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A. Rosenstone)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780582505841)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2006)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(182pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Pearson Education)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.pearsoned.co.uk/Bookshop/detail.asp?item=100000000016217)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Harlow)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(James Chapman)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 16 0 R 18 0 R 20 0 R 22 0 R ] /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 8882 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The subject of ?film and history? has come a long way since the publication of the pioneering )] TJ ET BT 486.944 784.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Historian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(and Film)] TJ ET BT 77.684 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( in 1976. In the 1970s historians were preoccupied with the value of film as a primary source for the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(study of contemporary history, for which reason much of the early work focused on newsreels and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(documentary films. In the 1980s attention shifted to the feature film and the extent to which it ?reflected? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historical conditions and societies such as France during the years of the Popular Front, Depression-era )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(America and Britain during the Second World War. US and British scholars pioneered what came to be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(called ?contextual film history? as they used archival sources to document the production and reception )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(histories of films. Richard Taylor and David Welch produced groundbreaking studies of the role of film as a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(medium of propaganda \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 152.324 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 152.324 669.027 m 158.324 669.027 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 158.324 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\). The nature of historical representation in film has been the focus of much )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(scholarly work over the last two decades. The historical film has been analysed for its mobilisation of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(past for propaganda, for its role in the emergence of national cinemas, and for its contested place in ?taste )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wars? between the views of middle-brow critics on the one hand and the popular preferences of cinema )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(audiences on the other \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 148.652 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 148.652 612.003 m 154.652 612.003 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 154.652 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\). Another tradition, arising initially from France and subsequently taken up by US )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(scholars in the 1990s, has focused less on context and more on the structural and ideological features of film. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Writers such as Marcia Landy, Vivian Sobchack and, pre-eminently, Robert A. Rosenstone are interested in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the way in which film constructs its own historical world ? or, to put it another way, how film writes history \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 554.979 m 40.016 554.979 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 40.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This historiographical context is worth sketching in, not least because Rosenstone makes the somewhat )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contentious claim that film and history remains a field ?in search of a methodology? \(p. 164\). I will return to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this question later in the review. )] TJ ET BT 191.000 501.605 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(History on Film/Film on History)] TJ ET BT 347.672 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is Rosenstone?s fullest and most wide-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ranging contribution to a field that has engaged his attention since the early 1980s when he was employed as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historical consultant for two vastly different films: )] TJ ET BT 278.996 473.093 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Good Fight)] TJ ET BT 355.664 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1983\), a low-budget documentary about )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Lincoln Battalion during the Spanish Civil War, and )] TJ ET BT 306.008 458.837 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reds)] TJ ET BT 329.336 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1982\), Warren Beatty?s $45 million )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Academy Award-winning film of John Reed and the Russian Revolution. It was his experiences on these )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(films that led Rosenstone to look for a way of engaging with historical film that went beyond the standard )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(critique of the professional historian that films either took liberties with the past or simply got it wrong due )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to the ignorance of those who made them. Rosenstone explains his approach thus:)] TJ ET BT 64.016 363.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It took more than a decade of thinking and writing about history film to work my way towards )] TJ ET BT 64.016 349.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the simple insight that underlies the chapters of this book: film makers can be and already are )] TJ ET BT 64.016 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historians \(some of them\), but of necessity )] TJ ET BT 271.328 335.045 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(the rules of engagement of their works with the stuff )] TJ ET BT 64.016 320.789 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(of the past are and must be different from those that govern written history )] TJ ET BT 426.020 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(pp. 7?8\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 282.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Rosenstone acknowledges the influence on his work of ?the post structuralist critique of historical practice )] TJ ET BT 34.016 268.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(one finds in the works of such critics as Hayden White and Frank Ankersmit? \(p. 7\). From this perspective )] TJ ET BT 34.016 254.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(he developed an interest in what he termed ?the New History film?. The New History film is one that ?finds )] TJ ET BT 34.016 239.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the space to )] TJ ET BT 93.668 239.765 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(contest )] TJ ET BT 130.664 239.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history, to interrogate either the metanarratives that structure historical knowledge, or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 225.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(smaller historical truths, received notions, conventional images?\()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 346.640 225.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 346.640 224.115 m 352.640 224.115 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 352.640 225.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\). The collection )] TJ ET BT 434.624 225.509 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Revisioning History)] TJ ET BT 34.016 211.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1995\), which Rosenstone edited, featured case studies of films that could be included in this category such )] TJ ET BT 34.016 196.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as )] TJ ET BT 47.012 196.997 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Hiroshima, mon amour)] TJ ET BT 159.344 196.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(dir. Alain Resnais, 1959\), )] TJ ET BT 292.664 196.997 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Memories of Underdevelopment)] TJ ET BT 447.296 196.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(dir. Toms Gutirrez )] TJ ET BT 34.016 182.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Alea, 1968\), )] TJ ET BT 96.668 182.741 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Hitler: a Film from Germany)] TJ ET BT 237.320 182.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(dir. Hans-Jrgen Syderberg, 1977\) and )] TJ ET BT 433.940 182.741 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Walker)] TJ ET BT 468.596 182.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(dir. Alex Cox, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 168.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1987\). These films exist outside the mainstream, tend to be the work of directors with a self-conscious, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 154.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(highly formalist style and use historical motifs and signifiers in a symbolic, allegorical way. )] TJ ET BT 478.652 154.229 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Hiroshima, mon )] TJ ET BT 34.016 139.973 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(amour)] TJ ET BT 65.348 139.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, for example, explores the subjectivity of memory by collapsing distinctions between past and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 125.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(present, while )] TJ ET BT 104.336 125.717 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Walker)] TJ ET BT 138.992 125.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, based on the little-known career of an American adventurer who led a revolution in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 111.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nicaragua in 1855, is replete with deliberate anachronisms including motor vehicles and computers. Such )] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(films as these are easily labelled ?postmodernist? and this was the term that came to be applied to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 82.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Rosenstone?s work.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 56.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(So does )] TJ ET BT 74.684 56.693 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(History on Film/Film on History)] TJ ET BT 231.356 56.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( represent a postmodernist approach to the subject? Rosenstone )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 17 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 152.3237 669.3415 158.3237 681.2215 ] >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 19 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 148.6517 612.3175 154.6517 624.1975 ] >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 555.2935 40.0157 567.1735 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 23 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 346.6397 224.4295 352.6397 236.3095 ] >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 26 0 R ] /Contents 25 0 R >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Length 8764 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(describes himself as ?a person who has been labelled a ?post-modern? historian? \(p. 3\) and repeatedly insists )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that the label has been applied by others. However, his intellectual influences ? Hayden White, Alun )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Munslow \(to whom the book is dedicated\), Marc Ferro ? give a clear indication of Rosenstone?s theoretical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(position. His argument is that film can, and should, be regarded as a form of history in its own right with its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(own codes and conventions that are different from, not inferior to, those of academic history. To Rosenstone )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the film-maker is as much a historian as the university academic: he or she is merely telling a different kind )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of history in a different kind of way. This would seem to me the very definition of a postmodernist approach.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The proof of any theory, of course, is in its application. I have no ideological aversion to postmodern history )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(per se; but like all epistemologies it only really stands up if it can be demonstrably applied to the business of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(actually doing history. In fact Rosenstone sets out a good case. He provides a useful summary of how )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(different modes of film practice ? dramatic feature films, documentaries, and oppositional or experimental )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(films ? adopt different filmic conventions for representing history. I was particularly fascinated by his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(account of )] TJ ET BT 87.332 613.397 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(El Perro Negro)] TJ ET BT 161.996 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(dir. Peter Forgac, 2004\), which uses amateur film \(home movies\) to reconstruct )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(people?s experiences of the Spanish Civil War ?from below?. This results in a rather different history being )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(told than that revealed by the ?official? archive sources for the same subject in )] TJ ET BT 413.924 584.885 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Mourir Madrid)] TJ ET BT 496.592 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(dir. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Frederic Rossif, 1963\). His discussion of feature films covers more familiar ground, though his choice of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(case study ? )] TJ ET BT 95.000 556.373 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Glory)] TJ ET BT 122.996 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(dir. Edward Zwick, 1989\), focusing on the experiences of a black regiment during the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(American Civil War ? is a less obvious example than the usual suspects such as )] TJ ET BT 418.964 542.117 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Birth of a Nation)] TJ ET BT 521.648 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(dir. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(D. W. Griffith, 1915\) or )] TJ ET BT 152.660 527.861 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Schindler's List)] TJ ET BT 226.904 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(dir. Steven Spielberg, 1993\). Rosenstone casts his net wide to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(include examples of films from Hollywood \(both mainstream and independent\), Latin America, Europe and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the former Soviet Union. While this inevitably means there is a tendency towards generalisation and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(overview, it is to be welcomed, nevertheless, for reaching beyond the narrow national focus of most film )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(histories. And he has some pertinent observations on the role of the film-maker as historian, examining the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(controversial films of Oliver Stone ? )] TJ ET BT 212.660 456.581 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Platoon)] TJ ET BT 250.664 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1986\), )] TJ ET BT 291.656 456.581 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Born on the Fourth of July)] TJ ET BT 419.984 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1989\), )] TJ ET BT 460.976 456.581 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(JFK)] TJ ET BT 481.640 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1991\), )] TJ ET BT 522.632 456.581 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Nixon)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1995\) and others ? which he claims have ?created a powerful interpretation of contemporary history? \(p. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(131\). This is not a new argument in itself ? the collection )] TJ ET BT 310.988 428.069 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Oliver Stone's USA)] TJ ET BT 403.544 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( has been there before ? but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Rosenstone offers a more positive assessment of Stone?s work than most critics \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 423.968 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(5)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 423.968 412.419 m 429.968 412.419 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 429.968 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Rosenstone?s analysis of the formal components and ideological structures of films is always illuminating: )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(he is particularly sensitive to how aspects of form and style create meaning as well as narrative and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(characterisation. But this is only part of the story. As a \(non-postmodernist\) film historian the most )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interesting questions, to me, are how and why did a film take the form it did and how far were the intentions )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the film-makers understood by audiences? This is where the limitations of the postmodern approach, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which apparently shuns the idea of going into the archives, are demonstrated. What is missing from the book )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is any real nuts-and-bolts production history. To what extent did the films reflect the intentions of those who )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(made them and how far was their style and content influenced, even determined, by other factors such as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(budgetary constraints, the interventions of censors or the conflicting aims of a director with artistic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ambitions and a producer with eyes solely on box-office receipts? I would like to know, for example, how )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(far the blatant anachronisms of )] TJ ET BT 185.648 244.997 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Walker)] TJ ET BT 220.304 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( were a conscious choice by its director Alex Cox or whether they )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were forced on him by the problems of shooting on what seems to have been a very limited budget. \(No )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(money for replicas of period transport? Well, the producer has a Mercedes on set ... \) This is where )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Rosenstone?s reluctance to engage with more ?traditional? historical approaches is a blind spot. In recent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(years British and American film historians have developed what has come to be known as ?the New Film )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(History?: an approach that combines contextual and textual analysis in order to understand how the finished )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(film is the outcome of the various decisions taken and compromises made during its production. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(finished film is, if you like, the residue of the production process. This approach is typified by the work of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(British historians such as Sue Harper, Jeffrey Richards and Anthony Aldgate ? all of whom are absent from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Rosenstone?s bibliography. Harper?s )] TJ ET BT 215.984 116.693 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Picturing the Past: the Rise and Fall of the British Costume Film )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1994\), for example, demonstrates a great deal of methodological sophistication in its linking of production )] TJ ET BT 34.016 88.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(context to aspects of form, especially visual style. If the discipline is in search of methodology, then I would )] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(suggest this is where it is to be found.)] TJ ET endstream endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 27 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 423.9677 412.7335 429.9677 424.6135 ] >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 30 0 R 32 0 R 34 0 R ] /Contents 29 0 R >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Length 8718 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(These limitations are exemplified by Rosenstone?s discussion of )] TJ ET BT 347.324 784.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(October)] TJ ET BT 386.648 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(dir. Sergei Eisenstein, 1928\). He )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(has some original insights into this well-known film and, as ever, offers a nuanced assessment of its textual )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(properties and ideological mechanisms. He suggests that previous commentators have been too concerned )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with the film?s status as propaganda, offering an ideologically acceptable narrative of the Bolshevik )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Revolution of 1917, and that consequently they have overlooked its status as history. Here, he suggests, is a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rare example of a film that represents history as process rather than as the outcome of individual agency:)] TJ ET BT 64.016 674.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Everything in )] TJ ET BT 132.680 674.933 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(October)] TJ ET BT 172.004 674.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( points toward, and becomes part of, an argument that might be summed )] TJ ET BT 64.016 660.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(up this way: October was the result of the criminality and stupidity of the Provisional )] TJ ET BT 64.016 646.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Government, a great dramatic movement in which masses of common people spontaneously )] TJ ET BT 64.016 632.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(participated. Yes, the final seizure of power was planned by a small group of Bolshevik leaders )] TJ ET BT 64.016 617.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(meeting in a tiny room. And yes, it is clear that Lenin is the mind behind the Revolution. But the )] TJ ET BT 64.016 603.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(film, in its overall argument, counters any party line notion that the Bolsheviks were the )] TJ ET BT 64.016 589.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(revolutionary vanguard. For Eisenstein shows October as the time when the masses entered into )] TJ ET BT 64.016 575.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history and history entered into the masses \(pp. 58?9\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 536.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(What Rosenstone neglects, however, is the extent to which this narrative was the outcome of production )] TJ ET BT 34.016 522.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(determinants and political constraints. Richard Taylor has shown how the history represented in )] TJ ET BT 497.288 522.629 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(October)] TJ ET BT 34.016 508.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was hampered by political expediency. The film writes out Trotsky from the official history and promotes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 494.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the cult of Stalin. Lenin is represented ?as an embodiment of the elemental power of the mass, of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 479.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(collective will? because that was how the Party wanted him portrayed \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 376.280 479.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(6)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 376.280 478.467 m 382.280 478.467 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 382.280 479.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\). Moreover, it must be remembered )] TJ ET BT 34.016 465.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that )] TJ ET BT 55.016 465.605 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(October's)] TJ ET BT 101.576 465.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( representation of history-as-process and its extreme symbolism were much criticised at the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 451.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(time and contributed to Soviet cinema turning its back on high formalism in favour of the doctrine of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 437.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?Socialist Realism? with its individualised peasant heroes and heroines.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 410.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In conclusion, then, I am not persuaded that )] TJ ET BT 247.316 410.837 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(History on Film/Film on History)] TJ ET BT 403.988 410.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( offers quite the radical new )] TJ ET BT 34.016 396.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(way of thinking about historical cinema that it sets out to do. It makes for an intellectually stimulating and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 382.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(even provocative read: Rosenstone is much to be admired for challenging prevailing views and received )] TJ ET BT 34.016 368.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wisdoms. But received wisdoms are not always wrong. A decade ago, when the postmodernist critique of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 353.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history was at its height, this book would probably have been accorded more currency than it will now. I )] TJ ET BT 34.016 339.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cannot help but feel, however, that methodologically it re-treads old ground \(much of it trodden by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 325.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Rosenstone himself\) rather than offering a genuinely new ?take? on the subject.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.403 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 259.786 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 259.781 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Historian and Film)] TJ ET BT 177.692 259.781 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. P. Smith \(Cambridge, 1976\); A. Aldgate, )] TJ ET BT 401.684 259.781 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Cinema and History: British )] TJ ET BT 64.016 245.525 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Newsreels and the Spanish Civil War)] TJ ET BT 243.020 245.525 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London, 1979\); )] TJ ET BT 327.680 245.525 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Feature Films as History)] TJ ET BT 448.676 245.525 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. K. R. M. Short )] TJ ET BT 64.016 231.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(London, 1981\); )] TJ ET BT 145.676 231.269 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(American History/American Film: Interpreting the Hollywood Image)] TJ ET BT 478.304 231.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. J. E. )] TJ ET BT 64.016 217.013 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(O?Connor and M. Jackson \(New York, 1979\); )] TJ ET BT 289.640 217.013 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Hollywood as Historian: American Film in a Cultural )] TJ ET BT 64.016 202.757 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Context)] TJ ET BT 101.348 202.757 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. P. C. Rollins \(Lexington, Ky., 1983\); J. Richards and A. Aldgate, )] TJ ET BT 441.668 202.757 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Best of British: Cinema )] TJ ET BT 64.016 188.501 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(and Society 1930-70)] TJ ET BT 162.668 188.501 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Oxford, 1983\); R. Taylor, )] TJ ET BT 296.648 188.501 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Film Propaganda: Soviet Russia and Nazi Germany)] TJ ET BT 64.016 174.245 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(London, 1979\); D. Welch, )] TJ ET BT 197.660 174.245 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Propaganda and the German Cinema 1933-45)] TJ ET BT 421.976 174.245 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Oxford, 1983\). )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 503.624 174.245 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 503.624 172.851 m 557.612 172.851 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 159.994 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 159.989 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(See, e.g., )] TJ ET BT 110.672 159.989 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Screening the Past: Film and the Representation of History)] TJ ET BT 395.984 159.989 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. T. Barta \(Westport, Conn., )] TJ ET BT 64.016 145.733 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1998\); S. Harper, )] TJ ET BT 150.332 145.733 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Picturing the Past: the Rise and Fall of the British Costume Film)] TJ ET BT 463.340 145.733 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London, 1994\); )] TJ ET BT 64.016 131.477 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Historical Film: History and Memory in Media)] TJ ET BT 312.332 131.477 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. M. Landy \(London, 2001\); J. Richards, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 117.221 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Films and British National Identity: from Dickens to 'Dad's Army' )] TJ ET BT 384.380 117.221 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Manchester, 1997\); R. B. Toplin, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 102.965 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(History by Hollywood: the Use and Abuse of the American Past)] TJ ET BT 370.652 102.965 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Urbana, Ill., 1996\); M. Wyke, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 88.709 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Projecting the Past: Ancient Rome, Cinema and History)] TJ ET BT 333.992 88.709 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London, 1997\). )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 418.316 88.709 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 418.316 87.315 m 472.304 87.315 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 74.458 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 74.453 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(See M. Ferro, )] TJ ET BT 133.004 74.453 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Cinema and History)] TJ ET BT 230.336 74.453 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, trans. N. Greene \(Detroit, Mich., 1988\); P. Sorlin, )] TJ ET BT 478.640 74.453 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Film in )] TJ ET BT 64.016 60.197 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(History: Restaging the Past)] TJ ET BT 197.012 60.197 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Oxford, 1980\); M. Landy, )] TJ ET BT 332.324 60.197 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Cinematic Uses of the Past)] TJ ET BT 462.320 60.197 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Minneapolis, )] TJ ET endstream endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 31 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 376.2797 478.7815 382.2797 490.6615 ] >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 33 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 503.6237 173.1655 557.6117 185.0455 ] >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 35 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 418.3157 87.6295 472.3037 99.5095 ] >> endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 36 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 38 0 R 40 0 R 42 0 R 44 0 R 46 0 R 48 0 R ] /Contents 37 0 R >> endobj 37 0 obj << /Length 3023 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 64.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Minn., 1996\); V. Sobchack, )] TJ ET BT 200.672 796.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Persistence of History: Cinema, Television and the Modern Event)] TJ ET BT 64.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(New York, 1997\); R. A. Rosenstone, )] TJ ET BT 248.660 782.213 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Visions of the Past: the Challenge of Film to our Idea of History )] TJ ET BT 64.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Cambridge, Mass., 1995\); )] TJ ET BT 196.004 767.957 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Revisioning History: Film and the Construction of a New Past)] TJ ET BT 495.680 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. R. A. )] TJ ET BT 64.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Rosenstone \(Princeton, NJ, 1995\). )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 231.668 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 231.668 752.307 m 285.656 752.307 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 739.450 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Rosenstone, ?Introduction?, )] TJ ET BT 201.332 739.445 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Revisioning History)] TJ ET BT 296.996 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, p.8. )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 323.996 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 323.996 738.051 m 377.984 738.051 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 725.194 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(5.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 725.189 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Oliver Stone's USA)] TJ ET BT 156.572 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. R. B. Toplin \(Lawrence, Kan., 2000\). )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 363.200 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 363.200 723.795 m 417.188 723.795 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 710.938 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(6.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(R. Taylor, )] TJ ET BT 116.012 710.933 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(October )] TJ ET BT 158.336 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(London, 2002\), p. 28. )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 269.660 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 269.660 709.539 m 323.648 709.539 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(oxford journals)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://ehr.oxfordjournals.org/content/CXXIII/501/416.full)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 654.771 m 312.332 654.771 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 315.332 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 651.439 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 633.659 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 633.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/629)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 632.265 m 322.316 632.265 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 607.288 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 592.888 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/4140)] TJ ET BT 34.016 578.488 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://ehr.oxfordjournals.org/content/CXXIII/501/416.full)] TJ ET endstream endobj 38 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 39 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 231.6677 752.6215 285.6557 764.5015 ] >> endobj 39 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 40 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 41 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 323.9957 738.3655 377.9837 750.2455 ] >> endobj 41 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 42 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 43 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 363.1997 724.1095 417.1877 735.9895 ] >> endobj 43 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 44 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 45 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 269.6597 709.8535 323.6477 721.7335 ] >> endobj 45 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 46 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 47 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 655.0855 312.3317 666.9655 ] >> endobj 47 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://ehr.oxfordjournals.org/content/CXXIII/501/416.full) >> endobj 48 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 49 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 632.5795 322.3157 644.4595 ] >> endobj 49 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/629) >> endobj xref 0 50 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000349 00000 n 0000000386 00000 n 0000000541 00000 n 0000000623 00000 n 0000002510 00000 n 0000002619 00000 n 0000002729 00000 n 0000002838 00000 n 0000006399 00000 n 0000006527 00000 n 0000006611 00000 n 0000006716 00000 n 0000015651 00000 n 0000015779 00000 n 0000015815 00000 n 0000015943 00000 n 0000015979 00000 n 0000016105 00000 n 0000016141 00000 n 0000016269 00000 n 0000016305 00000 n 0000016389 00000 n 0000025206 00000 n 0000025334 00000 n 0000025370 00000 n 0000025468 00000 n 0000034239 00000 n 0000034367 00000 n 0000034403 00000 n 0000034531 00000 n 0000034567 00000 n 0000034693 00000 n 0000034729 00000 n 0000034848 00000 n 0000037924 00000 n 0000038052 00000 n 0000038088 00000 n 0000038216 00000 n 0000038252 00000 n 0000038380 00000 n 0000038416 00000 n 0000038544 00000 n 0000038580 00000 n 0000038707 00000 n 0000038816 00000 n 0000038944 00000 n trailer << /Size 50 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 39039 %%EOF