%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 16 0 R 18 0 R 20 0 R 22 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140826001111+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140826001111+01'00') /Title (Print Culture and the Early Quakers) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R 14 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4274 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Print Culture and the Early Quakers)] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This is a significant and provocative book about the early Quakers and their use of print in England from late )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1652 to the end of 1656. It begins with an argument: 'Quakers were highly engaged with contemporary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(political and religious affairs, and were committed in very practical ways to the establishment of Christ's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(kingdom on earth' \(p. 1\). Peters identifies the 'pamphleteering activities of the early Quaker movement' as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(central to their 'active political participation' and as 'one element in an extensive proselytising campaign )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which also used preaching, silence and symbolic performance, as well as private letters' \(pp. 1, 252\). She )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(develops her case in eight chapters, structuring her book into three parts. These focus upon; \(I\) Authorship, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(production, and readership; \(II\) Identity and discipline; \(III\) Religious and political debate.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As Peters observes, the Quakers were numerically the most important of all religious groups to emerge )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(during the English Revolution. Barry Reay, for example, estimated that by the early 1660s there were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(certainly between 35,000 and 40,000 Quakers, and perhaps as many as 60,000 \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 416.600 104.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 416.600 103.113 m 422.600 103.113 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 422.600 104.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\). Following Richard )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Vann's characterization of early Quakerism as a 'movement' rather than a sect, Peters deals briefly with the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 75.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historiography. Her starting point is to acknowledge Alan Cole's seminal work on the Quakers and politics )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which rejected the largely denominational view that early Quakers were pacifists aloof from political life. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(626)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Friday, 31 August, 2007)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Kate Peters)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780521770903)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2005)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(53.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(273pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cambridge University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.cambridge.org/catalogue/catalogue.asp?isbn=9780521770903)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cambridge)] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.579 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ariel Hessayon)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 15 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 416.5997 103.4275 422.5997 115.3075 ] >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 7639 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(However, she then questions the notion that the Quakers were a radical remnant of a failed revolution who )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(played little active part in the history of the 1650s \(pp. 3-5\). To appreciate Peters's challenging contribution )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to this debate, it is worthwhile considering how her approach fits in with the wider picture of early )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Quakerism that has emerged from previous studies.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Like other religious groups that survived the Restoration, the Quakers refashioning of their history and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(identity began early and in earnest. Unsurprisingly, while several of their enemies provided a genealogy for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(them that stretched from the mystics and spiritual reformers of continental Europe such as Paracelsus, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hendrik Niclaes, Valentin Weigel, and Jacob Boehme to their immediate forerunners-Levellers, Baptists, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Seekers and Ranters-Quakers themselves preferred to concentrate upon the sufferings of their founding )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fathers and mothers. Coupled with this martyrology were biographical studies of the leadership and their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more prominent followers. There was also a related emphasis on genealogy, local history, and bibliography )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that chimed with antiquarian research interests. From William Sewel's early-eighteenth-century history of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the rise of the Quakers to William Braithwaite's early-twentieth-century account of the beginnings of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Quakerism these narratives had common elements. Thus Quaker origins were explained as a long-term )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(development of the Reformation and contextualized against the backdrop of Civil Wars, regicide, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(revolution. The major personality was George Fox, although there were other valiant first publishers of truth. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(These pioneer evangelists followed in the Apostles' footsteps, boldly preaching their message of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(revelation of Jesus Christ as an indwelling presence-the light within. Despite religious persecution they )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(remained steadfast in their opposition to clerical authority, church worship, infant baptism, tithes, and oath )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(taking, refusing to take the sacrament of the Lord's Supper or remove their hats, and using plain speech. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Gathered primarily from northern Seeker communities these Quakers, as they were scornfully called, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(engaged in theological disputations with groups of Presbyterians, Independents, Baptists, and Ranters. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Itinerant preaching spread their ideas from the fertile soil of the northern counties to the midlands, eventually )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reaching London, Bristol, and beyond. Thereafter they crossed the sea westward to Ireland, the West Indies, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and North America; eastward to the Dutch Republic, German territories, and Ottoman Empire; southward to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(France, Spain, and the Italian states. Significantly, women took an active part in these missions and their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(preaching was defended. So too was the conduct of those engaged in prophetic behaviour like attempting to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(perform miracles-including raising from the dead-fasting excessively; eating their own dung; becoming )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(silent; trembling; dispensing with items of clothing; going barefoot, bareheaded, and partly or entirely )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(naked; blackening their faces; donning sackcloth; and casting ash upon their heads. Calumnies were also )] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(vigorously refuted, notably that Quakers blasphemed, suffered from mental illness, were epileptics or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bewitched, and that they were Jesuit or Franciscan agents despatched from Rome to foment sedition. Indeed, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their lack of involvement in anti-government plots was stressed as was their simple desire for liberty of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 314.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conscience expressed through printed addresses to Parliament. Highly organized, they corresponded )] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(extensively and held regular meetings that developed into institutional mechanisms for imposing doctrinal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(uniformity. Moreover, they collected funds nationally for a common treasury which was variously disbursed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 271.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relieving prisoners and sufferers, buying clothing and books, and subsidizing printing.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(While there is no watershed in Quaker historiography there was a gradual shift from a predominantly self-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(serving denominational version which venerated the founders towards a more critical appraisal of their role )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(within the movement and its broader contribution to the English Revolution. The bulk of this work, as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(before, was biographical and regional, concentrating on the leadership's itinerant preaching combined with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Quaker sufferings in local and national context. Yet there was also renewed interest in old questions. Hence )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Geoffrey Nuttall rejected Rufus Jones's suggestion that Quaker origins could be traced to continental )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Anabaptism, spiritualism, and mysticism, insisting rather that Quakerism was indigenous, having evolved )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from English puritanism. Further studies examined the early Quakers' interests in law, medicine, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hermeticism, Hebrew, and Jews as well as their attitudes towards the Bible, Apocrypha, and extra-canonical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(texts. Others considered the meaning of the Quakers' prophetic gestures and the symbolism of silence )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(together with their understanding of eschatology and apocalyptic belief that they were the children of light )] TJ ET BT 34.016 88.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(called to fight the Lamb's war in the last days. The social origins of Quakerism also received more attention, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as did their customs, costume, and manners. So too did their opposition to tithes and controversies with rival )] TJ ET BT 34.016 59.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(religious groups-notably Baptists and 'Ranters'. In addition, scholars explored early Quaker speech, )] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 4915 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(testimonies and self-representation, noting the emergence of a distinctive literary style. At the same time a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(number of books and articles extended our knowledge of women Quakers, focussing on their activities as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prophetesses, preachers, pamphleteers, publishers, and letter writers.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The sources from which these studies of early Quakerism were constructed are well-known. Like Baptists )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and Muggletonians, Quakers carefully collected, collated, and copied manuscripts which, together with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bound volumes of printed tracts, constitute the majority of the group's archive. Among the most important )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(collections for this period are the Abram Rawlinson Barclay and Swarthmore manuscripts, which have both )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(been transcribed. There are also calendars available of George Fox's papers and the Swarthmore MSS, as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(well as published extracts from State Papers relating to Quakers. In short, historians of the Quaker )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(movement tread on well-worn ground. Consequently, Peters's contribution is not based on the discovery of a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(range of new documents but on a reinterpretation of existing evidence. How far she has succeeded in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(advancing her claims is open to debate.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Writing, as Peters concedes, was 'not an inherent part of being a Quaker'. Nonetheless, she maintains that it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contributed to the movement's growth during the early 1650s and that it 'played an important practical role in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the establishment and maintenance of the Quaker ministry' \(pp. 16, 18, 23\). She estimates that about one )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hundred Quaker authors had their writings published by 1656, contributing to a total of 291 publications. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The most prolific was James Nayler, whose name is attached to almost one-fifth of all Quaker publications )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(between 1652 and 1656 \(pp. 21, 22\). Peters also notes that papers, letters, or printed tracts could be 'more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(widely dispersed than oral preaching' and suggests that Quaker authors expected their writings 'to function in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lieu of their preaching'. Furthermore, she asserts that a major purpose of Quaker writing was to convince )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(potential followers by publicizing their cause to the outside world \(pp. 26, 29, 31, 42\). Her emphasis on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(writing and authority in the early Quaker movement is of course vital if she is to sustain her thesis. For if )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(writing was unimportant to Quakers then it follows that they did not attach as much significance to print as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(she insists. Indeed, there is a strong counter-argument to be made which Peters is quick to minimize. It is not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(known how many Quakers were literate, nor how many read or heard Quaker writings, but less than 0.3% )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were published authors. Early Quaker worship was largely silent, while prophecies were generally enacted )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(through a combination of speech and symbolic gestures. Moreover, Quaker ministers walked up and down )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the land and even sailed across the sea to spread their message. If these men and women believed that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(writing had made itinerant preaching redundant they could have stayed at home instead of feeling inspired to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(follow scriptural precedents. Clearly writing played a key part-especially for the leadership, whose message )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was more widely disseminated, whose activities were commemorated, and whose absence was replaced by a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(textual trace. Yet it must be seen as operating in conjunction with other factors in facilitating the spread of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Quakerism. Peters recognizes this, though I feel her case is unbalanced.)] TJ ET endstream endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 21 0 R >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Length 7640 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Peters stands on firmer footing when she deals with the production and readership of Quaker pamphlets. She )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(claims that Quaker leaders produced printed tracts as 'a very precise tool', addressing specific audiences. In )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(addition, she connects the movement's expansion during the summer of 1654 and the subsequent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concentration of Quaker ministers in London with the elections for, and assembly of, the first Protectorate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Parliament \(pp. 43, 46, 48\). If correct, this reinforces her suggestion that early Quakers were politically )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(active, although it is fair to point out that Quakers had travelled to London before and continued to journey )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(there afterwards. Elsewhere Peters highlights the important contribution of Giles Calvert, who issued or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sold, either individually or in partnership, more than 475 known different publications, of which about 200 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were by Quaker authors. Quakers also entrusted Calvert with forwarding their letters and this trust was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reciprocated with loans that Calvert gave to Quakers newly arrived in London. Peters is at her most assured )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(when discussing the financing and distribution of Quaker publications, elaborating on earlier work on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Kendal Fund. She continues this theme by looking at pamphleteering in East Anglia. This case study, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(however, originated as a chapter in an edited collection and its modified inclusion is ill-judged since the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(scope of her book calls for examples on a national scale. Nonetheless, her notion that the Quaker leadership )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(had a strategy for spreading their faith by targeting urban centres with a proselytising campaign that would )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(create martyrs for the movement whose experiences and sufferings could then be publicized to a wider )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(audience through the medium of print-and, it must be said, by word of mouth-deserves to be taken seriously.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Part II begins with a discussion of the printed identity of the movement. This too derives from an earlier )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(essay, yet read as an isolated chapter it is extremely effective. Here Peters persuasively argues that printed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tracts were 'instrumental to the rapid establishment of a visible "Quaker" movement in the early 1650s' \(p. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(91\). She shows how authors neutralized the pejorative connotations of the term 'Quaker' by bearing it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(proudly and emphasizing scriptural texts which stated that God favours those of a contrite spirit who tremble )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(at his word. I am in agreement: religious controversy and persecution were important elements in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(formation of Quaker identities. Even so, Peters goes further, maintaining that self-identifying Quaker authors )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were 'writing not as individuals, but under the auspices of their religious movement'. Evidently she sees no )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tension between this statement and the following; 'there is no fixed pattern for authors emphasizing their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Quaker status over their own individual status'. And she acknowledges that Fox and Nayler sometimes used )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(just their names or initials on the title-pages of their tracts \(pp. 111, 112\). She also claims too much in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(holding that 'use of the term "Quaker" epitomizes the cohesive nature of their publications' \(p. 123\). This )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(point needs to be qualified. Quakerism was not a movement free from personal rivalry and schism and while )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the earliest sources for internal dissent are commonly found in manuscripts and non-Quaker publications )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(there was a shift post-Restoration as splinter groups increasingly used printed tracts to rally support. Her )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fifth chapter on women and pamphleteering is likewise adapted from a previously published paper. Again, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(read in isolation it is excellent. This time Peters focuses on discipline and the very specific role printed tracts )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(played shaping a doctrinal position 'on the spiritual equality of women, and on their fitness for public )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ministry' \(p. 125\). Using evidence largely drawn from manuscript letters she reveals that 'women were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(integrated into the early movement and were active participants in its growth', receiving 'money, support, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(shelter and inspiration from the very close network of Quaker missionaries' \(p. 150\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Part III starts by looking at pamphleteering and religious debate. Challenging the widely-held view that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Quakers' pamphlet debates initially lacked theological coherence or sophistication, Peters contends that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pamphleteering was 'an integral part of the Quakers' campaign to achieve universal religious participation'. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(However, I disagree with her characterization of Quakers as 'spiritual millenarians' and do not see how she )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(can describe their millenarianism as 'mystical' \(p. 154\). Indeed, she barely touches on the Quakers' decidedly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(non-secular participation in the Lamb's war and the accompanying performance of prophetic gestures. Peters )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(also ascribes homogeneity to rival Fifth Monarchist, Baptist, Independent, and Presbyterian congregations )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that sits oddly with our knowledge of their variegated nature, though it does accord with a tendency in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Quaker polemic to lump their opponents into distinct groups. Her seventh chapter on print and political )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(participation is, I think, more problematic still. Rejecting arguments which have emphasized 'the alienation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of Quakers from the worldly politics of the 1650s', Peters attempts to show how 'print served to transform )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(accounts of local prosecution into an explicitly political context', asserting that it was their 'use of print )] TJ ET endstream endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 24 0 R 26 0 R 28 0 R 30 0 R ] /Contents 23 0 R >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Length 5764 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which signalled and facilitated widespread participation in the struggle for religious toleration' \(pp. 193, 194, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(195\). Yet part of her description of how Quakers were prosecuted in the localities repeats earlier material )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and lacks a comparative dimension: Baptists and Muggletonians, for example, were equally attuned to legal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(process and precedent. Nor does she adequately explain why Quakers might engage in law reform or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(participate in the establishment of a truly godly commonwealth for reasons other than self-interest. After all )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their vision of the impending millennium was no Baconian 'Great Instauration', nor were they Erastians )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(upholding the authority of magistrates to keep the peace and enforce a judicial definition of blasphemy. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Equally unconvincing is her claim of an emerging 'Quaker lobby' addressing central government, presenting )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(local instances of religious persecution 'as evidence of the need for legislative change'. Peters even admits )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that 'such tracts were often written as prophecy rather than as direct pleas or petitions', adding that Quaker )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(authors 'dismissed petitions as deferential'. She concludes by appearing to contradict her initial position; )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('printed tracts addressed to central government were not intended to achieve specific legislative or political )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(change' \(p. 210\). I also disagree with her suggestion that 'the early movement emerged as a multifaceted )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(political campaign which combined the private lobbying of political leaders with printed tracts urging )] TJ ET BT 34.016 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(widespread participation to achieve godly rule' \(p. 212\). Indeed, I see little evidence to support it. Her final )] TJ ET BT 34.016 582.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chapter on James Nayler and the crisis of 1656 depicts his 'symbolic re-enactment of Christ's entrance into )] TJ ET BT 34.016 568.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jerusalem' and subsequent trial as the culmination of the Quaker leadership's political campaign for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 554.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('religious settlement' \(pp. 233, 234\). If so, then why were 'discussions of Nayler's actions and his trial' )] TJ ET BT 34.016 539.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('strikingly absent' from most 'Quaker tracts of this time, despite a barrage of hostile publications'? Again, if )] TJ ET BT 34.016 525.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Quakers tended to eschew petitioning how significant was it that most petitioners were 'Quaker sympathisers )] TJ ET BT 34.016 511.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rather than Quakers' \(pp. 245, 247\)? As for her other contention that 'Nayler's trial confirms the very tight )] TJ ET BT 34.016 497.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(organization which lay behind Quaker pamphleteering and the movement as a whole', one wonders how this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 482.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(event could have been preceded by leadership struggles if the Quakers were as unified a movement as Peters )] TJ ET BT 34.016 468.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(claims \(pp. 234, 238, 239\). Indeed, I find it ironic that she ends a book which sees the Quakers' printed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 454.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(output as careful, cohesive, and consistent with the most dramatic and damaging schism in the history of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 440.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(early Quakerism.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 405.171 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 374.554 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 374.549 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Barry Reay, )] TJ ET BT 125.000 374.549 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Quakers and the English Revolution)] TJ ET BT 319.988 374.549 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Hounslow, 1985\), pp. 11, 26-29. )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 486.308 374.549 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 486.308 373.155 m 540.296 373.155 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 348.293 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 334.037 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(h-net-review)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 319.781 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.h-net.org/reviews/showrev.php)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 318.387 m 240.992 318.387 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 243.992 319.781 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET BT 34.016 305.525 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(muse)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 291.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/ren/summary/v059/59.1halasz.html)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 289.875 m 342.020 289.875 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 345.020 291.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 286.543 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 268.763 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 268.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/626)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 267.369 m 322.316 267.369 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 242.392 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 227.992 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/4133)] TJ ET BT 34.016 213.592 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.h-net.org/reviews/showrev.php?id=11657)] TJ ET BT 34.016 199.192 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3] http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/ren/summary/v059/59.1halasz.html)] TJ ET endstream endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 25 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 486.3077 373.4695 540.2957 385.3495 ] >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 27 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 318.7015 240.9917 330.5815 ] >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.h-net.org/reviews/showrev.php?id=11657) >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 29 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 290.1895 342.0197 302.0695 ] >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/ren/summary/v059/59.1halasz.html) >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 31 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 267.6835 322.3157 279.5635 ] >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/626) >> endobj xref 0 32 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000349 00000 n 0000000386 00000 n 0000000545 00000 n 0000000634 00000 n 0000004960 00000 n 0000005069 00000 n 0000005179 00000 n 0000005288 00000 n 0000008849 00000 n 0000008977 00000 n 0000009061 00000 n 0000009189 00000 n 0000009225 00000 n 0000009290 00000 n 0000016982 00000 n 0000017047 00000 n 0000022015 00000 n 0000022080 00000 n 0000029773 00000 n 0000029878 00000 n 0000035695 00000 n 0000035823 00000 n 0000035859 00000 n 0000035986 00000 n 0000036087 00000 n 0000036214 00000 n 0000036327 00000 n 0000036455 00000 n trailer << /Size 32 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 36550 %%EOF