%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 18 0 R ] /Count 4 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140416093128+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140416093128+01'00') /Title (Fear. Anti-Semitism in Poland after Auschwitz: An Essay in Historical Interpretation) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4158 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Fear. Anti-Semitism in Poland after Auschwitz: An Essay in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Historical Interpretation)] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The fate of Jews in post-war Europe is a subject which has been neglected by historians both in the West and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in areas previously under Soviet control. Clearly this is not a subject which has neutral connotations, raising )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(questions about the way pre-war political elites subscribed to the belief that the fate of Jews was not an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(important element in the history of a given nation/state, the degree of complicity between the occupation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(administration and the local community, and, finally, how post-war reconciliation seemingly made it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(necessary to avoid the debate of the Jewish war-time tragedies. Poland is not unique in the way that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(subject has been avoided. France, Italy, Holland, Denmark and Switzerland have only belatedly faced the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(uncomfortable truths relating to governments' and individuals' actions during the Nazi period. There is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 152.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(presently a willingness to admit that local co-operation and complicity in the Nazis' extermination policies )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were factors of considerable importance in the history of the Holocaust.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 111.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Since the establishment of independent Poland, successive governments have had to face the strength of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nationalism, which ultimately challenged the right of Jews to define themselves either as Polish nationals or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 83.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as rightful citizens of the independent Polish state. The Communist government of the post-war period was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not unique in having to debate the fact that support for Jews would reduce the government's popular appeal, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(slender as it always was. What distinguished Poland from other West-European states was the fact that a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(627)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Friday, 31 August, 2007)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jan Gross)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780691128788)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2006)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(261pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Princeton University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://press.princeton.edu/titles/8347.html)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Princeton and Oxford)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A. J. Prazmowska)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7694 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(government based on a universalist creed of equality could and did appropriate nationalist symbols and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prejudices to boost its image. The result was that far from attacking the nationalist and clericalist ideas )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which dominated the political discourse of the inter-war period, the Communist government only too )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(willingly blocked calls for an open debate of the more painful episodes in Poland's recent history. Of those, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the fate of Jews during the period immediately after the liberation of Polish territories is the most )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(controversial.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The impact of this policy of the Communist regime, embracing the concept of Polish nationalism on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jewish community in Poland and, by implication, the study of the fate of the Polish community, has been )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(immense. Within the academic community the subject could not be addressed openly. Nor was this a subject )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(debated within the West-European academic world. Michal Checi?ski's )] TJ ET BT 379.772 656.165 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Poland, Communism, Nationalism, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Anti-Semitism)] TJ ET BT 101.348 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(New York, 1982\) was unusual in that respect. This was a stinging condemnation of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Communist regime for its mistreatment of Jews. The author accused the Communists of fomenting anti-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Semitic incidents, most notably the Kielce pogrom in 1946. In 1992, Krystyna Kersten in her )] TJ ET BT 483.980 613.397 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Polacy, ?ydzi, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Komunism. Anatomia plprawd 1939-6)] TJ ET BT 224.024 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Warsaw, 1992\) did not merely write about the history of the Polish )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jewish community in Communist Poland but, more importantly, boldly challenged the popular perception )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that Jews were in some way closely linked to the establishment of that regime. Since then the study of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jewish history has progressed, but the nationalist agenda in which Jews are portrayed as antagonistic to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(existence and interests of the Polish nation continues to cloud the historic assessment of events of the post-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(war period.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In 2001 Gross published a book, which changed the nature of the debate. )] TJ ET BT 386.948 501.605 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Neighbours: The Destruction of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Jewish Community in Jedwabne, Poland)] TJ ET BT 229.004 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Princeton, NJ, 2001\) had an impact well beyond academic circles. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For the first time a clear statement was made that Poles, who until then had been portrayed as undisputed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(victims of Nazi race polices, had been willing perpetrators of genocide against the Jews. Through the study )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of a small town in Eastern Poland Gross showed how, if the opportunity arose, Christian neighbours became )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(murderers. He further suggested that the post-war Communist government was reluctant to prosecute the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(perpetrators of the crimes committed against Jews. The revelations, and the interpretation of the historic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(events it describes, led the Polish government and the President to authorize a full investigation. An official )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(apology was offered for what had happened. The Catholic Church was at the same time forced to consider its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(own spiritual cowardice during that period and subsequently. The Polish episcopate expressed regret for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(what had happened in 1941. The reaction of the Polish community, including those who deem themselves to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(be the intellectuals, has been diverse and only too frequently angry. Popular responses amounted to an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unwillingness to accept that any crime had been committed in Jedwabne. More surprisingly, a number of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Polish academics returned to the popular perception that Jews had only themselves to blame for Polish )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hostility during and after the war. Of those who maintained that Gross had either misused historic evidence )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(or failed to draw correct conclusions, Tomasz Strzembosz, Leszek ?ebrowski, Piotr Gontarczyk and Marek )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chodakiewicz were most prominent. The common theme of their attack on Gross has been the suggestion )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that Jews had in disproportionate numbers supported Communism. With reference to the Jedwabne tragedy, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(figures have been mustered to suggest that Jews, unlike Christians, were willing to co-operate with the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Soviet authorities when Poland's eastern areas were incorporated in the Soviet Union as a result of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ribbentrop-Molotov agreement. This, according to Gross's detractors, accounted for the Polish community's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hatred of Jews. The equation drawn between Jews and Communism continues to be invoked and is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consistently maintained by historians addressing both the wartime and the post-war period.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Gross's recent book should on no account be seen as the first English language publication in which an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attempt is made to move on the debate on the supposed Jewish contribution to the Soviet plans for Poland to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(include the period between the end of the war and the final establishment of the Communist government in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1947. In 2003, East European Monographs published )] TJ ET BT 292.988 118.949 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(After the Holocaust: Polish-Jewish Conflicts in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Wake of the World War II)] TJ ET BT 158.324 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( by Chodakiewicz. The author presented a clear debate on what he perceived to be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(distortions in the recent understanding of the relationship between the actions of Christians and Jews in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Polish territories during the post-war period. While his desire to introduce a nuanced understanding of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(way both communities responded to occupation and liberation is commendable, the book is marred by a )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 7088 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(general desire to implicate Jews in the coming to power of a Soviet-sponsored government.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Gross's )] TJ ET BT 71.840 770.213 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Fear)] TJ ET BT 95.168 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( has to be seen in the context of the debate, which is being driven by historians with a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nationalist agenda that they have pursued since the end of Communism. To them, Communism is an alien )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(creed, incompatible with, and antagonistic to, the interests of the Polish nation. The fate of Jews in post-war )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Poland is conveniently placed in the centre of this debate, thus at one stroke negating Jewish claims to a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Polish identity and at the same time explaining the existence of Communism as wholly foreign to, and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(result of outside interference in, Polish history.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 672.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Gross's approach is to encourage the reader to view the period through the eyes of the Jews who were in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 658.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Poland when the first post-war administration was established. His reliance on first-hand accounts, on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reports submitted by Jewish organizations, and on accounts written by foreign diplomats and journalists is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(aimed at reconstructing the mood of the time. Fear dominated every aspect of the lives of those who were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(defined by the community as Jewish. This was not an anxiety about housing, food or even the fate of family )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(members and friends. Gross differentiates between hardships which Jews would have suffered in common )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with the Polish community-a general sense of insecurity which dominated daily life in war-torn Polish )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(territories-and those that were experienced by Jews alone; he paints a picture of an all-pervading anxiety that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(once someone was identified as a Jew the community would turn on that hapless person. Several instances of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the community turning into a pogrom mob determined to eradicate every Jewish person found are discussed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in greater detail. The Krakw and Kielce pogroms are analysed, as are other instances of the Christian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(community mobilizing to murder Jews in its midst.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapter 1 is an outline of the political background to the establishment of a Communist-dominated )] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(government in post-war Poland. Chapters 2 and 3 focus on the general attitude towards Jews and on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(analysing the two best-known pogroms. Chapter 4 is an analysis of the way in which the government, but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(most importantly the Polska Partia Robotnicza \(PPR\), the post-war Communist party, dealt with the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(situation. Gross is able to explain the apparent contradictions between the actions of a left-wing radical party )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which nevertheless defined itself and its political role as the defence of Polish national interests. The logical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conclusion of this was that Communists were unwilling to be seen supporting the right of Jews to remain in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Poland. An interesting example offered by the author is of the two Berman brothers, one of who became the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chief ideologue of the Stalinist period and the other a committed Zionist and thus advocate of Jews leaving )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Poland.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In his attempt to explain the limits of the government's responses to tragedies, the author leaves no stone )] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unturned. He notes that the intellectuals condemned the pogroms and mistreatment of the Jews, but that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Catholic Church at best condoned these events through its failure to denounce them. Some parish priests still )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(viewed Jews as deserving divine retribution for their role in the crucifixion of Jesus. The belief that Jews )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(needed the blood of Christian innocents was widespread in Poland and parish priests did nothing to dispel it. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The Church's reactions to the Kielce pogrom is shown through its official pronouncements which displayed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(moral cowardice and spiritual poverty, thus accounting for a general perception that the Catholic Church )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(would offer absolution to the participants of pogroms, were they moved to seek it.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 208.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapter 6 is in effect a polemic against those who have suggested that the Jews were the architects of their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(own fate, because of their eagerness to welcome Communists and the fact that they showed little, if any, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(commitment to Polish independence. Gross rejects both as unfounded and, critically, places the blame for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the general belief that killing Jews could not be equated with the killing of human beings on Nazi atrocities. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 151.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(He has thus refused to draw a line between the anti-Semitic policies of the pre-war government and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pogrom of the post-war period by stating that Nazi policies of extermination created opportunities for Poles )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to improve their material lot and, consequently, an anxiety that this would be destroyed if Jews returned to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reclaim their properties. Gross clearly struggles to understand and to explain the apparent communal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(insensitivity to the fate of the Jewish survivors. Chapter 7 is an attempt to outline some reasons for this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(phenomenon, which was unique to Poland. To his credit, Gross finds it difficult, if not impossible, either to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(comprehend or to account fully for this situation.)] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 20 0 R 22 0 R 24 0 R ] /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 4709 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A book which addresses this much neglected chapter in the history of Poland, only recently a victim of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(brutal and arbitrary persecution, fills in a major gap. That is not to suggest that it does not have its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(limitations. Gross is particularly good in reconstructing the mood prevailing in the community, the moral )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(void in which the killing of a randomly-identified Jew is met with popular approval. Where Gross fails to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(deliver is in explaining the political situation. The role of the anti-Communist underground, both the Armia )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Krajowa \(AK\) and the nationalist Narodowe Sily Zbrojne \(NSZ\), in stoking-up communal hatred and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(encouraging the perception that Soviet domination was tantamount to rule by Jews, should have been )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discussed. The obvious weakness of the security services, for which the Communists remained responsible )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(throughout this period, is an aspect of the story which has also received little attention. The low calibre of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the people on whom the government had to depend to discharge administrative functions in the areas outside )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Warsaw is striking and reveals a lot about the government's limits of authority. A publication which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(addresses the issue from the victims' perspective, which is the strong point of this book, needs to link up )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with other similar studies. Pogroms and fratricidal conflicts are usually signs of social disequilibria caused )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by political, economic or military trauma. Gross's focus on the Polish experience will make an invaluable )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contribution to these studies, though he himself has done little to acknowledge these historic phenomena.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Gross clearly intends his publication to generate a further debate. It is therefore puzzling that nowhere in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(book's footnotes, endnotes, bibliography or index has he acknowledged any of the historians who have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attacked him in the past and with whom he is clearly conducting a polemic throughout the pages of this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(book. One cannot help wondering whether he made a decision not to grace them with his attention. If this is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the case, it might have been unwise. The structure of his debate leaves the reader in no doubt as to their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(arguments, which he intends to refute through his excellent scholarship. An open acknowledgement of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(other, however unworthy, schools of debate would have been appropriate.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(h-net-reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.h-net.org/reviews/showrev.php)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 416.931 m 240.992 416.931 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 243.992 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(oxford journals)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://ehr.oxfordjournals.org/content/CXXII/499/1460.full)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 388.419 m 314.336 388.419 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 317.336 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 385.087 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 367.307 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 367.307 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/627)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 365.913 m 322.316 365.913 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 340.936 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 326.536 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/4135)] TJ ET BT 34.016 312.136 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.h-net.org/reviews/showrev.php?id=11952)] TJ ET BT 34.016 297.736 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3] http://ehr.oxfordjournals.org/content/CXXII/499/1460.full)] TJ ET endstream endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 417.2455 240.9917 429.1255 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.h-net.org/reviews/showrev.php?id=11952) >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 23 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 388.7335 314.3357 400.6135 ] >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://ehr.oxfordjournals.org/content/CXXII/499/1460.full) >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 25 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 366.2275 322.3157 378.1075 ] >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/627) >> endobj xref 0 26 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000342 00000 n 0000000379 00000 n 0000000587 00000 n 0000000669 00000 n 0000004879 00000 n 0000004988 00000 n 0000005098 00000 n 0000005207 00000 n 0000008768 00000 n 0000008896 00000 n 0000008980 00000 n 0000009045 00000 n 0000016792 00000 n 0000016857 00000 n 0000023998 00000 n 0000024096 00000 n 0000028858 00000 n 0000028985 00000 n 0000029086 00000 n 0000029213 00000 n 0000029322 00000 n 0000029450 00000 n trailer << /Size 26 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 29545 %%EOF