%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 18 0 R 24 0 R 28 0 R 30 0 R ] /Count 7 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140420135815+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140420135815+01'00') /Title (Henry VII) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 1895 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Henry VII)] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(624)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Friday, 31 August, 2007)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sean Cunningham)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780415266208)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2007)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(45.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(336pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Routledge)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.routledge.com/books/Henry-VII-isbn9780415266215)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London)] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.579 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(John Watts)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 5773 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A new book on Henry VII is a major event. The last full-length study of the king and his reign, by S. B. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chrimes, was written in 1972, in a very different historiographical world. At that time, the explosion of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interest in later-medieval history was still in its infancy, and the decades after 1485 were seen mainly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(through the lens of the 'Tudor Revolution in Government'. Since then, many things have happened to alter )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(our understanding of Henry VII's life and times. The fifteenth century has become one of the most widely )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and minutely studied periods of medieval history, and ingrained assumptions concerning the precariousness )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of Plantagenet authority have been eroded; the Elton view of the early Tudors has been substantially battered )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and reshaped; and medievalists have broken through the ramparts of early modernity to comment critically )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on Henry VII's achievements. Meanwhile, if the first of the Tudors remains a rather unloved and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unfashionable king, he is newly imprinted on the national consciousness as a doyen of the AS-level syllabus )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(virtually inescapable, whichever Board you go for\). These trends have produced a great expansion of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interest in Henry's reign, which began in earnest in the 1990s. So far, this has produced a heap of new )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(information and many new perspectives, but no substantial new synthesis. Sean Cunningham, who has been )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(studying the reign for a decade and a half, is ideally placed to draw things together in a work shaped by his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(own extensive researches. His eagerly-awaited book unquestionably moves things forward.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cunningham's starting-point is the king's shadowy reputation, which is shadowy in two senses. On the one )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hand, it is enigmatic, and under-explored, since Henry VII is often seen through the impersonal medium of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his administrative and fiscal measures. On the other, it is not entirely reputable, as Henry is also remembered )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as a hard-faced miser whose rule edged so close to tyranny that his death brought talk of Magna Carta and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the arrest of his leading ministers. Cunningham's aim is to look beyond the institutional record, both positive )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and negative, to the man himself. He seeks to understand and explain the king's authoritarian and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(centralising policies, and to place his controversial measures in the context of his personality and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(experiences. The book therefore moves swiftly to a four-chapter narrative of Henry's life and reign, before )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(covering Henry's governance of the realm more thematically in a further seven chapters. A conclusion, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(including a sketch of today's research on the reign, completes the volume.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cunningham's narrative begins with a deft account of Henry's early life up to Bosworth, which contains few )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(surprises, but is distinctive in making him the Lancastrian dynastic champion from as early as the deaths of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Henry VI and his son Edward in May 1471. While he sees Richard III's usurpation as decisive in creating )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(new opportunities for Henry, Cunningham also notes the tensions which arose from his mixed base of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(support: the alliance between Henry and the network of disaffected Edwardians was a marriage of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(convenience, and may have been threatened by the addition of the staunchly Lancastrian earl of Oxford to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the king's party in late 1484. These cracks in the Tudor entourage form a theme which runs throughout the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ensuing narrative: Henry, the man whom no-one apart from his mother and his uncle really knew, was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(backed by an uneasy alliance of former Lancastrians and pre-1483 Yorkists. From the moment that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(splendid victory at Bosworth won Henry the throne, this unstable group was complicated further by the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(addition of former Ricardians, both cool administrators like the Edwardian ministers who had remained in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(office after Richard's usurpation, and lords and gentlemen, whose associations with the last Yorkist king )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(went back rather further. Small wonder, in Cunningham's view, that the king proved so vulnerable to Yorkist )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(plotting in the years ahead.)] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 7398 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The narrative of the reign is accomplished in three chapters, and these form one of the principal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(achievements of the book. For the first time, Henry's travails with pretenders, his dealings with foreign )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rulers, and the rhythms of domestic policy and governmental reform are treated at decent length, all together )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and in a chronological format. Cunningham's division of the reign into three sections works very well )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(indeed. First there are the years of establishment, 1485-9, in which the king set up his regime, operating in a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(broadly traditional way, relying as far as possible on his most tried supporters, but offering quarter to anyone )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(who would work with him. He responded dynamically to the major rising of 1487, and showed mercy to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(many participants \(even to one of its central figures-Lambert Simnel\). By 1489, he had forged links with the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(duke of Brittany and the Catholic Monarchs of Spain; he had a Yorkist wife and a legitimate son, and was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(able to mop up the Yorkshire rebellion of that April with no difficulty. The king's early years, then, were a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(success.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(But the picture was about to change, and Cunningham's next chapter deals with the 1490s and the powerful )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(impact of the Warbeck conspiracy on Henry's rule. This conspiracy is shown to have arisen from three main )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(forces: the designs of John Taylor, a former servant of the duke of Clarence; the desire of a succession of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(foreign rulers to cause problems for Henry \(beginning with the French, who were responding to the king's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interventions on behalf of Brittany\); and the alienation of former Yorkists, as Henry's better-trusted agents )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(began to expand operations at their expense. In a compelling, if rather complex, narrative, Cunningham )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(shows how very serious the threat from Warbeck was, reminding us that his identity was uncertain, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pointing out that only bad weather prevented a substantial landing in East Anglia in the summer of 1495. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Not until the end of 1496 did Henry begin to get convincingly on top of the situation, and just a few months )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(later he faced a massive rebellion in the South West while his main forces were poised on the Scottish )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(border. Throughout the 1490s, it seems that the king had just enough solid support to face down those who )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(betrayed him and to manage those who wavered; while his reliance on a narrowing circle may have been )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(alienating to those outside, it appears to have given him the backing he needed. Simply by surviving, he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(emerged from the 1490s greatly strengthened, and it is telling that it was only in 1499, after Warbeck's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(capture, that the Spanish finally agreed to the long-planned marriage of Catherine to Prince Arthur; the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(future of Henry's regime seemed secure in a way that it never had before.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In fact, however, 1499 proved a false dawn, as the final narrative chapter shows. Between 1499 and 1504, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Henry suffered another series of disasters which drove him into more desperate political and fiscal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(expedients, and left him looking even more vulnerable than before. By the spring of 1503, two of his three )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sons and his wife were dead, he himself had begun to show signs of sickness, and the newly-rebellious earl )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of Suffolk had fled to safety at the court of the Emperor. The remaining years of the reign were tense indeed, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as the king raised fantastic sums to buy off Maximilian, and the moral authority of his government dwindled. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A stroke of luck brought Suffolk into his hands in 1506, but the earl's younger brothers, also Yorkist )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(claimants, remained overseas, and the king's increasing illness meant that diplomacy was less well-managed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and royal agents were less well-supervised. The situation in London was reaching boiling point by 1509, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(when Henry's death, and the succession of his young heir, at last brought relief. In a series of moves, about )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which Cunningham might have said a little more, Henry VIII and his advisers released the pressure that had )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(built up over the previous decade while preserving the royal network and the other essential achievements of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Henry VII's rule.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The remainder of the book, slightly more than half, looks at Henry's rule of the realm. A long chapter )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(surveys the ideologies, practices, and frameworks of royal government. Succeeding chapters discuss a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(variety of issues and problems: the power-structures of the English localities; the royal networks focused on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(court and council; the security policies for which the king is so famous-bonds and recognisances, measures )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(against retaining; relations with the church and the city of London; the rule of Wales and Ireland; economics, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(trade, and the armed forces. These chapters are packed with information, some of it new and most of it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(helpful. For this reviewer, the real highlights were the discussions of local politics in Kent, the North West )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and East Anglia, which are skilfully done and eminently persuasive: we know all too little about the rule of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the localities under Henry VII, but it is a crucial area, and Cunningham's chapter, which rests on his own )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(research, makes an excellent addition to what can be learned from the works of Christine Carpenter, Tony )] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 20 0 R 22 0 R ] /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 8190 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Pollard, Dominic Luckett, and others. Towards the end of the book, the logic of the treatment becomes rather )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mysterious-it is not quite clear why the church, trade, and London are the principal constituents of 'The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(King's Nation', or why 'Projecting Tudor Influence' plays host to the army, Wales, and Ireland-but, as a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(whole, the second half adds up to a pretty comprehensive picture of politics, government, and political )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(society in the period of the reign.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(If there is a central theme to this section, it is perhaps-as Margaret Condon proposed in a famous essay \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 533.924 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 533.924 711.795 m 539.924 711.795 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 539.924 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\)-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the crucial role of councils and councillors in Henry VII's regime. In Cunningham's convincing view, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Henry's smallish group of trusted councillors provided him with a network of highly-skilled administrators, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(who could generate new policy and manage its implementation without intensive royal oversight. Their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(intimacy with a king who became more remote from the early 1490s made them key figures in the mediation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of royal power, enabling them to enrich themselves and direct the affairs of all those who sought royal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(favour. Their combination of roles-not just go-betweens, policy wonks, and record-keepers, but judges and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(financial managers-gave them political mastery, and they quickly developed new and connected mechanisms )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for managing the wider realm: the rapid and flexible justice of council and chancery; the use of bonds to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(enforce compliance and good behaviour; a network of royal officers, known to the councillors and bound )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(over to fulfil their roles efficiently, to rule the localities through licensed retinues and the authority derived )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from connection to the centre. The oppressive tendency of this structure bound its participants together until )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(very late in the reign, when, Cunningham suggests, a group comprising Surrey, Fox, Lovell, and Warham )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(began to distance themselves from the activities of Empson, Dudley, and the Council Learned in the Law. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Henry had succeeded in creating a curiously effective and neatly-self-perpetuating power structure-not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(without costs, as the recurrent dissidence of those beneath and outside it demonstrated, but strong enough to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prevail, and to provide the bedrock of the Tudor state.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As a work of synthesis, this book has many strengths-it is learned, moderate, and respectful of the work of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(other historians: this most controversial of kings is treated in a remarkably uncontroversial way. At the same )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(time, however, it does feel slightly shapeless, and I wonder if the author's desire to avoid argument is part of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the problem. Cunningham treads very carefully: the battle of Bosworth might have been here, or it might )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have been there; Perkin Warbeck might have been the man named in his confession, or he might have been )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(someone else, or he might even have been Richard of York; Henry VII might have been trying to undermine )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the power of lords, or he might simply have been trying to manage it better; his misfortunes might have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(arisen from dynastic opposition, or from foreign interference, or from the results of his own policies; )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(retaining might have been a menace, or it might have been something the king needed to preserve; the king )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ruled with a group of like-minded councillors, but 'it was entirely Henry VII's personality that shaped and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(directed the course of the reign' \(p. 285\). Sometimes these debates do not matter, but, if so, we might )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reasonably expect to be told that. More often, the situation is genuinely complicated-on the one hand, this; )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on the other, that-and then a clear synthesis of conflicting positions would help us understand. To take the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Warbeck example, what the reader really needs to know is that virtually none of his contemporaries could be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sure that he was not Richard of York and that, consequently, Henry, his regime, and his opponents had to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(behave as if they were dealing with the son of the last fully effective and legitimate king of England: this is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(implicit in Cunningham's treatment, but it is not )] TJ ET BT 267.200 230.741 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(explicit)] TJ ET BT 302.528 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. Equally, it would have been very helpful to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(academic historians to see a reasoned response to Christine Carpenter's memorable criticism of Henry VII, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as a king ruling a still-medieval polity whose needs he largely failed to understand \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 436.628 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 436.628 200.835 m 442.628 200.835 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 442.628 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\). One senses that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cunningham disagrees with this view, but it would have been nice to see him make a case against it. )] TJ ET BT 518.960 187.973 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Did)] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Henry misjudge the power-structures of his realm? If he did, why did he? What were the results of these )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(misjudgements, and how much did they matter? Was the realm still 'medieval', in the intended sense of being )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dominated by networks of aristocratic lordship? Cunningham could answer all these questions, and there are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(indications of his views throughout the book, but, because questions like these are not posed, or dealt with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(systematically, there is a certain lack of clarity and conclusiveness in his treatment. Much of this, no doubt, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is due to the demands of the series in which the book appears. The blurb for Routledge Historical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 88.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Biographies promises 'engaging, readable and academically credible biographies', 'accessible accounts )] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([which] will bring important historical figures to life'. This seems to have meant a strict limit on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 59.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(footnotes, which is a real loss given Cunningham's extensive knowledge of the sources and the substantial )] TJ ET endstream endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 533.9237 712.1095 539.9237 723.9895 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 23 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 436.6277 201.1495 442.6277 213.0295 ] >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 26 0 R ] /Contents 25 0 R >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Length 7642 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(amount of fresh material he presents. It also means an emphasis on the personal, in that the king's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(motivations and experiences have to be placed at the centre of the book; and it has probably meant less )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(engagement with the historical and historiographical context of Henry's reign, because 'general readers' are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not supposed to find these interesting.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(There are two other criticisms I would make along these lines. The first concerns the background to Henry )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(VII's reign. Although Cunningham provides a good account of pre-1485 political events, at least as they bore )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(upon Henry Tudor, his handling of the broader context of the fifteenth century-the workings of the later-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(medieval polity, the dynamics of the civil wars, the European situation, even the patterns and events of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Edward IV's reign-is sketchy and often challengeable. Cunningham talks rather too readily about 'a century )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([before 1485] of noble squabbling over the crown' \(p.4\), and the nobility in his account are generally rather a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nuisance, squabbling over royal patronage and behaving in an overmighty fashion. While this negative )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(impression is palliated by occasional reminders that 'noble power underpinned so much of royal power' \(p. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(165\), and/or by noting that the nobility could pull together to try to restore order, there is little recognition )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that the pre-1485 political order could work perfectly well, and no sympathetic explanation of why it was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(structured as it was. This is a pity, as it was precisely this blind-spot among historians of the later-fifteenth )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and sixteenth centuries that prompted the medievalists' critique of Henry VII in the 1990s, and it does not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tally well with the way that historians of the rest of the fifteenth century think about the polity )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Cunningham's statement, on p. 121, that today's historians regard the works of Fortescue as a starting-point )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for the study of late-medieval political and constitutional ideas is seriously misleading-both )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historiographically, since most medievalists regard Fortescue as a problematic witness, and historically, as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his works were far from neutral and written in the context of prolonged political crisis\). In my view, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cunningham does not pay enough attention to why the political system broke down in the 1450s, or to how )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(it developed in the 1460s and 70s. The latter is a surprising omission, given how frequently the reigns of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Edward IV and Henry VII have been compared with each other, but it is also an important one, because the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(polity Henry inherited had been significantly reshaped by recurrent civil war and by the ways in which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(successive regimes had responded to it. Cunningham makes various references to how Henry VII built on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Edward IV's achievements, and/or avoided some of his misjudgements, but he does not give any focused )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consideration to the changes in royal government and noble power that took place in the Yorkist period, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which help to explain not only the strengths and weaknesses of Henry's situation, but also the solutions he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and his ministers adopted. It is not reasonable to call Henry's reign 'the important transition between the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(political disorder of the Wars of the Roses and the strident, confident Tudor monarchies that followed him' )] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(p. 285\) without considering what that political disorder had been about, and what transitions had already )] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(taken place before Henry came to rule.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Explaining these disorders and transitions means engaging with underlying structures, and that would be my )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(final criticism of this book: it concentrates more on personalities, conscious motivations, and events than the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(underlying patterns and frameworks that shape them. Once again, no doubt, this is a consequence of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(biographical format, and-to be fair-Cunningham scarcely ignores patterns of cause and effect, and writes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(shrewdly about both such things as the causes and the consequences of Henry's narrowing circle of friends, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(or the dilemmas of governing the localities without recourse to unreliable local potentates. But it seems to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(me that many of these ideas could be taken further, and that insufficient attention has been given to structural )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(factors. I would pick out three of these: the interpenetration of insular, 'British', and European political )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conflicts; the erosion of political confidence by recurrent political instability; the interaction of the whole )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(political order-commons and urban elites as well as greater and lesser landowners-with the dynamics of civil )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(war and the policies associated with 'new monarchy'.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As Cliff Davies has pointed out \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 192.668 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 192.668 131.811 m 198.668 131.811 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 198.668 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\), the struggles that affected England in the later-fifteenth century were, in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(part, the product of a process of state-making in the overlapping polities of North-Western Europe. While )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(parts of the political map had certainly solidified by 1485, other parts had not, and the position of Brittany, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ireland, Scotland and much of the area between Normandy and Holland was highly uncertain. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(development of powerful state machineries made intervention at the highest level-through pensioned )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(counsellors, dynastic challengers, diplomatic treaties, permanent ambassadors-more important than ever; yet )] TJ ET endstream endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 27 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 192.6677 132.1255 198.6677 144.0055 ] >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 29 0 R >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Length 7568 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the territorial power of regional princes, itself sometimes state-like, meant that it was not only kings who )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were part of this great game. This larger context must explain Henry VII's travails just as much as the local )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dynastic cleavage or the king's own policies and their results: Kildare and the other Anglo-Irish lords, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lieutenant of Calais and his establishment, Lincoln and the other de la Poles, Warwick, Bergavenny, and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(heirs of Northumberland and Buckingham were part of a complex politics that transcended national )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(boundaries, and their loyalties and calculations must have been forged against that wider canvas too. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cunningham is far from blind to the international context, perceptively casting the Simnel affair as 'the Irish )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(invasion', for instance, and treating Henry's policies towards Wales, Ireland, and foreign powers at some )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(length, but, in my view, he could have done more to explore the interplay of English, British, and European )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(frameworks and the permeability of the boundaries between them: there is a fundamental explanation for the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(insecurity of the Henrician regime here, and it is not really acknowledged in this book.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Loyalties were challenged from another direction too: the eroding effects of several decades of political )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(instability \(Edward IV's achievement having been thwarted by his early death\). Cunningham tends to assume )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that dynastic identities are strong and heartfelt. In his reading, Henry was essentially a Lancastrian and could )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(only attract fragile loyalties from former Yorkists, especially former Ricardians; when Yorkist alternatives )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(appeared-Lincoln/Simnel, Warbeck, Warwick, even Suffolk-these men readily returned to their natural )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(allegiance. I think this is a stage too simple. Dynastic associations were certainly not meaningless, because )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(they were woven into social networks and the memories of families, but they must have been heavily )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(qualified-by habits of obedience to the crown \(and structures of power and authority which generally made )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that obedience prudent\), by the forging of new relationships, and by changing political circumstances. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(blank slate which Henry VII presented to his new kingdom in 1485 was a tremendous asset, as \(in a more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(limited way\) it had been to the nineteen-year-old Edward IV in 1461; his mixed court, of old Lancastrians, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(former Edwardians, and pardoned Ricardians, was a normal and potentially effective power-base. If Henry )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(came to face betrayals by a succession of former Yorkists, this was not because they thought someone else )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was the true king, but because they were more likely to be approached by plotters, because they feared )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Henry's mistrust, and/or because they thought his regime might collapse and had to balance the dangers of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(defying their former associates against the dangers of betraying their vulnerable master. Henry's subjects had )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lived through decades in which adaptability was essential, and it was this very quality-not deep-seated )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(loyalties-which made them so tricky to manage in the 1480s and 90s. Only when the new dispensation had )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(proved itself unshakeable, and a new generation had grown up under it, would stronger loyalties develop-and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(then they would tend to focus on the king, as had been the case before the civil wars.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A third general problem facing Henry's regime lay in the complex dialogue between government and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(political society in what was evidently an era of change for both. In the second half of the fifteenth century, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the structures that had supported 'bastard feudal' lordship were breaking down: noble descents and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(aristocratic networks were many times disrupted; the crown became better able to attract and manage gentry )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(allegiances; the judicial order was changing. These developments both arose from and stimulated royal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(policy, and the general effect of all this change was to increase disorder and uncertainty: not only because he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was a usurper, but simply because he was king at this time, Henry VII was unable and unwilling to use the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(traditional means of local rule, and had therefore to pay the price of deploying and developing non-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(traditional ones. Meanwhile, the systems of taxation and representation hammered out between c.1215 and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(c.1370 were no longer easily workable. Once again, this was the complex result of royal action and changing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(circumstances; once again, it encouraged or forced the king into devices that destabilized the fiscal and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(political relationship with the mass of his subjects. Out of all this radical social and political change came )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the welling dissatisfaction which is apparent not only in the popular risings of 1489 and 1497, but also in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(politics of upper-class rebellion and in the policy initiatives of the government and its critics. Henry VII )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(should be neither praised nor blamed for his role in these processes: he was not the genius designer of a new )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(order; nor was he a fool who failed to understand that he was ruling a still-medieval polity. Rather, the king )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and his ministers-for let's remember that this was a joint effort-were men living in a time of rapid and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 88.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(general discursive, ideological, institutional, and socio-political change, and this underlying dynamic should )] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(play an important part in explaining both their successes and their failures.)] TJ ET endstream endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 32 0 R 34 0 R 36 0 R 38 0 R 40 0 R 42 0 R ] /Contents 31 0 R >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Length 4052 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(To conclude, then, I think that a more collected analysis of broader structures and dynamics might have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(increased the value of this book, but it would certainly be wrong to underplay its importance. Sean )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cunningham has given us a superb narrative of Henry VII's reign; he has brought lots of fresh evidence to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(light; his book is full of thought-provoking insights and ideas; and he has particularly striking things to say )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(about the localities, bonds and recognisances, and the politics of London. His )] TJ ET BT 408.308 727.445 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Henry VII)] TJ ET BT 456.620 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is a hefty )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(achievement, and a goldmine for anyone interested in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 678.291 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 647.674 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 647.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(M. M. Condon, 'Ruling Elites in the Reign of Henry VII' in )] TJ ET BT 351.332 647.669 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Patronage, Pedigree and Power)] TJ ET BT 506.648 647.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. C. D. )] TJ ET BT 64.016 633.413 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ross \(Gloucester, 1979\), 109-42. )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 226.328 633.413 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 226.328 632.019 m 280.316 632.019 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 619.162 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 619.157 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(C. Carpenter, 'Henry VII and the English Polity', in )] TJ ET BT 312.980 619.157 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Reign of Henry VII)] TJ ET BT 425.624 619.157 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. B. Thompson )] TJ ET BT 64.016 604.901 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Stamford, 1995\), 11-30. )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 186.668 604.901 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 186.668 603.507 m 240.656 603.507 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 590.650 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 590.645 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(C. S. L. Davies, 'The Wars of the Roses in European Context', in )] TJ ET BT 377.636 590.645 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Wars of the Roses)] TJ ET BT 484.964 590.645 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. A. 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