%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 24 0 R 52 0 R 64 0 R 72 0 R 114 0 R 164 0 R ] /Count 7 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140818063818+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140818063818+01'00') /Title (A History of Florence, 1200-1575) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 18 0 R 20 0 R 22 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 5290 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(A History of Florence, 1200-1575)] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(John Najemy is a pre-eminent historian of Renaissance Florence. His previous books on Florentine political, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(social and constitutional developments from 1280 to 1400 )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 316.004 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 316.004 271.929 m 329.996 271.929 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 329.996 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and on Machiavelli's correspondence with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Francesco Vettori )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 122.660 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 122.660 257.673 m 136.652 257.673 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 136.652 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( have shown him to be a scholar of learning, imagination and intellectual penetration, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with a profound knowledge of Florentine history from the thirteenth to the sixteenth century and with a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(remarkable range of interests in political, social and intellectual history. Among current Florentine )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historians, he is particularly well qualified to write a new history of later medieval and Renaissance Florence.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(There has been no credible attempt to write a history of Florence in this period since the time of Perrens's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(multi-volume work, finished in 1883 )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 214.016 175.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 214.016 174.393 m 228.008 174.393 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 228.008 175.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. Schevill's history, dating from 1937 )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 408.836 175.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 408.836 174.393 m 422.828 174.393 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 422.828 175.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, was never a serious piece )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of work. Its sources went scarcely further than a few of the published chronicles. It made little use of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(scholarship then available. Conceptually, it was outdated when it was published. The only recent synthetic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(work covering the Renaissance period is John Hale's )] TJ ET BT 289.460 133.019 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Florence and the Medici: the Pattern of Control)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 524.108 133.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 524.108 131.625 m 538.100 131.625 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 538.100 133.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This book has been popular with students, but it was intended only as a basic introduction. It presents an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(over-simplified and sometimes misleading picture, and, in any case, there has been a vast amount of new )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(scholarship since the mid 1970s. So the niche is there for a new history of Renaissance Florence.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 63.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Najemy has risen admirably to the challenge. He has assimilated the vast secondary literature on Florence, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from the beginning of the thirteenth to the late sixteenth century. He has read, with admirable thoroughness )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(630)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wednesday, 31 October, 2007)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(John M. Najemy)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9781405119542)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2006)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(527pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Blackwell Publishing)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://eu.wiley.com/WileyCDA/WileyTitle/productCd-1405119543.html)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oxford)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Robert Black)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 15 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 316.0037 272.2435 329.9957 284.1235 ] >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 17 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 122.6597 257.9875 136.6517 269.8675 ] >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 19 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 214.0157 174.7075 228.0077 186.5875 ] >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 408.8357 174.7075 422.8277 186.5875 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 23 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 524.1077 131.9395 538.0997 143.8195 ] >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 26 0 R 28 0 R 30 0 R 32 0 R 34 0 R 36 0 R 38 0 R 40 0 R 42 0 R 44 0 R 46 0 R 48 0 R 50 0 R ] /Contents 25 0 R >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Length 9941 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and perspicuity, all the published narrative sources. He has pondered and distilled fundamental features of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Florentine history, not only its highly technical and changing constitutional structures, but also various )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(complex series of events such as the working-class revolt of 1378, the rise of the Medici regime in the early )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1430s, the challenges to that regime in 1465-6 and 1478, the fall of the Medici in 1494, the factional )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(turmoils and constitutional upheavals of the revived republic beginning in late 1494, the Savonarolan )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(episode from 1494 to 1498 and beyond, the establishment of the Great Council in 1494, the fall of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(revived republic in 1512, the collapse of the Medici regime in 1527, the last republic and the siege of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Florence in 1530, and the establishment of the Medici principate from the 1530s. The range of his analysis )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and explication \(I deliberately avoid the term narrative, because this book is genuine history, not chronicle\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(stretches across a vast range of fundamental social, political, economic, diplomatic, military and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(biographical topics. Nor is Najemy indifferent to intellectual history, especially questions involving political )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(thought and ideology.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This book is no mere synthesis of other scholars' work. Indeed, Najemy offers a distinctive interpretation, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(one which has already stimulated controversy and will doubtless continue to do so. Najemy has done no less )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(than to challenge the orthodox approach to Florentine history as it developed from the turn of the last )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century. In 1899 Gaetano Salvemini published a ground-breaking Marxist interpretation of Florentine )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(politics at the end of the thirteenth century )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 240.656 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 240.656 554.979 m 254.648 554.979 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 254.648 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, viewing magnates and popolani as discrete social classes with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conflicting economic interests: the magnates were a feudal caste with mainly landed wealth, whereas the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(popolani were a commercial bourgeoisie. In 1926 this thesis was challenged by Nicola Ottokar )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 492.272 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(7\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 492.272 526.467 m 506.264 526.467 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 506.264 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, who used )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prosopographical techniques soon to be employed by Lewis Namier )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 363.632 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(8\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 363.632 512.211 m 377.624 512.211 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 377.624 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and Ronald Syme )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 468.956 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(9\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 468.956 512.211 m 482.948 512.211 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 482.948 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( to demonstrate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that these were not distinct classes: by examining magnates and elite non-magnates - both as individuals and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in terms of their families - Ottokar showed that such groups were interconnected by a dense network of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(business associations, marriages and neighbourhood links, with the result that it was impossible to regard )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(them as distinct social classes with divergent interests.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In the second half of the last century, Ottokar's interpretation became the orthodox approach, not only among )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Italian medievalists but also in Anglophone historiography. Here the crucial figure was Nicolai Rubinstein, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(who became Ottokar's pupil and assistant in the 1930s. Rubinstein remained a devoted admirer of Ottokar )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(throughout his long life \(1911-2002\), not only recommending his seminal study to beginning postgraduates )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(at the University of London but even planning, in his last year, to write an architectural history of Florence )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(modelled on a similar little-known work by Ottokar. Rubinstein did not court historical controversy \(unlike )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his teacher\), and he never articulated an explicit methodological or historiographical stance; nevertheless, his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(two most extensive studies of Florentine politics, an article on the early years of the Florentine Great )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Council )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 75.020 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(10\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 75.020 314.883 m 95.012 314.883 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 95.012 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and a book on the Medici government from 1434 to 1494 )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 376.316 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(11\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 376.316 314.883 m 396.308 314.883 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 396.308 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, both followed Ottokar in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(suggesting the limitations of a class-based interpretation of Florentine history: on the one hand, the elite )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(retained a decisive voice under the supposedly popular government inaugurated after 1494, while, on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(other, the Medici represented an elitist regime, not a popular alternative to oligarchic rule before 1434.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Rubinstein's influence was particularly felt among his many postgraduate students. Najemy has spoken )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(elsewhere of 'the veritable school that Rubinstein created' )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 312.944 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(12\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 312.944 231.603 m 332.936 231.603 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 332.936 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. One of Rubinstein's most eminent pupils has )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(taken issue with this characterisation )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 213.656 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(13\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 213.656 217.347 m 233.648 217.347 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 233.648 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. It is certainly true that Rubinstein did not preach a methodology )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(or a historical philosophy to his pupils: his style of supervision was distinctly hands-off. However, his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(eminence did attract pupils sympathetic to his particular approach: one would hardly have gone to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Rubinstein to undertake research on working-class agitation in fifteenth-century Florence! Moreover, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Rubinstein did attempt to channel his pupils into biographical currents compatible with and indeed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conducive to an elitist prosopographical approach: his first two students wrote biographies of leading )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Florentine politicians from the early sixteenth century, Francesco Vettori )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 387.296 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(14\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 387.296 131.811 m 407.288 131.811 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 407.288 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and Piero Soderini )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 502.616 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(15\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 502.616 131.811 m 522.608 131.811 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 522.608 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(; )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(moreover, he was sceptical about analytical synchronic studies of Florentine politics and society, particularly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for a novice researcher, unsuccessfully attempting, for example, to steer one now distinguished Florentine )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historian from her plan to study the Florentine ruling elite as the context for the rise of the Medici faction )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(16\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 74.787 m 54.008 74.787 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 54.008 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( into writing a biography of a prominent Medicean politician, Agnolo Acciaiuoli. The result was that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(many of his pupils wrote biographies )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 215.336 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(17\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 215.336 60.531 m 235.328 60.531 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 235.328 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, while others studied elite families or factions )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 460.304 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(18\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 460.304 60.531 m 480.296 60.531 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 480.296 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(; the few who )] TJ ET endstream endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 27 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 240.6557 555.2935 254.6477 567.1735 ] >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 29 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 492.2717 526.7815 506.2637 538.6615 ] >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 31 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 363.6317 512.5255 377.6237 524.4055 ] >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 33 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 468.9557 512.5255 482.9477 524.4055 ] >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 35 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 75.0197 315.1975 95.0117 327.0775 ] >> endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 36 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 37 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 376.3157 315.1975 396.3077 327.0775 ] >> endobj 37 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 38 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 39 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 312.9437 231.9175 332.9357 243.7975 ] >> endobj 39 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 40 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 41 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 213.6557 217.6615 233.6477 229.5415 ] >> endobj 41 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 42 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 43 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 387.2957 132.1255 407.2877 144.0055 ] >> endobj 43 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 44 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 45 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 502.6157 132.1255 522.6077 144.0055 ] >> endobj 45 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 46 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 47 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 75.1015 54.0077 86.9815 ] >> endobj 47 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 48 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 49 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 215.3357 60.8455 235.3277 72.7255 ] >> endobj 49 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 50 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 51 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 460.3037 60.8455 480.2957 72.7255 ] >> endobj 51 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 52 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 54 0 R 56 0 R 58 0 R 60 0 R 62 0 R ] /Contents 53 0 R >> endobj 53 0 obj << /Length 8146 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(worked further afield, for example on religion and religious movements, did not pursue their topics from a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(distinctive sociological or economic perspective, focusing instead on institutional )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 427.988 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(19\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 427.988 780.819 m 447.980 780.819 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 447.980 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( or ideological )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(patterns and trends )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 127.664 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(20\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 127.664 766.563 m 147.656 766.563 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 147.656 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. So, whether or not it was Rubinstein's deliberate intention, an elitist approach )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(certainly emerged from his stable.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Rubinstein, of course, was not solely responsible for the dominance of elitism in Florentine historiography. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In Italy, Salvemini's approach attracted immediate hostility from contemporary political sociologists such as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Gaetano Mosca and Vilfredo Pareto, who developed the theory of the ruling group \(ceto governante / )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dirigente\), according to which real politics stayed in the hands of a limited group, which, despite various )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(inevitable changes in composition, remained fundamentally unaltered )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 371.300 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(21\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 371.300 669.027 m 391.292 669.027 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 391.292 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(; this approach was buttressed by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the experience of post-war Italian politics, in which the leading protagonists seemed merely to swap chairs )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as one short-lived government followed another. The situation developed similarly in North America, albeit )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for different reasons: in the Cold War era, a Marxist or even left-wing model was distinctly out of favour. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The result was that, in Anglophone as well as the Italian political historiography - and certainly as far as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Florence was concerned - Ottokarian elitism has been almost universal.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Najemy's refutation of this approach is based on a redefinition of Salvemini's and Ottokar's magnates and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(popolani. But both historians used popolani to refer to upper-class non-magnate families. By this definition )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ottokar was correct in arguing that the magnates were not a class and that their economic activities and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interests were in many cases identical to those of leading popolani. He and the many historians who )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(followed his approach went on from there to deny any and all class conflicts, a view that reduces Florentine )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(politics to mere quarrels within the upper class. Between an aristocratic ruling class on the one hand and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(occasional eruption of the masses in the form of raw street power on the other, this approach to Florentine )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history sees nothing in between. What such approaches miss is precisely the popolo and the entire alternative )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(political culture that it represented and promoted. \(p. 39\))] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The term popolo is crucial here. This label, in contemporary Florentine usage, tended to refer specifically to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the middle class of shop-keepers, craftsmen and artisans, as well as to the lower professional ranks including )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(notaries and physicians; such individuals and families tended to hold lesser political offices, to lack ancient )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(family lineages, to be involved in local rather than international trade and manufacturing, to have lesser )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(investments in landed property, to contract marriages outside elite circles and to provide lower dowries for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their daughters. On the other hand, the elite tended to be major rural landholders, to be involved in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(international trade, to boast ancient family lineages, to hold the lion's share of major political offices, to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(marry into other elite families and to provide ever more extravagant dowries for their children; )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(professionally, they tended to be lawyers rather than notaries, bishops and major ecclesiastics rather than )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lower ranking clergy.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Over the long chronological range treated by Najemy, there were, of course, changing social, economic and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cultural patterns. In the thirteenth century, the elite tended to form a knightly military caste, with wealth )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(based mainly in land; as military customs and economic patterns developed and changed into the fourteenth )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century, they emerged primarily as great bankers, merchants and industrialists, while always maintaining )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(strong roots in the countryside. The popolo evolved too, from a guild-based sector, especially strong in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(less dominant branches of trade and industry \(unlike wool and banking, always monopolised by the elite\) in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the thirteenth and fourteenth century, to a self-conscious, middle-ranking wider political class in the fifteenth )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and sixteenth centuries, when guild institutions went into terminal decline; the popolo were always distinct )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from the working class, who were given guild representation only ephemerally following the proletarian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(revolt in 1378.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Few contemporary Florentine historians would disagree with these definitions as articulated by Najemy, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(developed from the important contributions of American historians such as Gene Brucker )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 467.276 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(22\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 467.276 107.811 m 487.268 107.811 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 487.268 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and Lauro )] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Martines )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 79.676 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(23\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 79.676 93.555 m 99.668 93.555 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 99.668 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. What is distinctive is the spin Najemy puts on this social structure: Ottokar had shown how )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(magnates and upper-class popolani were not in conflict; Rubinstein had minimised the role of the popolo as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the silent majority of Florentine politics in the fifteenth century. What Najemy demonstrates is that class )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consciousness, tension and conflict - in Florentine, not Marxist, terms - were perennial features of Florentine )] TJ ET endstream endobj 54 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 55 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 427.9877 781.1335 447.9797 793.0135 ] >> endobj 55 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 56 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 57 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 127.6637 766.8775 147.6557 778.7575 ] >> endobj 57 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 58 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 59 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 371.2997 669.3415 391.2917 681.2215 ] >> endobj 59 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 60 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 61 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 467.2757 108.1255 487.2677 120.0055 ] >> endobj 61 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 62 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 63 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 79.6757 93.8695 99.6677 105.7495 ] >> endobj 63 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 64 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 66 0 R 68 0 R 70 0 R ] /Contents 65 0 R >> endobj 65 0 obj << /Length 8077 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history from the mid thirteenth to the mid sixteenth century. The conflict between these groups was overt )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from the 1250s to the 1380s, with alternating elitist and popular regimes; thereafter, the popolo, terrified by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the spectre of working-class radicalism that they themselves had called into being with the Ciompi revolt of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1378, acquiesced in elite dominance after the 1380s, in exchange for sporadic and mainly honorific major )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(office-holding, as well as to put themselves in line for elite patronage.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(However, the popolo were far from dead: Najemy has emphasised their self-conscious identity, providing a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(telling analysis of the non-elitist mid-century chronicler Marco Parenti )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 376.304 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(24\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 376.304 697.539 m 396.296 697.539 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 396.296 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, as well as underlining their role )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in backing the attempt to oust Piero de' Medici in 1465-6 by supporting the end of Medicean restrictive )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(electoral manipulation and wider access to political offices. One could add that the popolo had an important )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(role in the near-collapse of Medici power between 1454 and 1458, refusing, as the dominant voice in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ancient legislative councils, to renew Medicean constitutional machinations and indeed humiliating Cosimo )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(de' Medici by sacking his old friend and favourite, the renowned humanist Poggio Bracciolini, as chancellor )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and blocking other Medicean appointees to the chancery )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 307.952 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(25\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 307.952 612.003 m 327.944 612.003 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 327.944 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(; Cosimo sanctioned a move to reconsolidate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his regime's position only after the death of his enemy Alfonso of Aragon at the beginning of 1458 removed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the possibility of foreign intervention on the side of his popular enemies. The )] TJ ET BT 407.984 584.885 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(popolo)] TJ ET BT 441.320 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( returned to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(forefront of Florentine politics with the collapse of the Medici in 1494: although the elite's revulsion at Piero )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(de' Medici's princely and courtly ruling style and his disastrous foreign policy brought down the regime, it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was pressure from and fear of the popolo that forced the elite to come up with the Great Council as a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(desperate attempt to salvage their power on the Venetian aristocratic model. Such stratagems failed as the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(popolo seized the electoral initiative in the later 1490s; even the last-ditch attempt to secure elitist )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dominance by electing the aristocratic Piero Soderini as Florence's chief magistrate in 1502 was a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(spectacular failure, when it turned out that he supported constitutional structures that favoured the popolo, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not the elite.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(When the revived republic collapsed in 1512, as a result of a disastrous pro-French foreign policy, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(popolo did not return to the passive acquiescence characteristic of the years between the Ciompi revolt and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the rise of the Medici: the Medici rulers were all too aware that Florentines, and particularly the popolo, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were unflinchingly attached to their Great Council; the Medici regime became increasingly isolated, falling )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(almost without local resistance after the sack of Rome temporarily emasculated the Medici leader, Pope )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Clement VII, in 1527. Popular fervour, bolstered by renewed Savonarolan millenarianism, had its finest day )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the eleven-month siege of Florence in 1529-30: the aristocrat Francesco Guicciardini witnessed the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(heroics of the endemically non-military Florentine populace with incredulity, confirming him in the view )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that politics had become totally irrational in sixteenth-century Italy )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 358.316 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(26\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 358.316 329.139 m 378.308 329.139 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 378.308 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. In the end, the popolo and the elite )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(annihilated each other politically, making way for Medici absolutism after 1530. For Najemy, Florentine )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history was not the gradual and inevitable transformation of an elite, riven by faction, into a principate, but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rather the tragic conflict of two ultimately irreconcilable social classes, protagonists whose strife in the end )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(destroyed Florentine liberty.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Of course, Najemy does not see these centuries as a continual battlefield of class warfare. More subtle is his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(picture of the dialogue between the elite and the popolo: on the one hand, the elite shed its warrior, knightly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(image for more urban, mercantile garb by the fourteenth century, infiltrating, appropriating and eventually )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dominating the popolo's guild institutions and political-constitutional structures such as the priorate, which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(became the city's chief magistracy; on the other, the popolo normally practised social climbing rather than )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(confrontation vis--vis the elite. For Najemy, nevertheless, these classes never dissolved under the vertical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pressures of patronage or hierarchy: institutions such as Florentine neighbourhoods \(the so-called sixteen )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(official districts or gonfaloni into which the city was divided from the mid fourteenth century\) or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(confraternities - which embraced both popular and elitist elements - never blurred class consciousness or, in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(moments of crisis or tension, confrontation.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Najemy's vision is, I think, one that requires to be pondered by Italian historians, who need to take seriously )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the view that a focus on elitism and patronage is not the only or always the most fruitful approach to these )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rich centuries. A striking and momentous example of how the elite learned from the popolo comes from the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(development of humanism and the Renaissance. In its origins, Renaissance humanism was anything but an )] TJ ET endstream endobj 66 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 67 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 376.3037 697.8535 396.2957 709.7335 ] >> endobj 67 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 68 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 69 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 307.9517 612.3175 327.9437 624.1975 ] >> endobj 69 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 70 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 71 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 358.3157 329.4535 378.3077 341.3335 ] >> endobj 71 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 72 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 74 0 R 76 0 R 78 0 R 80 0 R 82 0 R 84 0 R 86 0 R 88 0 R 90 0 R 92 0 R 94 0 R 96 0 R 98 0 R 100 0 R 102 0 R 104 0 R 106 0 R 108 0 R 110 0 R 112 0 R ] /Contents 73 0 R >> endobj 73 0 obj << /Length 11433 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(elitist movement. The first humanist, Lovato Lovati, contrasted a singer, 'bellowing the battles of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Charlemagne and French exploits' in French, 'gaping in barbarous fashion', with '[the courageous )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(poet]...[who] believes that one must follow in the footsteps of the ancient poets' )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 418.796 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(27\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 418.796 766.563 m 438.788 766.563 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 438.788 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. Brunetto Latini could )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(proudly identify with Cicero, the new man who rose to confront the conspiratorial Catiline: 'Tulius was a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(new citizen of Rome and not of great stature; but through his wisdom he rose to such eminence that all )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Rome was commanded by his words' )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 215.492 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(28\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 215.492 723.795 m 235.484 723.795 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 235.484 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. Latini's formulation recalls Sallust's description of Cicero as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(homo novus, previously passed over for the consulate owing to the invidia and superbia of the nobilitas )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 533.300 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(29\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 533.300 709.539 m 553.292 709.539 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 553.292 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(; )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sallust's anti-aristocratic, pro-popular sentiments complemented Cicero's own arriviste)] TJ ET BT 453.284 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(biography, giving )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(classical history and literature a powerful social resonance in mid thirteenth-century Italy. For both Lovato )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and Latini, a return to classical authors or classical language was connected with antipathy to contemporary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(aristocratic society dominated by courtly mores and hierarchical values; in both cases, one may detect a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reaction against the political dominance of the aristocratic elite in the Italian communes. The same attitudes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were explicitly articulated by a third early humanist, Geri d'Arezzo, who showed not only animosity towards )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the pursuits and pretensions of the contemporary aristocracy, but also used classical writers and history to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(justify the literary and learned activities of the notarial / legal profession, of which he, as well as Lovati and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 582.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Latini, was a member )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 140.996 582.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(30\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 140.996 581.235 m 160.988 581.235 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 160.988 582.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(; early humanism represented an ideology underpinning the political and social )] TJ ET BT 34.016 568.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(aspirations of the popular, non-elite legal class to which Lovato, Latini and Geri belonged )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 468.620 568.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(31\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 468.620 566.979 m 488.612 566.979 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 488.612 568.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(What is remarkable is how the Florentine elite appropriated this originally popular ideology at the end of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fourteenth century. In the generation after the Ciompi rebellion, key elite patrons such as Palla Strozzi )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(realised that humanist learning and classical education were an effective way to differentiate their class from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the popolo, who continued to favour non-latinate mercantile education, as imparted in elementary and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(abacus schools widespread throughout the city; beginning at the turn of the fifteenth century, the elite began )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to engage private tutors to teach their sons Latin and humanist learning, largely unavailable and unwelcome )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to the mass of the popolo. Such a classical education served not only to distinguish entrenched members of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the elite such as the scions of the Albizzi, Acciaiuoli, Medici or Strozzi families but also facilitated entre to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the upper classes for arrivistes such as Niccol Niccoli or Matteo Palmieri )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 393.284 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(32\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 393.284 426.675 m 413.276 426.675 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 413.276 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. Lauro Martines has )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(persuasively called humanism a 'a program for the ruling classes' in the fifteenth century )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 461.588 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(33\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 461.588 412.419 m 481.580 412.419 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 481.580 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. Now John )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Najemy has, with just as much insight, laid the groundwork for the reinterpretation of humanism as one )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(further innovation of the popolo to be subsequently appropriated and transformed by the elite.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 350.403 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 319.786 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 319.781 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Corporatism and Consensus in Florentine Electoral Politics, 1280-1400)] TJ ET BT 412.028 319.781 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Chapel Hill, NC, 1982\). )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 64.016 305.525 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 304.131 m 118.004 304.131 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 291.274 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 291.269 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Between Friends: Discourses of Power and Desire in the Machiavelli-Vettori Letters of 1513-1515)] TJ ET BT 64.016 277.013 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Princeton, NJ, 1993\). )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 173.336 277.013 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 173.336 275.619 m 227.324 275.619 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 262.762 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 262.757 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(F. T. Perrens, )] TJ ET BT 132.008 262.757 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Histoire de Florence)] TJ ET BT 231.992 262.757 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(6 vols., Paris, 1877-83\). )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 356.984 262.757 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 356.984 261.363 m 410.972 261.363 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 248.506 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 248.501 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(F. Schevill, )] TJ ET BT 122.024 248.501 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(History of Florence: from the Founding of the City through the Renaissance)] TJ ET BT 488.336 248.501 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 234.245 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1937\). )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 98.012 234.245 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 98.012 232.851 m 152.000 232.851 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 219.994 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(5.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 219.989 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(J. Hale, )] TJ ET BT 103.340 219.989 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Florence and the Medici: the Pattern of Control)] TJ ET BT 334.988 219.989 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London, 1977\). )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 419.312 219.989 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 419.312 218.595 m 473.300 218.595 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 205.738 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(6.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 205.733 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Magnati e popolani in Firenze dal 1280 al 1295)] TJ ET BT 295.352 205.733 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Florence, 1899\). )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 384.332 205.733 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 384.332 204.339 m 438.320 204.339 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 191.482 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(7.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 191.477 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Il comune di Firenze alla fine del Dugento)] TJ ET BT 268.328 191.477 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Florence, 1926\). )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 357.308 191.477 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(7\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 357.308 190.083 m 411.296 190.083 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 177.226 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(8.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 177.221 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Structure of Politics at the Accession of George III)] TJ ET BT 328.988 177.221 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London, 1929\). )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 413.312 177.221 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(8\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 413.312 175.827 m 467.300 175.827 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 162.970 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 162.965 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Roman Revolution)] TJ ET BT 174.008 162.965 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London, 1939\). )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 258.332 162.965 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(9\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 258.332 161.571 m 312.320 161.571 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 148.714 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(10.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 148.709 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('I primi anni del Consiglio Maggiore di Firenze \(1494-99\)', )] TJ ET BT 350.312 148.709 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Archivio storico italiano,)] TJ ET BT 471.320 148.709 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( 112 \(1954\), 151-)] TJ ET BT 64.016 134.453 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(94, 321-47. )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 122.012 134.453 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(10\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 122.012 133.059 m 182.000 133.059 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 120.202 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(11.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 120.197 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Government of Florence under the Medici \(1434-1494\))] TJ ET BT 350.960 120.197 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Oxford, 1966; 2nd edn., 1997\). )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 510.272 120.197 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to )] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 510.272 118.803 m 550.268 118.803 l S BT 64.016 105.941 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(11\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 104.547 m 84.008 104.547 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 91.690 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(12.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 91.685 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('Politics: class and patronage in twentieth-century Italian Renaissance historiography', in )] TJ ET BT 491.948 91.685 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Italian )] TJ ET BT 64.016 77.429 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Renaissance in the Twentieth Century: Acts of an International Conference, Florence, Villa I Tatti, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 63.173 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(June 9-11, 1999 )] TJ ET BT 144.668 63.173 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Florence, 2002\), pp. 119-36, at p. 126. )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 336.308 63.173 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(12\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 336.308 61.779 m 396.296 61.779 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 48.922 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(13.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 48.917 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(F. W. Kent, 'Nicolai Rubinstein, teacher', in )] TJ ET BT 276.980 48.917 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Nicolai Rubinstein: in memoriam)] TJ ET BT 437.312 48.917 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Florence, 2005\), pp. 35-)] TJ ET endstream endobj 74 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 75 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 418.7957 766.8775 438.7877 778.7575 ] >> endobj 75 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 76 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 77 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 215.4917 724.1095 235.4837 735.9895 ] >> endobj 77 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 78 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 79 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 533.2997 709.8535 553.2917 721.7335 ] >> endobj 79 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 80 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 81 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 140.9957 581.5495 160.9877 593.4295 ] >> endobj 81 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 82 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 83 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 468.6197 567.2935 488.6117 579.1735 ] >> endobj 83 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 84 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 85 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 393.2837 426.9895 413.2757 438.8695 ] >> endobj 85 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 86 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 87 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 461.5877 412.7335 481.5797 424.6135 ] >> endobj 87 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 88 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 89 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 64.0157 304.4455 118.0037 316.3255 ] >> endobj 89 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 90 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 91 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 173.3357 275.9335 227.3237 287.8135 ] >> endobj 91 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 92 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 93 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 356.9837 261.6775 410.9717 273.5575 ] >> endobj 93 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 94 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 95 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 98.0117 233.1655 151.9997 245.0455 ] >> endobj 95 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 96 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 97 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 419.3117 218.9095 473.2997 230.7895 ] >> endobj 97 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 98 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 99 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 384.3317 204.6535 438.3197 216.5335 ] >> endobj 99 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 100 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 101 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 357.3077 190.3975 411.2957 202.2775 ] >> endobj 101 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 102 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 103 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 413.3117 176.1415 467.2997 188.0215 ] >> endobj 103 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 104 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 105 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 258.3317 161.8855 312.3197 173.7655 ] >> endobj 105 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 106 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 107 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 122.0117 133.3735 181.9997 145.2535 ] >> endobj 107 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 108 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 109 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 510.2717 119.1175 550.2677 130.9975 ] >> endobj 109 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 110 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 111 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 64.0157 104.8615 84.0077 116.7415 ] >> endobj 111 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 112 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 113 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 336.3077 62.0935 396.2957 73.9735 ] >> endobj 113 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 114 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 116 0 R 118 0 R 120 0 R 122 0 R 124 0 R 126 0 R 128 0 R 130 0 R 132 0 R 134 0 R 136 0 R 138 0 R 140 0 R 142 0 R 144 0 R 146 0 R 148 0 R 150 0 R 152 0 R 154 0 R 156 0 R 158 0 R 160 0 R 162 0 R ] /Contents 115 0 R >> endobj 115 0 obj << /Length 12985 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 64.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(45, at pp. 37-9. )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 139.676 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(13\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 139.676 795.075 m 199.664 795.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 782.218 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(14.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(R. Devonshire-Jones, )] TJ ET BT 170.000 782.213 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Francesco Vettori: Florentine Citizen and Medici Servant)] TJ ET BT 448.640 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London, 1972\). )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 532.964 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back )] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 532.964 780.819 m 560.624 780.819 l S BT 64.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to \(14\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 766.563 m 96.344 766.563 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 753.706 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(15.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(R. Pesman Cooper, )] TJ ET BT 159.680 753.701 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Pier Soderini and the Ruling Class in Renaissance Florence)] TJ ET BT 449.000 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Goldbach, 2002\). )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 64.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(15\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 738.051 m 124.004 738.051 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 725.194 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(16.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(D. 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Lowe, )] TJ ET BT 120.680 682.421 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Church and Politics in Renaissance Italy: the Life and Career of Cardinal Francesco )] TJ ET BT 64.016 668.165 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Soderini \(1453-1524\))] TJ ET BT 167.672 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Cambridge, 1993\). )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 267.992 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(17\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 267.992 666.771 m 327.980 666.771 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 653.914 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(18.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Kent, )] TJ ET BT 93.344 653.909 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Rise of the Medici)] TJ ET BT 180.332 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(; F. W. Kent, )] TJ ET BT 245.996 653.909 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Household and Lineage in Renaissance Florence: the Family )] TJ ET BT 64.016 639.653 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Life of the Capponi, Ginori and Rucellai)] TJ ET BT 259.028 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Princeton, NJ, 1977\). Both these scholars have gone on to )] TJ ET BT 64.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(write biographies or biographical studies: F. W. Kent in )] TJ ET BT 334.988 625.397 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Giovanni Rucellai e il suo zibaldone)] TJ ET BT 509.984 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 2 )] TJ ET BT 64.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(London, 1981\); D. Kent, )] TJ ET BT 189.668 611.141 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Cosimo de' Medici and the Florentine Renaissance: the Patron's Oeuvre)] TJ ET BT 64.016 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(New Haven, Conn., 2000\); F. W. Kent, )] TJ ET BT 259.652 596.885 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Lorenzo de' Medici and the Art of Magnificence)] TJ ET BT 489.860 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Baltimore, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 582.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Md., 2004\). )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 123.680 582.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(18\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 123.680 581.235 m 183.668 581.235 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 568.378 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(19.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 568.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(J. Henderson, )] TJ ET BT 132.668 568.373 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Piety and Charity in Late Medieval Florence)] TJ ET BT 348.644 568.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Oxford, 1994\). )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 430.292 568.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(19\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 430.292 566.979 m 490.280 566.979 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 554.122 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(20.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 554.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(L. Polizzotto, )] TJ ET BT 132.020 554.117 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Elect Nation: the Savonarolan Movement in Florence, 1494-1545)] TJ ET BT 468.980 554.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Oxford, 1994\). )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 64.016 539.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(20\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 538.467 m 124.004 538.467 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 525.610 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(21.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 525.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(M. Vallerani, 'La citt e le sue istituzioni. Ceti dirigenti, oligarchi e politica nella medievistica italiana )] TJ ET BT 64.016 511.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(del Novecento', )] TJ ET BT 141.824 511.349 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Annali dell'Istituto storico italo-germanico in Trento)] TJ ET BT 395.408 511.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 20 \(1994\), 165-230. )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 500.396 511.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(21\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 500.396 509.955 m 560.384 509.955 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 497.098 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(22.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 497.093 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Florentine Politics and Society, 1343-1378)] TJ ET BT 271.004 497.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Princeton, NJ, 1962\); )] TJ ET BT 383.660 497.093 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Civic World of Early )] TJ ET BT 64.016 482.837 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Renaissance Florence)] TJ ET BT 170.324 482.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Princeton, NJ, 1977\). )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 282.644 482.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(22\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 282.644 481.443 m 342.632 481.443 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 468.586 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(23.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 468.581 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Social World of the Florentine Humanists 1390-1460)] TJ ET BT 341.012 468.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London, 1963\); )] TJ ET BT 425.672 468.581 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Lawyers and Statecraft in )] TJ ET BT 64.016 454.325 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Renaissance Florence)] TJ ET BT 170.324 454.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Princeton, NJ, 1968\). )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 282.644 454.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(23\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 282.644 452.931 m 342.632 452.931 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 440.074 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(24.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 440.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Najemy, 'Politics: class and patronage', pp. 133-5. )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 306.644 440.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(24\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 306.644 438.675 m 366.632 438.675 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 425.818 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(25.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 425.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Black, )] TJ ET BT 98.012 425.813 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Accolti)] TJ ET BT 132.008 425.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, pp. 85-114. )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 196.004 425.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(25\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 196.004 424.419 m 255.992 424.419 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 411.562 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(26.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 411.557 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Maxims and Reflections of a Renaissance Statesman)] TJ ET BT 315.992 411.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, trans. 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Witt, )] TJ ET BT 105.356 326.021 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [('In the Footsteps of the Ancients': the Origins of Humanism from Lovato to Bruni)] TJ ET BT 495.488 326.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Leiden, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 311.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2000\), pp. 52-3. )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 144.008 311.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(27\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 144.008 310.371 m 203.996 310.371 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 297.514 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(28.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 297.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Brunetto Latini, )] TJ ET BT 143.684 297.509 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(La rettorica)] TJ ET BT 201.356 297.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, I.16, ed. F. Maggini \(Florence, 1915\), p. 8; see P. J. 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