colonial state, and its allied )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(institutions and imaginaries, have served to transform \(or mutate\) South-Asian cultural and social )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(formations. Dirks?s latest book is something of a departure from these earlier works, for )] TJ ET BT 460.604 684.677 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Scandal of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Empire)] TJ ET BT 69.344 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is less concerned with the effects of colonial rule in the Indian context than it is with the politics of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Indian empire in Britain. The book examines the ?scandal? of Governor-General Warren Hastings?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(administration of India \(1773?85\) and his impeachment on return to Britain \(1787/8?95\), famously led by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Edmund Burke. Yet simultaneously, )] TJ ET BT 212.012 627.653 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Scandal of Empire)] TJ ET BT 322.340 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is consonant with Dirks?s earlier work in its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(uncompromising focus upon the destructiveness of imperialism \(indeed, Dirks?s tone in this book is very )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(often one of outrage and indignation\) and, ultimately, in the book?s function as an auto-critique of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(scholarly genre from which it claims to be derived \(whether anthropology or, in this case, history\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Dirks principal argument in )] TJ ET BT 170.000 558.629 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Scandal)] TJ ET BT 208.664 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is two-fold. First, he asserts that to say ?empire was a scandal? is to tell )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(only part of the story, for scandal was not incidental to British imperialism \(or, for that matter, was not to be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(associated with only a few individuals\), but rather scandal was central to empire, as it ultimately served as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the ?crucible in which both imperial and capitalist expansion was forged? \(p. 8\). Moreover, through the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?moral spectacle? of the impeachment trial, this public addressing of scandal helped to convert Britain?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(presence in India to a perception of legitimate sovereignty, producing the conditions for empire?s success )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and ?its transformation into a patriotic enterprise? \(p. 125\). Thus, Dirks argues, from the 1790s onwards, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(thanks in large part to Edmund Burke?s machinations, scandal was no longer to be associated with British )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(imperial rule, but with Indian socio-cultural forms \(sati, thagi, female infanticide, etc.\). Second, Dirks asserts )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that scandal, so central to imperial beginnings, has very often ?been either laundered or converted into )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(narratives of imperial, nationalist, and capitalist triumph? \(p. 25\). In other words, Dirks argues that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?scandal?, in itself, has largely been absent from the multitude of historical accounts written about the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Company?s expansion in India \(here he invokes, not for the first time in his work, John Seeley?s 1883 claim )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that empire was acquired in a ?fit of absence of mind? as his genre-defining historiographical foe\). Dirks )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(seeks unambiguously to reassert the connection.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Dirks? book is divided into nine thematic chapters. The second of these, ?corruption?, sets out some of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(elements of the eighteenth-century Indian context, and thus the background for Burke?s charges in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hastings?s impeachment. Dirks describes, for example, the private trade, or ?inland trade?, conducted by the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(East India Company?s servants, which was in essence a parallel form of commerce outside the Company?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(own monopoly. This private trade was central to the financial viability of the Company for the role it played )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in supplementing the meagre salaries most of its servants received. It also transformed established social and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(political classes in Britain through the return of ?nabobs? from India, middling-class men made wealthy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(through dubious financial dealings. Such men sought to purchase positions of influence, and were invariably )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(viewed as deeply troubling, even corrupting, to British society. None more so than Robert Clive, a military )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(adventurer who secured British victories in southern India and, most famously, in Bengal against the nawab )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Siraj ud Daula. In the Battle of Plassey, waged in 1757, Clive managed to produce a ?coup? against the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nawab, install his own puppet regime, secure substantial trading benefits for the Company and its servants, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and make himself fabulously wealthy through plunder and the receipt of ?presents?, including a substantial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(jagir \(land grant\), in the process. Clive?s grafting was characterized by him as consistent with Indian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(practice, but no less important, as a small price to pay for the possible benefits to the Company, and to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Britain, in the forging of a nascent empire. Yet as Dirks notes, while the Indian empire most certainly did )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(come into existence with the accession of real Company control over Bengal with the granting of the divani )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in 1765, the promised financial benefits were often less forthcoming, as Bengal was soon plunged into )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(famine and devastation caused, not least, by rapacious private trade and over-taxation. It is in this context )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that the Regulating Act of 1773 was passed, which sought to reform the Company?s administration and the )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 17 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 712.1095 40.0157 723.9895 ] >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 7715 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(way the Company conducted its business. Warren Hastings, the first Governor-General appointed in Calcutta )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(under the Act, was thus to be ?the Indian agent of reform? \(p. 59\). In this chapter, Dirks also accounts for the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(role of southern-Indian politics in the transformation of Edmund Burke?s own views on the Company during )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the pre-impeachment period. Burke had been at least a tacit supporter of Clive, and opposed the Regulating )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Act of 1773 on the basis that it impinged upon commercial autonomy, and yet he evolved into a vociferous )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(critic of Hastings a decade later. Dirks argues here that it was Burke?s personal links to the peninsular )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(subcontinent in the years after 1773, when ?the excesses of the Company were most egregious? \(p. 61\), that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(served as a principal transformative factor.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The next chapter, ?spectacle?, lays out some of the details of the impeachment trial of Warren Hastings, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(including its essentially theatrical character, the convoluted personal politics at play, and the details of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(charges brought by Burke with the aid of Philip Francis \(who had once challenged Hastings to a duel in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Calcutta\). At heart, the impeachment is an event which Dirks characterizes as necessitated by Burke?s view )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that ?the ?saviour of India? [i.e. Hastings] had become a symbol ? of all that was rotten in the East? \(p. 89\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The charges levelled against Hastings ranged from illegally receiving presents to improperly conducting )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(war, extorting the begums of Awadh, and prompting the rebellion of the allied state of Benares by making )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(upon it unreasonable and unsupportable demands. Dirks notes that Hastings at first did not take the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(impeachment charges very seriously, but once the gravity of the situation dawned upon him, his hurriedly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(constructed defence strategy had to be thoroughly amended. And so while Hastings first argued \(not unlike )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Clive\) that charges of arbitrariness against him could not be supported because so much of the Indian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(political context was itself dominated by arbitrariness and despotism \(and as such the Company was simply )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(working within Indian political norms\), he later took pains to emphasize his own substantial record of legal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reform in Bengal and, in particular, the legal codification project begun after 1772 which was based )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ostensibly upon Indian cultural-legal norms. Dirks notes, with not a little justification, that the pre-eminent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concern for Burke in the prosecution of Hastings was not necessarily the ill-effects of colonial rule upon the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(colonized, but the very possibility that colonialism \(with its practical disdain for the universality of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(norms of law\), and also the character of India itself, would end up utterly corrupting Britain and its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(institutions. The outcome of the trial was, ultimately, thought to reflect upon ?the credit and honour of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(British nation?. Burke therefore, in Dirks?s words, ?attempted to make a debate on India the occasion for the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cleansing and regeneration of the imperial mission? \(p. 92\). While this is certainly right, Dirks has perhaps )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(also underestimated Burke?s concern for the population of India, and his view that all peoples should enjoy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the protection of the rule of law, though Burke clearly viewed Britain as holding a responsibility to ?protect? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(such people through specifically imperial forms of control. Thus the concerns Burke may very well have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(held for Indians were inevitably couched in the language of the potential for destabilizing the burgeoning )] TJ ET BT 34.016 314.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(empire and undermining British imperial sovereignty.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In a chapter devoted to ?economy?, Dirks examines the drain of wealth from the subcontinent, and argues )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for the importance of recognizing the ultimately extractive nature of empire in India. In the next chapter, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?sovereignty?, Dirks argues, in a similar vein, that the Company pursued a relentless policy of expansion )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(through warfare, and consistently understood the privileges granted to them by the Mughal emperor as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sovereign rights. And so while the Company had often paid lip service to the ?productive fiction? of a ?dual? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sovereignty in India \(productive, Dirks notes, because it could disguise British imperialism under the banner )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of still-intact Mughal rule\), its servants also made a ?strategic use of [Indian] cultural forms to explain and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(legitimate a relentless pattern of political and territorial conquest? \(p. 172\); a series of conquests, moreover, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which were driven by a ?straightforward calculus of self-interest? \(p. 172\). Hastings?s own moves to press )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more explicitly for forms of Company sovereignty in Bengal, including the extension of Company control )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(over the administration of both civil and criminal justice, while being understood by Burke as a form of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(personal megalomania, Dirks instead understands as the ?inevitable logic of empire? \(p. 187\). The resultant )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Company ?state? is addressed by Dirks in his sixth chapter. This was a state which, despite Parliamentary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(efforts to exert control through regulation, found its extension increasingly eased by way of the Governor-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 88.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(General?s consolidation of power. To fulfil his mandate, Dirks argues, Hastings could only work through )] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(securing a ?greater authority? for this ?new kind of state form?; a characterization which makes Hastings, in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 59.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the author?s view, a ?model servant of empire? \(p. 210\). The state?s apparatus for this consolidation )] TJ ET endstream endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 21 0 R >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Length 7846 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(included, for example, the extension of a ?rule of property? \(or a system of agricultural tax collection\) as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(well as the imposition of a set of juridical practices and institutions \(though in the execution of these legal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(practices, Dirks notes, Hastings was willing to be flexible in order to eliminate political opponents such as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nandakumar\). The last chapters of the book then focus upon the near-contemporary historical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(representations of the early years of Company rule in Bengal and the role of history writing in capturing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?new ideas of sovereignty?, or rather colonial sovereignties; and Burke?s views on ?tradition?, and how )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(these informed his perception of Indian society, imperial governance, and Hastings?s conduct.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Dirks has produced a very nicely written book, with an engaging, lively, and often polemical style which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(will make it accessible to audiences beyond those which Dirks?s work has heretofore principally addressed. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Equally, Dirks engages with many elements of the complexity and even contradictory nature of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Company?s early state and state-building, and does an admirable job of disentangling elements of early )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Company politics \(though it must be noted that Dirks has also made several elementary errors in the text, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(including the mixing up of Arthur and Richard Wellesley on p. 238 and on p. 122 the confusion of Haider )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ali with his son Tipu Sultan\). Dirks?s argument that the impeachment trial of Warren Hastings served to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(transform imperialism, and the empire in India, from a scandal into an accepted form of governance \(indeed, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(even into an unremarkable commonplace for most Britons\) is a valid one, though surely the impeachment )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(trial was also only one part of that transformation. One might cite the political and ideological challenge )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(presented by France, for example, or the politics of Pitt the Younger \(as reflected in the changes borne by the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(India Act 1784\) to argue that such a transformation was already well under way by the time of the trial. But )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Dirks?s ultimate goal here is clearly not to give a comprehensive analysis of late-eighteenth-century British )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(political machinations, but simply to reassert the centrality of ?scandal? into the very heart of current debates )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(about empire. In this regard, Dirks questions at the very beginning of the book whether he in fact has )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(anything new to contribute to a subject so thoroughly analysed. Indeed, the sources used for the book are not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(particularly innovatory: Dirks has primarily drawn on the published writings and speeches of Burke, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(also made heavy use of secondary literature. Surprisingly, there appear to be no references to the rich \(and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(voluminous\) cache of Hastings?s manuscripts in the British Library \(BM Add MSS\), a source which must )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(surely be crucial to any analysis of the impeachment trial and Hastings?s conduct in India. In any case, Dirks )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(views at least part of his contribution to be related to his cognisance and reflection, throughout much of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(book, of writing about ?imperial scandal? in an age of American-led expansionism, and the prosecution of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(an overseas war which has arguably been distinguished in equal parts by ineptitude, corruption, and tragedy. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The reflexivity with the present in the book can certainly be viewed as a strength, for it ultimately serves to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(provide a deeper contextualization for contemporary forms of empire, and infuses the eighteenth-century )] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historical narrative with a sense of vitality and relevance.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(But there is obviously another point of contact for Dirks?s analysis in this book, and that is the varieties of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(imperial historiography which he views as being, at best, produced in ignorance of the real effects of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(imperialism, or at worst, part and parcel of the imperial project. Similar to the critique levelled in his now-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(infamous ?coda? to )] TJ ET BT 130.328 259.253 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Castes of Mind)] TJ ET BT 203.000 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, Dirks has in this book drawn a straightforward lineage in imperial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historiography from nineteenth-century writers such as James Mill, T. B. Macaulay, and J. R. Seeley to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contemporary historians such as Peter Marshall, C. A. Bayly, W. R. Louis, and Niall Ferguson, this time on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the basis that ?the ideal of neutrality? is common to these analyses. Dirks argues that this air of neutrality )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(allows for ?the problems of empire? to be ?understood almost exclusively from the vantage of Europe?, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that the history of the East India Company is thus reduced to issues of ?managerial incompetence and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(administrative failure? rather than the ?devastations of imperial rule on the colonized, and the extent to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which the struggles and challenges of postcolonial regimes are themselves critical legacies of imperial rule? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(pp. 329?330\). Dirks is of course right to find fault with Ferguson?s trumpeting of the supposed ?benefits? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of British imperial rule, which have certainly been made all the more distasteful \(and irrelevant\) by the now-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(visible hollowness of the neo-conservative rhetoric surrounding Iraq \(one could also find fault in Ferguson?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(picking and choosing of examples to fit his argument, rather than testing this argument in a detailed case )] TJ ET BT 34.016 88.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(study, however\). Nevertheless, Dirks?s critiques of some of these other historians seem misplaced. Peter )] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Marshall, for example, is faulted for characterizing Hastings and Burke as the ?real victims? of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 59.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(impeachment trial, rather than arguing that ?empire itself was a problem? \(p. 124\), even though the target is )] TJ ET endstream endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 23 0 R >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Length 4138 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Marshall?s first book, published in 1965, well before the influence of Edward Said or Subaltern Studies, and, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(indeed, before the process of decolonization had been substantially completed. Further, the rich social )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history of colonial South Asia elaborated by Chris Bayly in )] TJ ET BT 322.004 767.957 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Rulers, Townsmen and Bazaars, Empire and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Information)] TJ ET BT 91.352 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, and other works, is deeply invested in understanding the effects and implications of the colonial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rule of the subcontinent, though Bayly admittedly doesn?t wear his anti-imperialism on his sleeve in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(same way that Dirks does. The continued popularity of Bayly?s works in Indian university curricula also )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(speaks to the relevance these have for understanding the genealogy of the postcolonial present.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Dirks?s historiography of empire is one which, in the end, promotes an anti-imperialist stance \(a stance I )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(strongly support, it should be noted\) through an emphasis upon the derisible effects of colonial rule, but also )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(through easy formulations of imperial power, imperial extension, and an assignation of straightforward self-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interest and voraciousness to imperial actors. In other words, any potential complexity within imperialism, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as a political and cultural phenomenon, is drained from it in order to emphasize the deleteriousness of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(empire. This is also a historiographical stance which authorizes itself through the perpetuation of an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(essentially false dichotomy: an understanding that if one?s approach to Britain?s empire doesn?t consistently )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(foreground notions of imperial power, and the negative effects of that empire, it should then be characterized )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as being nave, ?revisionist?, and consistent with a school of imperial historiography which found its origins )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with Mill and Seeley. Now I don?t know any historian currently working on British imperialism in South )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Asia who takes Seeley?s charge that empire was acquired in a ?fit of absence of mind? to the heart of their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(analyses, including those working within the broadly defined paradigm of the so-called ?Cambridge school?. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In this respect, there is also a clear generational gap evident in Dirks?s citations of what he views as the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historiographical ?gulf? in South Asian and British imperial history: there is a nearly complete absence of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(references to recent historical work. Dirks has instead principally cited \(and praised\) scholarship of the late-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1970s to mid-1990s: Edward Said, Ranajit Guha, Partha Chatterjee, Gyan Prakash, Bernard Cohn, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(himself. Dirks?s claim that this cohort of historians are ?writing from the margins? of the profession seems )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(increasingly problematic, however. Rather, it would now appear that the understanding of empire and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(imperialism explicated by Said, Cohn, Dirks, and others, is the new orthodoxy of South-Asian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historiography.)] TJ ET endstream endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 26 0 R 28 0 R 30 0 R 32 0 R 34 0 R 36 0 R 38 0 R 40 0 R 42 0 R 44 0 R ] /Contents 25 0 R >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Length 10035 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The fact is that this new orthodoxy is, these days, increasingly being reformulated, and principally by junior )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(scholars who fully accept the lessons of Said?s )] TJ ET BT 261.980 770.213 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Orientalism)] TJ ET BT 319.316 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, Cohn?s analyses of colonial power, and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historiographical revisionism of Subaltern Studies, and who most certainly recognize that Britain?s empire )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in India was a forcibly-perpetrated enterprise of repression, extraction, and co-option. These scholars, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(however, are equally committed to producing work which does not reproduce an essentially Saidian, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(straightforward understanding of how empires function. One might cite Shruti Kapila?s compelling analyses )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of how ideas of race were central to early forms of orientalism, and also the implications of the emergence of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(an Indian ?science of the mind? for Indian identity \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 283.628 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 283.628 683.283 m 289.628 683.283 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 289.628 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\); the individual work of Robert Travers and Jon )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wilson, who both seek to elucidate understandings of sovereignty in early-colonial India, though without )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(equating that sovereignty unproblematically with the possession of power \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 394.976 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 394.976 654.771 m 400.976 654.771 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 400.976 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\); and Javed Majeed?s new )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(work on the role of translation in imperialism and also his writings on pan-Islam, travel narratives, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Indian Muslim nationalism and identity \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 231.020 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 231.020 626.259 m 237.020 626.259 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 237.020 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\) to name but only a diverse few \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 398.984 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(5)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 398.984 626.259 m 404.984 626.259 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 404.984 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\). That many of these scholars )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(do not consistently foreground the negative effects of empire, and often probe the claims of powerfulness for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(British political, cultural, and social forms within the colonial context, is not to ?excuse? the processes of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(empire building, as Dirks might charge, but to investigate its origins and complexity, and to try to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(understand its contradictions and complications, rather than assuming empire to be a nothing more than a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(straightforward tale of ?Britons arrive and conquer?. This body of historical scholarship ultimately leaves )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Scandal of Empire)] TJ ET BT 123.344 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( looking somewhat thin. And besides, isn?t the more compelling prospect that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(imperialism, at its heart, is far less the directed, singular, visionary will of expansion that Dirks claims it to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(be than a series of overlapping and competing set of strategies, objectives, and practices? Perhaps we have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(become blinded to this possibility by the now-commonplace imperial rhetoric of the US administration and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(its allied neoconservative intellectuals. But if this is really so, then being less attuned to the complexities of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(empire risks ultimately obscuring our understanding of how they come about, how they flourish, and, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(indeed, how they are undone.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 421.683 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 391.066 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 391.061 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(N. B. Dirks, )] TJ ET BT 125.348 391.061 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Hollow Crown: Ethnohistory of an Indian Kingdom)] TJ ET BT 395.036 391.061 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Cambridge, 1987\); and N. B. )] TJ ET BT 64.016 376.805 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Dirks, )] TJ ET BT 96.680 376.805 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Castes of Mind: Colonialism and the Making of Modern India)] TJ ET BT 395.012 376.805 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Princeton, 2001\). )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 488.000 376.805 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 488.000 375.411 m 541.988 375.411 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 362.554 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 362.549 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(S. Kapila, ?Race Matters: Orientalism and Religion, India and Beyond c. 1770?1880?, )] TJ ET BT 481.628 362.549 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Modern Asian )] TJ ET BT 64.016 348.293 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Studies)] TJ ET BT 98.684 348.293 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 41.3 \(2007\), 471?513; S. Kapila, ?Freud and his Indian Friends: Religion, Psychoanalysis and )] TJ ET BT 64.016 334.037 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Selfhood in late Colonial India?, in )] TJ ET BT 235.676 334.037 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Psychiatry and Empire)] TJ ET BT 346.328 334.037 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. S. Mahone and M. Vaughan )] TJ ET BT 64.016 319.781 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Basingstoke and New York, 2007\). )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 240.320 319.781 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 240.320 318.387 m 294.308 318.387 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 305.530 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 305.525 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(T. R. Travers, )] TJ ET BT 134.000 305.525 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Ideology and Empire in Eighteenth-Century India: The British in Bengal)] TJ ET BT 483.644 305.525 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Cambridge, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 291.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2007\); J. E. Wilson, ?Anxieties of Distance: Codification in Early Colonial Bengal?, )] TJ ET BT 472.652 291.269 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Modern )] TJ ET BT 64.016 277.013 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Intellectual History)] TJ ET BT 157.676 277.013 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 4.1 \(2007\), 7?23. )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 248.996 277.013 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 248.996 275.619 m 302.984 275.619 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 262.762 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 262.757 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(J. Majeed, ?Gandhi, ?Truth?, and Translatability?, )] TJ ET BT 308.300 262.757 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Modern Asian Studies)] TJ ET BT 414.296 262.757 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 40.2 \(2006\), 303?332; J. )] TJ ET BT 64.016 248.501 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Majeed, )] TJ ET BT 106.004 248.501 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Autobiography, Travel and Postnational Identity: Gandhi, Nehru and Iqbal)] TJ ET BT 468.668 248.501 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Basingstoke and )] TJ ET BT 64.016 234.245 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(New York, 2007\); J. Majeed, ?Geographies of Subjectivity, Pan-Islam and Muslim Separatism: )] TJ ET BT 64.016 219.989 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Muhammad Iqbal and Selfhood?, )] TJ ET BT 227.660 219.989 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Modern Intellectual History)] TJ ET BT 362.312 219.989 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 4.1 \(2007\), 145?61. )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 465.632 219.989 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 465.632 218.595 m 519.620 218.595 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 205.738 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(5.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 205.733 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(See also the other contributions to a special issue of )] TJ ET BT 315.320 205.733 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Modern Intellectual History)] TJ ET BT 449.972 205.733 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 4.1 \(2007\) which is )] TJ ET BT 64.016 191.477 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(devoted to elucidating an ?intellectual history for India?, and which brings together historians trained )] TJ ET BT 64.016 177.221 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(both in the US and the UK. In )] TJ ET BT 211.004 177.221 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(A New Imperial History: Culture, Identity and Modernity in Britain and )] TJ ET BT 64.016 162.965 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(the Empire, 1660?1840)] TJ ET BT 177.008 162.965 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. K. Wilson \(Cambridge, 2004\), one of a very few books which Dirks cites )] TJ ET BT 64.016 148.709 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(published in the 2000s, one might also highlight the essay of P. J. Stern, ??Rescuing the age from a )] TJ ET BT 64.016 134.453 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(charge of ignorance?: gentility, knowledge, and the British exploration of Africa in the later eighteenth )] TJ ET BT 64.016 120.197 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century?. Finally, the obligatory vanity reference is my new book, which examines the ?in-between )] TJ ET BT 64.016 105.941 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(spaces? of institutionalized orientalism and education: M. S. Dodson, )] TJ ET BT 399.992 105.941 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Orientalism, Empire, and )] TJ ET BT 64.016 91.685 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(National Culture: India, 1770?1880)] TJ ET BT 238.028 91.685 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Basingstoke and New York, 2007\). )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 417.332 91.685 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 417.332 90.291 m 471.320 90.291 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 65.429 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 51.173 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ehistory)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 36.917 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://ehistory.osu.edu/osu/reviews/reviewview.cfm)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 35.523 m 282.992 35.523 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 285.992 36.917 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET endstream endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 27 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 283.6277 683.5975 289.6277 695.4775 ] >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 29 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 394.9757 655.0855 400.9757 666.9655 ] >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 31 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 231.0197 626.5735 237.0197 638.4535 ] >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 33 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 398.9837 626.5735 404.9837 638.4535 ] >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 35 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 487.9997 375.7255 541.9877 387.6055 ] >> endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 36 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 37 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 240.3197 318.7015 294.3077 330.5815 ] >> endobj 37 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 38 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 39 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 248.9957 275.9335 302.9837 287.8135 ] >> endobj 39 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 40 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 41 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 465.6317 218.9095 519.6197 230.7895 ] >> endobj 41 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 42 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 43 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 417.3317 90.6055 471.3197 102.4855 ] >> endobj 43 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 44 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 45 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 35.8375 282.9917 47.7175 ] >> endobj 45 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://ehistory.osu.edu/osu/reviews/reviewview.cfm?id=28) >> endobj 46 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 48 0 R 50 0 R ] /Contents 47 0 R >> endobj 47 0 obj << /Length 1047 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(google books)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://books.google.co.uk/books)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 780.819 m 188.360 780.819 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 191.360 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 777.487 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 759.707 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 759.707 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/622)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 758.313 m 322.316 758.313 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 733.336 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 718.936 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/4124)] TJ ET BT 34.016 704.536 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://ehistory.osu.edu/osu/reviews/reviewview.cfm?id=28)] TJ ET BT 34.016 690.136 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3] http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=LqLF0yVLg2UC&sitesec=reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj 48 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 49 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 781.1335 188.3597 793.0135 ] >> endobj 49 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=LqLF0yVLg2UC&sitesec=reviews) >> endobj 50 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 51 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 758.6275 322.3157 770.5075 ] >> endobj 51 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/622) >> endobj xref 0 52 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000363 00000 n 0000000400 00000 n 0000000589 00000 n 0000000671 00000 n 0000002696 00000 n 0000002805 00000 n 0000002915 00000 n 0000003024 00000 n 0000006585 00000 n 0000006713 00000 n 0000006797 00000 n 0000006881 00000 n 0000015158 00000 n 0000015284 00000 n 0000015320 00000 n 0000015385 00000 n 0000023153 00000 n 0000023218 00000 n 0000031117 00000 n 0000031182 00000 n 0000035373 00000 n 0000035520 00000 n 0000045609 00000 n 0000045737 00000 n 0000045773 00000 n 0000045901 00000 n 0000045937 00000 n 0000046065 00000 n 0000046101 00000 n 0000046229 00000 n 0000046265 00000 n 0000046393 00000 n 0000046429 00000 n 0000046557 00000 n 0000046593 00000 n 0000046721 00000 n 0000046757 00000 n 0000046885 00000 n 0000046921 00000 n 0000047048 00000 n 0000047084 00000 n 0000047209 00000 n 0000047317 00000 n 0000047408 00000 n 0000048508 00000 n 0000048635 00000 n 0000048750 00000 n 0000048878 00000 n trailer << /Size 52 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 48973 %%EOF