%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 18 0 R 20 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140828185319+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140828185319+01'00') /Title (Britain, Hanover and the Protestant Interest, 1688-1756) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 3980 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Britain, Hanover and the Protestant Interest, 1688-1756)] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In this intellectually stimulating book Andrew C. Thompson criticises a realist interpretation of British )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(foreign policy. His main argument runs that eighteenth-century foreign policy 'was not simply determined )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(either by the desire for profit or territorial gain. It was part of a complex web of ideas that were intimately )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(related to a broader political culture' \(p. 2\). Thompson suggests that 'Protestant interest' was a vital part of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(eighteenth-century political culture and, thus, an important aspect in the debate about foreign policy. In order )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to demonstrate the impact of the Protestant interest on political thinking Thompson examines British foreign )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(policy in Europe with a special focus on the Old Reich, the Holy Roman Empire of the German nation, from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Glorious Revolution to the Seven Years' War. Three controversial topics are conjointly discussed: )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(religion as an argument in foreign policy, Britain's continental commitment during a period of intensive )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(colonial expansion and Britain's role on the continent in the light of the Personal Union with the Electorate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of Hanover.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thompson's central thesis is based on three highly convincing assumptions. First, he argues for a period of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 75.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(transition from an age of confessional divide to the time of the Enlightenment. He writes: 'Just as catholic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rulers did not suddenly decide in 1648 to accept the end of Christendom and the birth of a new community )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(628)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Friday, 31 August, 2007)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Andrew C. Thompson)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9781843832416)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2006)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(50.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(288pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Boydell & Brewer)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.boydell.co.uk/43832410.HTM)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Woodbridge)] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.579 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Torsten Riotte)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 4705 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of states, as a historical international relations theory implies, neither did persecution by catholic rulers )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(suddenly cease in 1700 because it was now the century of enlightenment' \(p. 41\). Rather than 1648 he posits )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the accession of Frederick II of Prussia in 1740 as a watershed in the impact of the Protestant interest on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(political negotiating. Thompson's criticism of 'a noticeable reluctance to let religion and politics mix in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(period after 1648' understands historians as 'trapped by their own notions of periodisation' \(p. 67\). Thompson )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(convincingly demonstrates that confessional motivation was not anachronistic for enlightened )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contemporaries.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Despite this first assumption Thompson does not argue for strict continuity between the seventeenth and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(eighteenth centuries. Instead, in his second assumption, religion is presented as a vital element of foreign )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(policy, although, at the same time, he accepts that the confessional divide did not play as obvious a role as it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(had during the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries. However, this transformation in the nexus between religion )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and political thought does not undermine his overall argument. Instead, it gives a flexibility to his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interpretation that makes it more convincing. As he writes: 'The protestant interest does not provide a "total" )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(explanation of foreign policy in the period. Yet analysing it indicates how debates about foreign policy were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conducted' \(p.132\). This is an important reservation. Although the changes discussed are not understood to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(be from a religious age to an enlightened period, Thompson still emphasises that he does not generally )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(question a transformation in the nature of policy-making. The defence of the Protestant interest played a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(crucial role and it is the aim of the book to identify that role and the nature of its historical transformation: 'If )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(there had been a shift away from war as the best means to further religious ends, the shift was not from zeal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to scepticism but rather a change in the nature of the means through which it was thought that Protestantism )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(could best be defended' \(p. 96\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thompson does not argue that the eighteenth century still saw military conflict purely over confessional )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(claims. Instead, he identifies confessional arguments in the ideological framework of contemporary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(politicians and diplomatists. In this context, he is certainly right in pointing out that the majority of decision-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(makers during the reigns of George I and George II grew up in a period of intense confessional divide. This )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(argument leads to his third assumption, that politicians and diplomatists were part of contemporary society, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sharing common world views and beliefs. Thompson writes: 'Statesmen may have considered strategy and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(territorial gain more carefully than those less "in the know". Yet politicians \(and the elite more generally\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were not immune to wider patterns of thought. There is no straight opposition between religious/ethical and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(practical/pragmatic concerns' \(p. 89\). Thus, the book examines the link between political culture and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(political decision-making through a discussion of the defence of Protestantism as a foreign-political )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(argument from 1688 to 1756.)] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 7240 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thompson's empirical work is based on three case studies. In his account of British and Hanoverian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(responses to the crisis between Catholics and Protestants in the German city of Heidelberg from 1719 to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1724 he demonstrates how the struggle between the Catholic Elector Carl Philip and the reformed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Protestants in the Palatinate over sharing a church in the capital was perceived by a European public and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(followed by severe diplomatic rows in the German Reich and Europe. The shift away from ideological )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(warfare of an earlier period did not extinguish the confessional characteristics that shaped politics and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(policies just as much as society and statesmen. In his second example, the Thorn crisis of 1724-7, Thompson )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(examines how the execution of a \(disputed\) number of Protestants, although fewer than 15, in a Polish town )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in eastern Prussia also ended in a European crisis. His third case study, the War of the Polish Succession, is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(slightly different. It does not focus on a confessional conflict that expands into a political crisis. Instead, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(link between confessional and German politics in a European context is emphasised. As Thompson points )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(out: 'Regardless of what British ministers thought personally, electoral affairs inevitably meant that it was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(necessary to be aware of confessional politics in the Empire' \(p. 177\). The latter explains why Hanover plays )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(such a prominent role in the book. Many of the decisions taken in the context of European foreign policy, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(one of the few prerogatives of the early Georgian monarchs, were executed by them not as kings of Great )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Britain and Ireland but as Electors of Hanover. Thus, many of the controversies over confession were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(overlooked by British historians as they did not give sufficient consideration to this Hanoverian dimension )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in British foreign policy.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The book has many strengths. Its main asset is to question a periodisation that does not allow for a time of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(transition or change. Thompson's approach permits emphasis to be placed on continuities and change. In )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(what can be termed a more cultural school of political history he emphasises contemporary perceptions over )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(realist argument. As he points out: 'Irrespective of whether the papacy or the Jesuits were plotting the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(destruction of Protestantism, the "fact" that they were perceived to be so doing affected the attitudes and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(policies of officials in both Britain and Hanover'. It is less the actual threat from Catholicism that becomes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the major focus of his interpretation than stereotypical images of a Catholic menace and the consequences )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that follow from it: 'Lack of good faith was a characteristic that protestants particularly associated with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(catholic princes' \(p. 57\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(While the book thus follows the more recent changes in the interpretation of politics towards a culturalist )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(explanation, it is more revisionist in a different aspect. Thompson's understanding of empire does not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exclude Britain's European interests. He clearly criticises an interpretation of British history that sees its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(colonial expansion as the dominant interest in eighteenth-century foreign policy. Historical analysis that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(focuses exclusively on Britain's 'blue water' policy underestimates the importance of continental affairs to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(British governments of the day. Thompson writes: [A]s well as being an Atlantic, and increasingly in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(eighteenth century an imperial, power, Britain had, through dynastic links, a European identity as well'. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thompson argues that a focus on aspects of empire should not exclude a discussion of British commitment )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to Europe: 'Instead of simply thinking about New British History, the insights provided by thinking of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Britain as a composite state or multiple monarchy with a European aspect provide a more fruitful context for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(British history in the late seventeenth and early eighteenth centuries \(p. 236\). Thompson's Hanoverian or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(continental findings are very important and offer a fresh interpretation of British foreign policy of the period. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(To some extent, they underpin the most important arguments of the book.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The book's particular strength also lies in its mastery of the intricacies of German Reichspolitik, combining )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(it with a discussion of British involvement via and opposed to Hanoverian interests. Thompson skilfully )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(blends the different layers of his analysis into a highly readable narrative. It is impressive how he finds his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(way from the interpretation of the intricacies of confessional debate in a south German market town to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mechanics of European foreign policy. As he puts it: 'What had begun as a dispute about a book and a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(church had become entwined with bigger issues' \(p. 76\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(While Thompson's interpretations of late seventeenth- and early eighteenth-century foreign policy deserve )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(praise and seem fully justified, there are two major reservations regarding his approach. First, many of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(arguments fail to reach a positive conclusion. Thompson asks the right questions but his study does not )] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 6264 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(provide many answers. Despite his detailed analysis it is extremely difficult to pin down where and, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(particularly, how religion had an impact on policy-making. While he is certainly right in stressing the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(importance of a confessional divide and the more general argument of a 'Protestant interest', particularly in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his first two case studies, it remains almost impossible to draw specific conclusions in a broader European )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(context. This is something of which Thompson is aware:)] TJ ET BT 64.016 701.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It has often been assumed that religion was unimportant to foreign policy because it is difficult )] TJ ET BT 64.016 686.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to point to situations where religion alone can be said to have determined policy. This negative, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 672.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in terms of results, should not be taken at face value. Ideas and assumptions were also )] TJ ET BT 64.016 658.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(important, even though they are less easy to reconstruct than a simple chronology of decisions )] TJ ET BT 64.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and actions \(p. 235\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 605.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Still, the picture that Thompson paints remains somehow vague as it proves impossible to reconstruct the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 591.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ideological elements in foreign policy beyond the fact that the Protestant interest mattered.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 565.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This is further undermined by a degree of ambivalence in the individual behaviour of his main protagonists, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 551.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Hanoverian monarchs. Regarding the religious beliefs of the first two Georges, Thompson writes: 'While )] TJ ET BT 34.016 536.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(George III remained faithful to his wife, the gifts showered upon their mistresses by George I and II were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 522.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(notorious. Hence, it is often believed that neither George I nor George II was personally religious' \(p. 5\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 508.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thompson admits that in most cases the monarch proved less zealous in defending the Protestant interest )] TJ ET BT 34.016 494.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(than the overall argument of the book implies, but he still thinks it fair to argue the importance of religion to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 479.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(both George I and George II. With regard to the former he writes: 'George disliked religious war but he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 465.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(would not flinch from taking firm action, if forced, to defend legitimate protestant rights' \(p. 84\). The degree )] TJ ET BT 34.016 451.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to which Protestantism was used by the monarch varied: 'French power declined after Louis XIV's death. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 437.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(George I stressed protestant unity in the 1720s because one of his key diplomatic adversaries was now )] TJ ET BT 34.016 422.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(catholic Austria. Relations with Austria improved after 1740 so it seemed less opportune for George II to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 408.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(stress confessional difference' \(p. 188\). This, again, seems to imply that religious motivation played less of a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 394.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(role in determining the outcome of policy than Thompson's hypothesis would have us believe. He is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 380.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(certainly right in stressing that the 'Grand Alliance, even with catholic members, could function as a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 365.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(protestant shield', but whether this was presented as such to justify foreign political decisions or whether it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 351.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(had a direct impact and in what form remains unclear. Thompson states: [T]here is a tendency to minimise )] TJ ET BT 34.016 337.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the importance of the confessional issue by turning it into a mask for the ambition of an individual' \(p. 66\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 311.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thompson tries to avoid the difficulties arising from the monarch's lack of personal piety by focusing on two )] TJ ET BT 34.016 296.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(aspects. First, he makes it clear that it was often not the promotion of Protestantism but anti-Catholicism that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 282.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(provided the stronger motivation. And second, he stresses that next to the monarch we find a number of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 268.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(highly religious courtiers:)] TJ ET BT 64.016 230.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(George Ludwig or George I as he became had a good claim to be regarded as a viable Fidei )] TJ ET BT 64.016 215.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Defensor. He had shown confessional concern in local disputes and engaged in protestant )] TJ ET BT 64.016 201.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(politics within the Empire. Moreover George's court contained such figures as Robethon and )] TJ ET BT 64.016 187.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bernstorff. Both had strongly anti-catholic views \(p. 60\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 148.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The latter argument becomes more illuminating if we consider the reservation of Uriel Dann, who noted 'the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 134.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tension between largely free-thinking British whig nobles and their deeply religious Hanoverian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 120.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(counterparts' \(p. 218\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Still, the personal attitudes of the monarch remain problematic to Thompson's analysis, particularly if we )] TJ ET BT 34.016 79.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consider the changes in political culture from George I to George II: 'A sense of protestant solidarity was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 65.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more common in the period of the wars against Louis XIV. By the 1740s a strong strand of English )] TJ ET BT 34.016 51.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exceptionalism and superiority had appeared - the modern English, like the ancient Hebrews, enjoyed a )] TJ ET endstream endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 22 0 R 24 0 R 26 0 R ] /Contents 21 0 R >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Length 5971 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(special relationship with the Almighty' \(p. 12\). With the more complex ideological construction of 'English )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exceptionalism', Protestant interest did not disappear, but to the modern historian it becomes even more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(difficult to identify. The lack of an analytical tool to pinpoint the meaning of religious and confessional )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(arguments makes some of the findings very difficult to apply generally. This becomes yet more apparent in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thompson's interpretation of the period after the accession of Frederick II of Prussia: 'As the final chapter )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(indicates, the rise of Prussia after 1740 complicated matters. Before that, popery and universal monarchy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(went hand in hand' \(p. 39\). With the accession of the young Prussian king, however, more conflicting and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(competing images of monarchical rule dominated within the political sphere in Europe. While the idea of a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Protestant hero defending religion did not disappear and the Protestant fears of Catholic attempts at universal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(monarchy survived, stereotypical images were less suited to explain the more complex situation on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(continent. Frederick's secular views stressed the difficulty in applying a confessional paradigm to politics. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Again, Thompson is aware of this development: 'The War of the Austrian succession caused considerable )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(problems for attempts to conceptualise international relations within either a protestant interest framework or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(within a revived view of the Old System' \(p. 204\). However, the reservation by itself does not solve the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(overall problem that for the earlier period, but more particularly for the time after 1740, Protestant interest )] TJ ET BT 34.016 582.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cannot be ruled out as an element in foreign policy but its significance cannot be adequately discussed.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The second reservation is related to the first and is one of emphasis only. The major findings of the book are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(less concerned with defence of the Protestant interest. Much more, the evidence produced illustrates the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interdependencies between British and Hanoverian policies. While the general hypothesis of Protestant )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interest as an argument in foreign policy remains, though convincing, only a counterweight to a realist )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interpretation, the detailed analysis of the close co-operation between British and German ministers on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(German and European affairs illustrates the importance of Britain's continental interests. British political )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(culture was influenced by Hanoverian political culture. Protestantism comes in as German policies at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Regensburg were still largely defined in confessional terms. Thus, both British and Hanoverian policies were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(strongly determined by Protestant views, particularly with regard to the Reichspolitik. That Britain cared )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(about what went on at the Imperial Diet in Regensburg is something that has long been denied by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historiography. In this respect Thompson is much more revisionist in Europeanising British history than in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his claim that there was an ideological element in political decision-making. To conclude, this is an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(important book about foreign policy although, to some extent, its emphasis on ideology overshadows its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contribution to Britain's European history.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(muse)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://muse.jhu.edu/login)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 314.883 m 154.700 314.883 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 157.700 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(h-net-reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.h-net.org/reviews/showrev.php)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 286.371 m 240.992 286.371 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 243.992 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 283.039 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 265.259 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 265.259 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/628)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 263.865 m 322.316 263.865 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 238.888 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 224.488 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/4137)] TJ ET BT 34.016 210.203 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://muse.jhu.edu/login?auth=0&type=summary&url=/journals/eighteenth-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 195.832 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century_studies/v044/44.2.wellenreuther.html)] TJ ET BT 34.016 181.432 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3] http://www.h-net.org/reviews/showrev.php?id=25001)] TJ ET endstream endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 23 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 315.1975 154.6997 327.0775 ] >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://muse.jhu.edu/login?auth=0&type=summary&url=/journals/eighteenth-century_studies/v044/44.2.wellenreuther.html) >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 25 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 286.6855 240.9917 298.5655 ] >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.h-net.org/reviews/showrev.php?id=25001) >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 27 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 264.1795 322.3157 276.0595 ] >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/628) >> endobj xref 0 28 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000349 00000 n 0000000386 00000 n 0000000565 00000 n 0000000647 00000 n 0000004679 00000 n 0000004788 00000 n 0000004898 00000 n 0000005007 00000 n 0000008568 00000 n 0000008696 00000 n 0000008780 00000 n 0000008845 00000 n 0000013603 00000 n 0000013668 00000 n 0000020961 00000 n 0000021026 00000 n 0000027343 00000 n 0000027441 00000 n 0000033465 00000 n 0000033592 00000 n 0000033759 00000 n 0000033886 00000 n 0000033987 00000 n 0000034115 00000 n trailer << /Size 28 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 34210 %%EOF