%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 18 0 R 20 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140725072013+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140725072013+01'00') /Title (Namier in Petticoats?) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4150 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Namier in Petticoats?)] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Diana Spencer has a lot to answer for: suddenly, women of the landowning classes are back in vogue, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(possibly for the first time since the 1920s, when everyone from Virginia Woolf to Ramsay MacDonald )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(seemed to love a lady. In academic circles, where Diana carries comparatively little weight, a more plausible )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(trend-setter might be Stella Tillyard's Aristocrats \(1994\). But the thicket of recent academic works on landed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ladies since the 18th century has deeper roots: consider Pat Jalland's Women, Marriage and Politics, 1860-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1914 \(1986\), Judith Lewis's In the Family Way: Childbearing in the British Aristoracy \(1986\), Pamela )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Horn's Ladies of the Manor \(1991\), Jessica Gerard's Country House Life \(1994\), two works on women as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(gatekeepers of High Society \(Michael Curtin's Propriety and Position [1987] and Marjorie Morgan's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Manners, Morals and Class in England, 1774-1858 [1994]\), as well as the weight given to upper-class )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(women in influential books like Frank Prochaska's Women and Philanthropy in Nineteenth-Century England )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1980\) - something of a trailblazer - and Linda Colley's Britons \(1992\). Since Aristocrats, we have had the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(coincident work of the two Amandas \(Foreman's Georgiana, Duchess of Devonshire and Vickery's The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 87.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Gentleman's Daughter [both 1998]\), articles and forthcoming monographs on aristocratic women in 18th )] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century politics by Elaine Chalus and Judith Lewis, and two forthcoming collections of essays on elite )] TJ ET BT 34.016 59.483 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(women in modern British politics, one edited by Kathryn Gleadle and Sarah Richardson \(The Power of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(63)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Monday, 1 February, 1999)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(K. D. Reynolds)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780198207276)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1998)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(70.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(272pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oxford University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://ukcatalogue.oup.com/product/9780198207276.do)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(New York)] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.579 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Peter Mandler)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7517 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Petticoat, the fruits of a stimulating conference of the same name at Warwick in May 1998\), the other by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Amanda Vickery \(Women, Privilege and Power, the fruits of a two-year project under the auspices of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Center for the History of Freedom at Washington University in St. Louis, including chapters on aristocratic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(women by Chalus, Lewis and Mandler\). And this is to leave out of account altogether the burgeoning Anne )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lister industry, devoted to mining the extraordinary diaries of that early nineteenth-century landowner, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(boroughmonger and lesbian.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The obvious historiographical explanation for this eruption - one hinted at by Kim Reynolds in her own )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(valuable contribution to the recent literature - is that modern historians have had until recently too many )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ideological hang-ups to appreciate the treasures awaiting them in this field. Aristocratic women had )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(insufficient \(or, rather, no\) connection with labour history or the origins of socialism or the origins of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(feminism - the subjects principally responsible for motivating research in modern women's history; nor did )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(they seem to be typical enough to feature in social historians' accounts of sexuality, family structure or the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(family economy. Reynolds also makes the more debatable suggestion that the political significance of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(aristocratic women can only be appreciated by looking backwards to the familial politics of the unreformed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(era - elements of which linger into the late nineteenth century - thus further distracting the interest of modern )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historians obsessed with progress and change. Only as these ideological blinkers have fallen away have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(modern historians come to appreciate - what early modern and medieval specialists have long understood - )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that in the archives of landed families can be found some of the best-documented and most articulate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(accounts of women's lives in all of British history.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(So determined is Reynolds not to fall into the orthodoxy of "sisterhood" - an orthodoxy that sees women's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(identity as constituted principally by their gender \(and thus a site for oppression and/or liberation\) - that she )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(has written a book which almost perversely underplays the salience of gender in women's lives and asserts )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(instead the centrality of class. Aristocratic society, she argues, was well-bounded and internally solidaristic, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(especially in Victorian circumstances where it came increasingly under attack from without. This internal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cohesion - combined with the aristocracy's traditional preoccupation with the family as the vehicle of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dynastic power and continuity - blurred gender divisions that may have split other classes into "separate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(spheres". Of course aristocratic women had roles differentiated from and, on the whole, subordinated to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(those of aristocratic men; but dynastic responsibilities brought them much closer to men than might )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(otherwise have been the case; and here Reynolds usefully employs the anthropologist's notion of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [("incorporated wife", who plays a subordinated but still integral role in the family project. Since the British )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(aristocracy as a whole retained more political power and more public presence than any other aristocracy in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nineteenth-century Europe, the "incorporated" aristocratic woman remained in the "public" sphere to an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unusual degree in a period when women of other classes were allegedly being confined to a "domestic" or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [("private" sphere. These assumptions form the backdrop to Reynolds's survey of aristocratic women's public )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(functions in Victorian Britain, which embraces both the local level \(estate leadership, churches, schools, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(charity, electioneering\) and the national \(electioneering again, salons and the royal household\). In fact these )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(assumptions form not only the backdrop but also the foundation, for they set the parameters of the Ph.D. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(research on which this book is based: women of the high aristocracy only are considered \(to demarcate a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(class with fully public and national roles from the "mere" gentry, more localized and private\); the women in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(question are predominantly Whig and Liberal \(because Whig-Liberal governments were in power for most )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the period in question, 1830-80\); the principal sources are collections of women's private papers \(though )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(oddly only those in public hands\); and little attempt has been made to cover the papers of aristocratic men )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(even where these include letters from aristocratic women\), because aristocratic society was a partnership )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(here the assumption intrudes\); women's papers alone can show women "at the centre...of aristocratic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(life...not acting in an isolated, gender-specific sphere, but in association and co-operation with the men of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their class" \(24\). These self-limitations make for a satisfyingly tight piece of research, and an impressively )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(economical and readable book, but they do introduce biases, discussed below, and leave open the possibility )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of a more definitive book on aristocratic women and politics yet to come \(not from me, I hasten to add\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It is a curious - and, possibly, historiographically significant - feature of Reynolds' work, as also the work of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Elaine Chalus, that the investigation of women's role in high politics seems to necessitate a resuscitation of )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 7601 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Namierite world-view. That is to say, high politics is considered as an informal, familial and dynastic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(business of competition for power, place and patronage, relatively insulated from ideology \(including )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(religion\), popular politics and social change. The most original and thought-provoking parts of Reynolds' )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(book are those that capitalize on this Namierism to explore long-neglected aspects of Victorian political life. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thus we are indebted to her for a unique survey of the personnel, functions and political influence of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ladies of Queen Victoria's Court. She devotes comparatively little space to the two crises of 1839 - the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bedchamber Crisis \(for which she refers the reader to an unpublished paper of her own\) and the Flora )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hastings Affair \(which gets only a footnote\) - but as compensation she gives a completely novel insight into )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Court politics during Victoria's post-Albertine "seclusion" and then into the role of the Court in fossilizing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Queen's anti-Gladstonian prejudices in the final decades. Equally fascinating is her chapter on "party" )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(politics, which takes up the role of political hostesses in greasing the gears of high-political machination. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Here the Namierite perspective is quite explicit, and persuasive, gently detaching aristocratic hostesses from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [("the beginning of a tradition of civic feminism" where they had been awkwardly placed in some earlier )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(treatments and restoring them to "the end of a long tradition of aristocratic government". The case is made )] TJ ET BT 34.016 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that, at the top of the political tree, a few hostesses organized social-cum-political gatherings that played a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 582.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(role later to be taken over by more formal party structures. For this reader the highpoint of the book was the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 568.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(imaginatively detailed reconstruction of the choreography of such entertainments at pages 164-71.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Of course Reynolds grants that this role could only be played by a select few women, and that these few )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tended to be highly heterodox: Lady Holland a divorce \(to whom pious men could not introduce their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wives\), Lady Palmerston a swinger, Lady Molesworth a singer, Lady Waldegrave a singer's daughter and a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jew to boot. More women participated in the eminently Namierite activity of soliciting votes and influence )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for Parliamentary elections. Especially when managing estate influence for a minor heir, aristocratic women )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(could wield considerable power in the normal course of unreformed or semi-reformed political life. Further )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(down the scale, even more women could and did dispense religious patronage, religious and educational )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(philanthropy, poor relief and household and estate employment, though these functions seem to interest )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Reynolds less, as less public and more the business of the "mere" gentry than the grandees that are her )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(proper subject. Here again Reynolds' contribution is strongest where the existing historiography is weakest - )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(see her discussion of church patronage, and especially the thorny problems of Scottish church patronage - )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(but conversely her contribution is weaker in areas of existing strengths - personal religion is treated almost )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wholly as a matter of institutional affiliation rather than as a potentially transfiguring belief system.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Even the most diehard Namierite must accept, however, that the aristocratic hold upon informal political )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(power was, at least, weakening over the Victorian period. How does Reynolds cope with this fact? Overall )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(she chooses to ignore it, holding that "the central concerns of aristocratic life" remained "the enhancement of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(family prestige, influence, and economic strength; the maintenance of a hierarchical, paternalist society; the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exercise of patronage; and the government of the country" \(25\). She acknowledges some evidence of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(changing values in the society at large and even within the aristocracy - a brief mid-century fashion for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(personal religion, for instance, which in a few cases led to withdrawal from more public political roles - but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on the whole she is resistant to suggestions that aristocratic behaviour changed because it had to, under )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pressure from a changing world of which the aristocracy was an integral part. Aristocratic women dispensed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(philanthropy because they had always done so, not because it was newly fashionable or offered novel outlets )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for female activity; their devotion to local schools and churches stemmed from landed paternalism pure and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(simple. Indeed, Reynolds speculates, aristocratic women might have clung more fiercely than their men to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the informal privileges of the old landed hierarchy as they had "more to lose by the widening of the franchise )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the weakening of the aristocratic hegemony" \(143\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(What if, however, the aristocratic response to social and political change was more flexible, responsive, even )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(creative? By essentializing "the central concerns of aristocratic life" in this way, and yoking women to them )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more firmly than men, Reynolds seems to me to be missing out some of the more significant developments )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in Victorian aristocratic culture - and particularly in the lives of aristocratic women. The Namierite world )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(she depicts undoubtedly exists, but it is not the whole world, and is in part an artefact of her research )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(strategy. Consideration of men's correspondence reveals a heightened sensitivity to the fragility of the )] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 7447 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Namierite world - and to women's place within it - in a political atmosphere drenched with anti-aristocratic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and anti-corruption rhetoric. This sensitivity yielded an impressive range of adaptive strategies. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(persistence of aristocratic power in the nineteenth century upon which Reynolds insists was not, that is to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(say, made possible simply by carrying on in eighteenth-century ways.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Let me illustrate this point by reference to a possibly trivial episode to which Reynolds nevertheless devotes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a page and a half. In the North Staffordshire election of 1847 the Duchess of Sutherland appeared to use the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(influence of her absent husband on behalf of his nephew Lord Brackley, though Brackley proved to be a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Peelite and the Sutherlands were loyal Whigs. For this she was reprimanded by Lord John Russell, the Whig )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(party leader, and the Sutherland influence was re-directed firmly away from Brackley. In Reynolds' version, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(based \(she says\) on the "correspondence concerning the election which remains", the episode demonstrates )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the continuing power of influence, a woman's ability to choose to use it, and a Duchess's right to appeal to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the top \(the party leader\) rather than a minor official - even if, in the end, she lost her case. But there are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(other possible interpretations \(and many other possible sources unused by Reynolds: in private collections of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(women's papers, in public collections of men's papers, in the press, even in correspondence between men )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contiguous in the archive to the letters between the Duchess and Russell that she does employ\). The 1847 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(election was marked by growing concern among Whig party leaders that ducal influence be used more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sparingly and tactfully in an increasingly liberal political environment. The Duchess's intervention was the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(subject of unflattering comment in broadsides and newspapers, drawing unnecessary attention. Here was an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(opportunity to translate the problem of aristocratic influence into the age-old language of misogyny - an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(opportunity duly seized by Russell's brother, the Duke of Bedford: "these are the set of mistakes made by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(women, who act from impulse, and do not see the consequences of their actions". Bedford and others did )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(think that "a male relative or proxy" would have been preferable to the duchess, contrary to Reynolds's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(supposition. She is right to say that the episode illustrates the continuing use of aristocratic influence, which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(I would have thought beyond dispute; but it also illustrates the growing anxiety about aristocratic influence - )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(among aristocrats - in a form that disadvantaged women. The same anxiety disadvantaged Whig political )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hostesses.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(More important, however, is Reynolds' unwillingness to acknowledge anxieties about aristocratic influence )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in forms that advantaged women, were indeed pioneered by women. To see this requires more concern for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(aristocratic women as women, who did share qualities and tendencies with women of other classes. Take )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(personal religion: it could be argued that aristocratic women's leadership in matters of personal religion was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a crucial factor in facilitating their class's transition from the Namierite world of influence and privilege to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Victorian world of right conduct and character. There is plentiful evidence in aristocratic women's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(correspondence with their sons and husbands that they saw men's conversion to new standards of religion )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and morality as their special mission, as aristocrats and as women.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This mission took public as well as private forms: organized philanthropy, the foundation of women's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(educational institutions, religious and pretty frankly political campaigning \(such as Harriet Sutherland's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(abolitionism\). Some of these activities Reynolds does discuss, giving particularly good coverage to "Aunt )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Harriet's Cabin", but viewing them as class rather than as gender phenomena; others she discounts \(Henrietta )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Stanley's extensive educational activities merit only passing mention and no examination\); others she )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(neglects altogether \(Amelia Murray and Queen's College, Harley Street; Lady Noel Byron's many )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(philanthropies, "excluded from this study" because too "professional"\). She rejects Frank Prochaska's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(suggestion that by means of organized philanthropy aristocratic women, like their middle-class counterparts, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sought to widen the permissible sphere of women's political activity; she considers that aristocratic women )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(already had a wide enough sphere. But what if aristocratic women calculated that the moral, philanthropic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sphere was one in which their class had a future, while the Namierite sphere of influence was not? And what )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(might be the far wider-reaching political implications of a private mission among aristocratic women to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(modernize their men's image by reining in fleshly profligacies, enforcing the taking of communion, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ultimately cultivating Christian virtues? In this connection, it seems significant that, though some attention is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(paid to Leonore Davidoff's arguments about the socializing functions of Society hostesses, Reynolds does )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not mention or cite the more recent arguments by Curtin and Morgan which focus on the moral-policing )] TJ ET endstream endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 22 0 R ] /Contents 21 0 R >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Length 1859 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(aspects of Society, I imagine because her narrow definition of politics excludes them.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(I have chosen to take vigorous exception to aspects of Reynolds's argument, but that has only been possible )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(because Reynolds has been brave enough to advance an argument sufficiently strong and clear to provoke )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(scrutiny and thought \(not by any means a universal feature of books based on Ph.D. theses\). Apart from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(making a signal contribution to the mounting literature on elite women in modern history, her book may )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(grow in significance if Namierism is to make an unlooked-for comeback in the study of political history: not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(impossible as the de-ideologization of politics carries on apace. But my guess is that Reynolds' book will be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(best read as part of the story of elite women alongside complementary versions from the likes of Morgan, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lewis, Vickery and Prochaska who favour more gender and more ideology in the class-gender-ideology mix.)] TJ ET 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.695 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 635.915 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 635.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/63)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 634.521 m 316.316 634.521 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 609.544 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 595.144 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/393)] TJ ET endstream endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 23 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 634.8355 316.3157 646.7155 ] >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/63) >> endobj xref 0 24 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000349 00000 n 0000000386 00000 n 0000000531 00000 n 0000000613 00000 n 0000004815 00000 n 0000004924 00000 n 0000005034 00000 n 0000005143 00000 n 0000008704 00000 n 0000008832 00000 n 0000008916 00000 n 0000008981 00000 n 0000016551 00000 n 0000016616 00000 n 0000024270 00000 n 0000024335 00000 n 0000031835 00000 n 0000031919 00000 n 0000033831 00000 n 0000033959 00000 n trailer << /Size 24 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 34053 %%EOF