%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 20 0 R 28 0 R 44 0 R 54 0 R 86 0 R ] /Count 7 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140930150307+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140930150307+01'00') /Title (Spies, Informers, and the 'Anti-Sinn Fin Society': The Intelligence War in Cork City, 1920-1921) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 2878 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Spies, Informers, and the 'Anti-Sinn Fin Society': The Intelligence )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(War in Cork City, 1920-1921)] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(On 15 February 1921, in the city of Cork, Ireland, a military court consisting of three British Army officers )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(assembled for the purpose of inquiring into the death of a local man the previous evening. \(Such courts had )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(been held in lieu of coroner's inquests since the passage of the Restoration of Order in Ireland Act the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(previous summer.\) Having assembled and viewed the body, the court proceeded to take evidence from three )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(witnesses, including Fireman Dennis Murphy, who made the following statement. 'I belong to the Cork Fire )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Brigade', it says:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(631)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wednesday, 31 October, 2007)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(John Borgonovo)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(978071652833-3)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2007)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(19.95)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(192pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Irish Academic Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://64.151.79.225/acatalog/IAP_Catalog_More_Politics_Titles_42.html)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Dublin)] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.195 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(David Leeson)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 16 0 R 18 0 R ] /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 4880 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 64.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(At 20.15 hours last night on receipt of a telephone message an ambulance was sent from )] TJ ET BT 64.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sullivan's Quay Fire Station to Tory Top Lane. I accompanied the driver. There we found lying )] TJ ET BT 64.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the road the body of the man now in the South Infirmary Mortuary. His cap was off and also )] TJ ET BT 64.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his overcoat which was lying by his side. This card \(produced, marked A\) was lying on the )] TJ ET BT 64.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(overcoat. \(The card about 6" by 4" has on it)] TJ ET BT 64.016 701.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(CONVICTED SPY.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 674.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Penalty Death.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 648.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Let all spies and traitors beware.\))] TJ ET BT 64.016 622.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(---------)] TJ ET BT 64.016 596.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(There were no signs of life in the body. We put him in the Ambulance and brought him to the )] TJ ET BT 64.016 581.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(South Infirmary. It was dark and I noticed no wounds on the spot. There was no one by the body )] TJ ET BT 64.016 567.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(when we reached it. I noticed no one and nothing to indicate what had happened. I do not know )] TJ ET BT 64.016 553.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(who sent the telephone message. The clothing of the deceased was not searched in my presence.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Having considered the evidence, the court found:)] TJ ET BT 64.016 476.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\) that the deceased was William SULLIVAN, Aged 34, Single, an Army Pensioner residing in )] TJ ET BT 64.016 462.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(South Douglas Road, CORK.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 436.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\) that the deceased died in Top Tory Lane [sic], CORK on the night of 14th February 1921 )] TJ ET BT 64.016 422.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from the effect of gunshot wounds ...)] TJ ET BT 64.016 395.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\) that the wounds were inflicted by persons unknown against whom the court finds a verdict )] TJ ET BT 64.016 381.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of wilful murder.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 343.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Despite this verdict, there is no record of any subsequent investigation into the killing of William Sullivan.\()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 550.652 343.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 550.652 341.955 m 556.652 341.955 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 556.652 343.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET BT 34.016 317.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sullivan was just one of at least 26 Cork citizens executed for 'spying' by the insurgent Irish Republican )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Army during the Irish War of Independence \(1920-1\).\()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 297.272 302.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 297.272 301.443 m 303.272 301.443 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 303.272 302.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\) These executions, and their justification, are at the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 288.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(heart of John Borgonovo's new book, )] TJ ET BT 216.488 288.581 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Spies, Informers, and the 'Anti-Sinn Fin Society')] TJ ET BT 452.936 288.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. As Borgonovo )] TJ ET BT 34.016 274.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(explains:)] TJ ET BT 64.016 236.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This study attempts to answer four essential questions about those events. \(1\) Who were the )] TJ ET BT 64.016 221.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cork city civilians shot by the IRA in 1920-21? \(2\) Were they informers? \(3\) What was the )] TJ ET BT 64.016 207.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(context of the killings? \(4\) Was the IRA intelligence network capable of identifying civilian )] TJ ET BT 64.016 193.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(spies operating in city? \(p. 1\))] TJ ET BT 34.016 155.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(After consulting a wide variety of both published and unpublished Irish \(and British\) sources, and examining )] TJ ET BT 34.016 140.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(each case in some detail, Borgonovo has come to conclusions that are tentative, but still persuasive. At least )] TJ ET BT 34.016 126.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(some of these people, he argues, really were informers: while some others were genuinely under suspicion of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 112.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(informing; either way, in a majority of cases, there is a clear connection between their deaths and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 98.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(intelligence war in Cork City.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 71.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This is an important point because, as Borgonovo explains, some recent revisionist histories of the War of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 57.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Independence have suggested that the IRA's accusations of spying often served as a mere pretext for the )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 17 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 550.6517 342.2695 556.6517 354.1495 ] >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 19 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 297.2717 301.7575 303.2717 313.6375 ] >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 22 0 R 24 0 R 26 0 R ] /Contents 21 0 R >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Length 6929 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(persecution and murder of ex-soldiers and Protestants. Borgonovo denies this revisionist thesis, and his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(denial is based in part on a detailed examination of the IRA's intelligence service in Cork. This, he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(demonstrates, was much more effective than its British counterpart, and fully capable of rooting out spies )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and informers in its midst. What is more, according to Borgonovo, the IRA's Cork No. 1 Brigade did not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(shoot first and ask questions later, as many believe: their Brigade Intelligence Officer, Florence \(Florrie\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(O'Donoghue, took his responsibilities very seriously, and insisted on accusations of spying being proved )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(beyond a reasonable doubt before sanctioning an execution.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This is a compelling account that throws new light on the shadowy war between insurgents and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(counterinsurgents in Cork City between 1920 and 1921. Of course, like any historian, Borgonovo makes a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(few small mistakes along the way. On p. 106, for example, he blames the Temporary Cadets of the Royal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Irish Constabulary's \(RIC\) Auxiliary Division for initiating a wave of assassinations and attempted )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(assassinations of Cork City Republicans in November 1920. 'These attacks coincided with integration of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [("Black and Tan" British constables into the Cork City RIC, and the arrival of a newly-raised company of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Auxiliary Cadets' he says. 'The Cadets, composed of former military officers, seem to have instigated the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reprisal campaign in the city.' This is probably not correct. On the one hand, the RIC had been posting Black )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and Tans to County Cork for months before November 1920: in fact, 25 of the 110 Black and Tans who had )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(enlisted in January 1920 had been allocated to County Cork.\()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 327.980 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 327.980 554.979 m 333.980 554.979 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 333.980 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\)On the other hand, the 'newly-raised )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(company of Auxiliary Cadets' - K Company - did not arrive in the city until the beginning of December, a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(month after the reprisal campaign began. This fact is clear from the evidence presented to the second )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(military court of inquiry into the burning of Cork - the notorious 'Strickland Report'. In his testimony, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(commander of K Company, District Inspector W. O. Latimer, stated that '"K" Company was formed on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(paper in Dublin on Nov. 22nd. The first platoon assembled at Cork on Dec. 2nd. The company was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(completed as it stands at present at Cork on Dec. 8th'.\()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 295.472 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 295.472 469.443 m 301.472 469.443 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 301.472 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As this example suggests, while Borgonovo makes excellent use of Irish sources \(including the recently-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(opened Bureau of Military History\), he does not always make effective use of British sources. In a recent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(letter to )] TJ ET BT 74.012 416.069 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(History Ireland)] TJ ET BT 148.340 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, Borgonovo has asserted that 'British records for the period are fragmentary, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(incomplete, and often unreliable'.\()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 198.476 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(5)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 198.476 400.419 m 204.476 400.419 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 204.476 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\) It's not clear how he came to this conclusion, since, to judge by his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(footnotes, he consulted very few of them. In fact, the UK's National Archives have preserved an enormous )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(number of documents relating to the Irish War of Independence and no historian can afford to ignore its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contents.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(On p. 72, for example, Borgonovo complains \(with justification\) that 'it is extremely difficult to quantify )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Volunteer operations in Cork':)] TJ ET BT 64.016 280.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Although both police and local newspapers described major ambushes of British forces, minor )] TJ ET BT 64.016 266.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(actions and failed ambushes seemed to have gone largely unreported. For example, in July )] TJ ET BT 64.016 251.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1920, the RIC County Inspector reported seven IRA shooting attacks on city police \(not )] TJ ET BT 64.016 237.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(including the assassination of Divisional Commissioner Smyth\). No details of these incidents )] TJ ET BT 64.016 223.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were included in the Inspector's report, and similar incidents went unreported during the rest of )] TJ ET BT 64.016 208.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1920.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 170.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This is correct, as far as it goes - but the RIC county inspectors' monthly reports are not the only available )] TJ ET BT 34.016 156.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(documents on this topic. Dublin Castle was also receiving weekly summaries of outrages against the police, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 142.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which mention many of the 'minor actions and failed ambushes' that the county inspectors' monthly reports )] TJ ET BT 34.016 127.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(do not. In fact, some of these reports on minor incidents are more detailed than the reports on deaths and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 113.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(woundings. To take just one example:)] TJ ET BT 64.016 75.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(CORK CITY. On 18.11.20 two members of the Auxiliary Police stationed at Woodstock, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 61.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(County Kilkenny, who are on duty in Cork, were attacked by a crowd of ten or twelve men at )] TJ ET endstream endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 23 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 327.9797 555.2935 333.9797 567.1735 ] >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 25 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 295.4717 469.7575 301.4717 481.6375 ] >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 27 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 198.4757 400.7335 204.4757 412.6135 ] >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 30 0 R 32 0 R 34 0 R 36 0 R 38 0 R 40 0 R 42 0 R ] /Contents 29 0 R >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Length 7723 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 64.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Parnell Place. Captain Jones was knocked down and deprived of his revolver. Major Moon fired )] TJ ET BT 64.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(five shots, and the attackers decamped. Two of the assailants are believed to be wounded. The )] TJ ET BT 64.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(two officers escaped without injury.\()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 240.980 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(6)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 240.980 766.563 m 246.980 766.563 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 246.980 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET BT 34.016 729.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Borgonovo could have used these records to supplement the RIC county inspector's monthly reports, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 715.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(thereby acquired a clearer picture of IRA activity - especially since the weekly summaries of outrages )] TJ ET BT 34.016 701.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(distinguish incidents in Cork City from incidents outside, which the county inspector's reports do not. Nor )] TJ ET BT 34.016 686.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(can Borgonovo plead ignorance of these documents: W. J. Lowe used them as his chief source for an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 672.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(outstanding article five years ago;\()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 200.648 672.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(7)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 200.648 671.283 m 206.648 671.283 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 206.648 672.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\) what is more, Borgonovo sometimes refers to these weekly summaries )] TJ ET BT 34.016 658.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(himself. \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 80.012 658.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(8)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 80.012 657.027 m 86.012 657.027 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 86.012 658.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\) By digging deeper into records like these, Borgonovo could have strengthened the quantitative )] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(analysis that he provides in Chapter Four to support his arguments about trends in revolutionary and counter-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(revolutionary violence.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 603.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Another British source that Borgonovo neglects is the proceedings of the military courts of inquiry in lieu of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 589.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(inquests established by the Restoration of Order in Ireland Act. These are preserved in The National )] TJ ET BT 34.016 575.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Archives as part of WO 35, and they frequently make fascinating reading. Take, for example, the case of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 560.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(William Sullivan. According to Sullivan's brother Philip, William had in fact served in the Army for seven )] TJ ET BT 34.016 546.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(years, enlisting before the First World War: after his demobilisation in 1919, he had re-enlisted in the Royal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 532.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Army Service Corps for a year; since then he had been drawing unemployment donation. Somehow, on 12 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 518.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(February 1921, Sullivan obtained a cheque for more than 20 which he cashed on Monday the 14th. 'He took )] TJ ET BT 34.016 503.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(our mother into the town to buy some clothes for the children', said Philip Sullivan; 'She brought back about )] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(5 worth of clothes, and spectacles worth about 15 shillings. He did not come home with her. I did not see )] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(him again alive'.\()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 117.164 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 117.164 473.955 m 123.164 473.955 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 123.164 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Did the Crown Forces really pay their Irish informants by cheque? Whether they did or not, Sullivan's good )] TJ ET BT 34.016 434.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fortune may have confirmed his guilt in the eyes of the IRA: around eight o'clock on the evening of 14 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(February, someone shot him twice, in the right side of the neck, shattering the spinal column. In his evidence )] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to the court of inquiry, Philip Sullivan went on to say:)] TJ ET BT 64.016 368.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(My brother took no part in politics, as far as I know. He did not help the police at all. He was )] TJ ET BT 64.016 353.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not friendly with any police. As to politics he used to say that he had been through enough & )] TJ ET BT 64.016 339.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that he did not want to hear anything about politics. I do not know of any reason why anyone )] TJ ET BT 64.016 325.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(should want to hurt him. He used to drink all he could get. He would look after the home first: )] TJ ET BT 64.016 311.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(he was a good brother. What he had left he would spend in drink. Out of the money he drew he )] TJ ET BT 64.016 296.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(gave my mother some, besides buying the clothes. I cannot say at all how much money he had )] TJ ET BT 64.016 282.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on him when he left my mother in the town. I know of no people who would be likely to rob )] TJ ET BT 64.016 268.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(him. He was shot about ...\()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 193.004 268.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(10)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 193.004 266.883 m 205.004 266.883 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 205.004 268.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\) mile from our home. The Police gave me three shillings as )] TJ ET BT 64.016 254.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(having been found in my brother's clothing.\()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 277.820 254.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(11)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 277.820 252.627 m 289.820 252.627 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 289.820 254.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET BT 34.016 215.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In his book, Borgonovo asks why the IRA took Sullivan to Tory Top Lane before they shot him. 'The most )] TJ ET BT 34.016 201.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(plausible answer', he suggests, 'is that the Volunteers wanted to question Sullivan before killing him' \(p. 57\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sullivan's abductors either wanted him to confess, or they wanted him to implicate his accomplices. To my )] TJ ET BT 34.016 172.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mind, this new information makes the former seem more likely: it is easy to imagine the last pathetic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 158.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(moments of William Sullivan's life, with a gun to his neck, and angry voices asking him where he got that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 144.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(money. Borgonovo might have discovered many similar files, had he only looked.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In addition, while Borgonovo's references to Irish archival sources are models of clarity and consistency, his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 103.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(references to British archival sources are a bit of a mess. In his notes, for example, Borgonovo refers to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 89.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(same type of RIC document in at least seven different ways.\()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 326.960 89.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(12)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 326.960 88.323 m 338.960 88.323 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 338.960 89.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\) To his credit, he never neglects to tell us )] TJ ET BT 34.016 75.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that these various reports are part of the Colonial Office papers - CO 904, to be exact - but in most cases, he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(does not mention their location: and when he does, he refers us to the old Public Record Office \(PRO\), rather )] TJ ET endstream endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 31 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 240.9797 766.8775 246.9797 778.7575 ] >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 33 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 200.6477 671.5975 206.6477 683.4775 ] >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 35 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 80.0117 657.3415 86.0117 669.2215 ] >> endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 36 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 37 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 117.1637 474.2695 123.1637 486.1495 ] >> endobj 37 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 38 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 39 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 193.0037 267.1975 205.0037 279.0775 ] >> endobj 39 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 40 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 41 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 277.8197 252.9415 289.8197 264.8215 ] >> endobj 41 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 42 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 43 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 326.9597 88.6375 338.9597 100.5175 ] >> endobj 43 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 44 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 46 0 R 48 0 R 50 0 R 52 0 R ] /Contents 45 0 R >> endobj 45 0 obj << /Length 7872 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(than the new National Archives \(TNA\). Finally, despite Borgonovo's frequent references to the material )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(preserved therein, his bibliography mentions neither the PRO nor TNA - although it does mention the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Imperial War Museum and the Liddell Hart Centre for Military Studies. To the trained eye, these errors and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(omissions make Borgonovo's work look amateurish - and that is unfortunate. Though rather weakened in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(places by its neglect of British sources, Borgonovo's book is otherwise both solidly-researched and up-to-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(date. Its arguments are generally sound, and its conclusions are both interesting and significant. This is a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(professional piece of work)] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Unfortunately, some people seem to want more from this book than its author was able or willing to deliver. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(What Borgonovo has written is a valuable addition to the historiography of the Irish Revolution, but to judge )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from the way that the book has been advertised, )] TJ ET BT 266.636 656.165 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Spies, Informers and the 'Anti-Sinn Fin Society')] TJ ET BT 500.084 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(written \(or at least published\) specifically to refute the work of Peter Hart. The back cover promises readers )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that the author will provide 'unique evidence and conclusions regarding the situation in Cork city, which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have not been published in any other work and directly contradicts some conclusions made in Peter Hart's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The IRA and its Enemies)] TJ ET BT 152.672 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('. In addition, as part of his own anti-revisionist campaign, Jack Lane of the Aubane )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Historical Society has blazed Borgonovo's findings abroad, claiming that they 'rubbish' Hart's research.\()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 532.580 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(13)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 532.580 583.491 m 544.580 583.491 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 544.580 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Let's consider these claims. In Chapter 13 of )] TJ ET BT 250.472 558.629 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The IRA and its Enemies)] TJ ET BT 369.128 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(appropriately titled 'Spies and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Informers'\) Hart writes:)] TJ ET BT 64.016 506.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('Informers' can thus be broken down into three categories: those the IRA suspected were 'guilty )] TJ ET BT 64.016 491.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of offences against the Nation and the Army'; those they punished for those alleged activities; )] TJ ET BT 64.016 477.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and those who actually did give information to the authorities. What the evidence shows is that )] TJ ET BT 64.016 463.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(these were three quite distinct groups, with little overlap in membership. That is, the great )] TJ ET BT 64.016 449.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(majority of actual informants were never suspected or punished; most of those shot \(or )] TJ ET BT 64.016 434.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(denounced, expelled, or burned out of their homes\) never informed; and those blacklisted were )] TJ ET BT 64.016 420.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(also usually innocent-but were not usually attacked.\()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 316.976 420.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(14)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 316.976 419.187 m 328.976 419.187 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 328.976 420.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET BT 34.016 382.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(These generalisations are then supported with a data table that divides nine samples of 'spies and informers' )] TJ ET BT 34.016 368.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(into three categories - those who were suspected, those who were punished, and those who informed - and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 353.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(compares their occupations, their ages and certain other characteristics - in particular, Protestantism and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 339.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(military service. The information provided by this table fully supports Hart's generalisations: as Hart )] TJ ET BT 34.016 325.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mentions in the text, 'Protestants, ex-soldiers, and those described as "tinkers" or "tramps" made up 14 per )] TJ ET BT 34.016 311.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cent of informants, 27 per cent of suspects, and fully 67 per cent of those who were shot'.\()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 466.088 311.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(15)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 466.088 309.651 m 478.088 309.651 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 478.088 311.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET BT 34.016 284.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Now: Borgonovo does not directly dispute any of this. In fact, far from 'directly contradicting' Hart's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 270.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conclusions, Borgonovo agrees with them - at least, when it comes to the reasons why the IRA shot a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 256.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(disproportionate number of ex-soldiers as spies. Like Hart, Borgonovo notes that suspected women spies )] TJ ET BT 34.016 242.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were usually spared, along with Republicans and their families: and even though five Protestant Unionists )] TJ ET BT 34.016 227.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were executed, some were merely ordered out of the city, and many others were left alone. Yet the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 213.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Volunteers were willing to shoot ex-servicemen: why? 'Faced with numerous cases of complicity with the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 199.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(local Crown forces', says Borgonovo, 'the city's IRA leadership probably found it easiest to assassinate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 184.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(isolated men of low social standing, rather than prominent pillars of the community, close associates, or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 170.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(members of Republican families' \(p. 91\). This is almost exactly what Hart said in )] TJ ET BT 426.800 170.741 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The IRA and its Enemies)] TJ ET BT 545.456 170.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(: )] TJ ET BT 34.016 156.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('Almost anyone could be an informer. Almost anyone could be suspected of informing. Whether one was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 142.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(shot \(or burned out, or expelled\), however, depended upon one's position within the community.'\()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 502.616 142.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(16)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 502.616 140.835 m 514.616 140.835 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 514.616 142.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET BT 34.016 115.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Borgonovo does offer some specific criticisms of Hart's work, but these are not always convincing. In )] TJ ET BT 34.016 101.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(particular, I think Borgonovo mischaracterises Hart's theory of a 'tit-for tat' cycle of violence. Borgonovo )] TJ ET BT 34.016 87.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(seems to think this means that 'the IRA executed civilians as informal reprisals for IRA losses' \(pp. 85-6\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(But what Hart had in mind was clearly something much more complex, as he shows in Chapter 1 of )] TJ ET BT 515.960 73.205 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The IRA )] TJ ET BT 34.016 58.949 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(and its Enemies)] TJ ET BT 110.012 58.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, with his detailed narrative of the fallout from the shooting of RIC Sergeant James )] TJ ET endstream endobj 46 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 47 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 532.5797 583.8055 544.5797 595.6855 ] >> endobj 47 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 48 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 49 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 316.9757 419.5015 328.9757 431.3815 ] >> endobj 49 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 50 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 51 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 466.0877 309.9655 478.0877 321.8455 ] >> endobj 51 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 52 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 53 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 502.6157 141.1495 514.6157 153.0295 ] >> endobj 53 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 54 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 56 0 R 58 0 R 60 0 R 62 0 R 64 0 R 66 0 R 68 0 R 70 0 R 72 0 R 74 0 R 76 0 R 78 0 R 80 0 R 82 0 R 84 0 R ] /Contents 55 0 R >> endobj 55 0 obj << /Length 9661 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(O'Donoghue. Indeed, some of Borgonovo's arguments in this section of his book seem rather strange. On p. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(70, for example, he takes a pessimistic police report \('the state of the City and Riding have been bad'\) as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(evidence that the IRA could not have been shooting civilian informers that month as informal reprisals for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(IRA losses. But this seems to assume a rather heartless attitude on the part of the police official: surely, one )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reason he wrote that the City and Riding had been bad, was because so many civilians were being executed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by the IRA?)] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ultimately, the disagreement between Hart and Borgonovo rests on their different estimations of the overlap )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(between Hart's three groups of 'informers': those who were suspected, those who were punished and those )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(who informed. What Borgonovo has done in )] TJ ET BT 251.324 670.421 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Spies, Informers and the 'Anti-Sinn Fin Society')] TJ ET BT 484.772 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(demonstrate that Cork City was an exception to Peter Hart's rule: in Cork City, the overlap between these )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(three groups was much greater than a study of County Cork as a whole would suggest. Clearly, the Cork No. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1 Brigade's exceptional intelligence service made it possible to narrow the 'informer gap' that Hart found )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(throughout the county. Borgonovo's research results have qualified - dare I say, revised - Hart's conclusions. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(And that is the way of historical research. At the risk of offending both authors, it seems clear to me that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their works are complementary rather than contradictory. In order to 'rubbish' Hart's work, Borgonovo would )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have to show that his own findings were applicable across County Cork. This he does not \(indeed, cannot\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(do. Borgonovo does think that 'the city was a microcosm of the larger struggle in Ireland' \(p. 3\). What is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more, he hopes that, 'when studying the example of Cork city, the reader will consider its wider implications' )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(p. 2\). But this is rather like writing a history of the Battle of the Somme and saying that 'the Somme was a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(microcosm of the larger struggle on the Western Front', while hoping that 'when studying the example of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Somme, the reader will consider its wider implications'. In fact, the battles at either end of the Great War, in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1914 and 1918, hardly resembled those of 1916, or each other. The same could be said about the battles )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fought at either end of revolutionary Ireland, or even rebel Cork, between 1920 and 1921.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.939 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 405.322 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 405.317 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The National Archives of the UK \(TNA\), WO 35/159b, Third witness \(Brian Murphy\) and Findings, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 391.061 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(court of inquiry into the death of William Sullivan, 15 February 1921.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 400.328 391.061 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 400.328 389.667 m 454.316 389.667 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 376.810 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 376.805 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The exact total is a little unclear. In his notes, Borgonovo mentions 26 killings and seven attempted )] TJ ET BT 64.016 362.549 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(killings, for a total of 33 \(p. 100, nn. 70, 71\). But in his conclusion, he mentions only 31 \(p. 179\). )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 64.016 348.293 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 346.899 m 118.004 346.899 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 334.042 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 334.037 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(TNA, HO 184/36, Royal Irish Constabulary General Register. )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 364.976 334.037 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 364.976 332.643 m 418.964 332.643 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 319.786 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 319.781 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(TNA, WO 35/88A, First witness \(Dist. Insp. O. W. Latimer\), court of inquiry into incendiarism and )] TJ ET BT 64.016 305.525 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(looting in Cork City, p. 3. )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 191.036 305.525 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 191.036 304.131 m 245.024 304.131 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 291.274 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(5.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 291.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(J. 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