%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 18 0 R 22 0 R 26 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140818070251+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140818070251+01'00') /Title (Race and Empire: Eugenics in Colonial Kenya) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4138 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Race and Empire: Eugenics in Colonial Kenya)] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Before the 1980s, the powerful link between empire and race was marginalised in British imperial history. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The postcolonial 'turn' opened up new ways of exploring racial constructions of colonised subjects and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(stimulated debate over the extent to which representations of the colonised in colonial discourse underpinned )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(imperial power. In )] TJ ET BT 125.996 216.299 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Race and Empire, )] TJ ET BT 215.312 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(based on an AHRB/C-funded research project, Chloe Campbell, who )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(now works in publishing, reverts to a more conventional approach in her rigorous and detailed analysis of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Kenyan eugenics movement during the inter-war years. Her key aim is to redress the neglect of imperial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(eugenic movements through a case study of Kenya, tracing the 'transportation and mutation of British )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(eugenic thought as it moved through the imperial conceptual network' \(p. 3\). The British eugenics )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(movement, she argues, was the 'intellectual mother ship' for the Kenyan movement \(p. 11\). In the 1930s, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(however, the British Eugenics Society \(founded in 1926\) sought to distance itself from the Kenyan )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(eugenicists. This was prompted by Nazi racism and by the growing momentum of attacks on what was now )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(regarded as 'unfashionable' racial science, from the left and biologists such as Lancelot Hogben and Julian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 87.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Huxley, that emphasised environment over genes and heredity. In the wider context, this reflected the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(deepening gulf between Kenyan settler society and the metropole over the question of African rights.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(632)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wednesday, 31 October, 2007)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chloe Campbell)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780719071607)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2007)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(50.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(214pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Manchester University Press,)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.manchesteruniversitypress.co.uk/catalogue/book.asp?id=1301)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Manchester)] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.579 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Barbara Bush)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 16 0 R ] /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7702 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The Kenyan Society for the Study of Race Improvement \(KSSRI\) was founded in 1933. Its members were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mostly urban professionals and government officers eager to form what was seen as an 'intellectual )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(movement' \(p. 6\). The immediate context was the Depression that reached its peak in the early 1930s and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(affected the Kenyan economy, and the British government's rejection of settler demands for political control )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as a result of the Hilton Young Commission, 1929. Eugenics took root in the Kenyan medical profession, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(argues Campbell, partly because it promised 'rational, biological solutions to perceived problems ... of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(African development' \(p. 69\). There were, however, splits in the Kenya colonial service between those who )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were in favour of African development and emphasised environmental factors in African 'backwardness' and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(those who were opposed on the grounds of heredity and innate racial traits.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A recurrent theme of the book is the 'movement of ideas within the imperial system' \(p. 178\). Campbell's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(study reveals a complex network of relations between metropolis and colony centred on differing views of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the 'African mind' and African capacities for development. Within the movement itself there were hardliners )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(who emphasised biological differences framed in the language of scientific racism, and progressive liberals, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mainly colonial officials as opposed to resident settlers, who emphasised the social hygiene aspects of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(eugenics in aiding development and addressing the problems of rapid change and urbanisation. Across the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(spectrum of views within the eugenics movement there was unity of purpose in addressing the problems of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rapid change, particularly urbanisation and 'detribalisation' resulting from the development of the colonial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(economy. Contemporary racial discourse romanticised the 'bush pagan', while the 'detribalised' urban worker )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and what Graham Greene referred to as the 'trousered, bespectacled [African] clerk', epitomised in Joyce )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Carey's novel )] TJ ET BT 102.164 501.605 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Mr Johnson)] TJ ET BT 159.824 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1939\), were ridiculed and despised )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 337.448 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 337.448 500.211 m 351.440 500.211 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 351.440 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. Urbanisation was associated with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(juvenile delinquency, family breakdown, prostitution and venereal diseases, criminality and mental )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(instability.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The leading figures in the eugenics movement were doctors and psychiatrists and progressive settlers such as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Eleanor 'Nellie' Grant, mother of Elspeth Huxley, the biographer of Lord Delamere, the British aristocrat )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(who established the colony as a private fiefdom and remained central in Kenyan settler politics until his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(death in 1931. Much eugenics research in Kenya was directed to the question of mental deficiency, or ')] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(amentia)] TJ ET BT 72.680 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(', in Africans, pathologising the brain of the Kenyan native as inferior. The progressive faction )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(supported this on the grounds that it would provide a better informed understanding of African life and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(facilitate the 'scientifically informed pursuit of native development' \(p. 6\). The fulcrum of the movement was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the influential psychiatrist, Dr Henry Laing Gordon, a settler doctor in Kenya from 1925 who became )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(president of the Kenyan branch of the British Medical Association in 1931. Gordon was supported by Sir )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Edward Grigg, Governor of Kenya from 1925 to 1930, and Leopold Amery, the Secretary of State for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Colonies \(1924-9\) and a close friend of Grigg \(p. 95\). Gordon, argues Campbell, 'shaped a new and extreme )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interpretation of racial difference' \(p. 40\). Interestingly, she observes, Julian Huxley, who was associated )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with challenges to scientific racism and had Kenyan connections, supported Gordon as late as 1938, long )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(after many in Britain regarded him as a 'charlatan' \(p. 85\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Of the three main strands of British eugenics - heredity, meliorism or social improvement \(which attracted )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reformist socialists\), and Malthusianism \(population control\) - only heredity and meliorism survived in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Kenyan eugenics. The key emphasis was on providing biological evidence of innate racial difference. This )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(became central to the debate over race and intelligence as education was fundamental to new Colonial Office )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(policies to promote African development. The welfare, development and meliorative aspect of the eugenics )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(movement attracted the more liberal and progressive colonial officers and settlers, like Nellie Grant. These )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(aspects are explored in the final chapter which contains some interesting insights into attitudes towards )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(juvenile delinquency as a symptom of the problems of development. As in South Africa, where there were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(similar concerns over young male )] TJ ET BT 199.652 121.205 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Tsotsis)] TJ ET BT 233.000 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, juvenile delinquency was blamed on family dislocation but, as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Campbell emphasises, the subtext was doubts about the suitability of Africans for urban life \(p. 169\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Campbell's study is coherently organised, exploring the different facets of the eugenics movements in both )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(colony and metropole. Chapter one effectively sets the context; chapter two focuses on British eugenics, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(empire and race. This is followed in chapter three by a detailed examination of Kenyan medical discourse )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 17 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 337.4477 500.5255 351.4397 512.4055 ] >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 20 0 R ] /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 7888 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and eugenics, while the fourth chapter reverts to the metropolitan arena, focusing on the reception of Kenyan )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(racial theories in Britain. Kenyan eugenicists lobbied for funding in Britain to establish a research )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(programme in Nairobi to investigate the causes of 'African backwardness' and Gordon was elected to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consultative council of the Eugenics Society in 1939 \(he died in 1947\). Chapter five returns to Kenya, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(providing an analysis of the KSSRI and settler attitudes to race and eugenics to demonstrate how the Kenyan )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(eugenics movement 'both chimed and at times subtly clashed with settler prejudices and preoccupations' \(p. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(114\). The final chapter examines the link between biology, development and welfare, focusing on debates )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(about juvenile delinquency, mental health, criminal insanity and African educatability.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Race and Empire )] TJ ET BT 120.332 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is scrupulously researched, using a wide range of archival sources located in Britain and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Kenya, and additional primary sources. The author provides a thorough, in-depth study of the Kenyan )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(eugenics movement from different perspectives, highlighting networks elaborating race discourses and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interconnecting Kenya to other white settler states, particularly South Africa, and to the metropolitan centre. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The responses of different agents to the eugenics agenda are examined, including doctors and scientists, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(metropolitan eugenicists, settlers, colonial officials, the Colonial Office and philanthropic funding bodies )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(such as the American Carnegie Foundation \(which had a strong interest in an African education agenda that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(would counteract the destabilising impact of social and economic change\). In developing her arguments )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Campbell engages with seminal studies on race and/or empire and settler societies by Dane Kennedy \(1987\), )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Saul Dubow \(1995\), Elazar Barkan \(1992\), Paul Rich \(1990\) and Jock McCulloch \(1995\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(All this is commendable; Campbell's monograph expands on existing works on the eugenics movements in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Europe and the Americas and will certainly be of value to those with an interest in the history of race, empire )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and eugenics. In her key aims Campbell is successful. But the author's strengths are in her specialised study )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of Kenya and the book only partially reflects her claim to demonstrate how different eugenicist movements )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in different parts of the world 'were shaped by national cultures and associated with different political and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(social interests and ambitions' \(p. 24\). The language and preoccupations of the Kenyan eugenicists, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discredited and offensive as they are now, were not unique to a defensive settler society but part of a much )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wider movement in Europe and the USA that nourished the extreme policies of Nazi Germany. It was these )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ominous developments in the 1930s that stimulated a rejection of scientific racism. Furthermore, the author )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(might have addressed more incisively the contribution of eugenics to the shaping of racial attitudes to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Kenyan Africans in comparison to other influences - racial psychology, American racial science, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(anthropology and liberal paternalism. After all, the KSSRI only had 60 members at a time when there were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(16,812 European settlers. Linked to this is Campbell's handling of congruencies and divergences between )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(different racial discourses, scientific, eugenicist and liberal, which is the weakest aspect of the book.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Additonally, the analysis is rather too dense in places, detracting from the clarity of themes and arguments. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The text could have read more fluidly in parts and, additionally, in driving home some of the key points, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(author tends to repetition. Some terms, such as 'colonial imperialism' \(p. 19\) needed fuller definition and, at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(times, the arguments are not very convincingly made or appear somewhat naive. For instance, initially, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Campbell argues that race was not an issue in British eugenics \(p. 1\), yet later on the point is made that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('language of race abounded in eugenic discourse' \(p. 19\). A more incisive study of the centrality of race in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(metropolitan discourse would have helped to reinforce her arguments about imperial knowledge/discourse )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(networks. In the metropolitan context, anxieties over miscegenation, and the alleged resultant racial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(degeneration, intensified with the increase in 'coloured' residents in major ports and cities. M. E. Fletcher's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Report on the Investigation into the Colour Problem in Liverpool and Other Ports)] TJ ET BT 428.684 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1930\), which focused )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(particularly on the social problems of 'halfcaste' children and adolescents, was sponsored by the Eugenics )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Society and reflected such preoccupations )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 238.964 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 238.964 146.067 m 252.956 146.067 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 252.956 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(More could also have been made of the opponents of eugenics, and the significance of the development of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(anti-colonial nationalism and anti-racism in this period. Mention is made of the letters of the educated )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ugandan, K. Kisonole, to the KSSRI \(pp. 123-4\). There is also reference to the nationalist leader, Jomo )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Kenyatta, and to Parmenas Githendu Mockerie, author of )] TJ ET BT 311.960 78.437 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(An African Speaks for his People)] TJ ET BT 470.948 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1934\) and one )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the founders of the Kikuyu Independent Schools Association. KISA was linked to the formation of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(independent churches and constituted a challenge to schools run by missionaries and the government and )] TJ ET endstream endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 238.9637 146.3815 252.9557 158.2615 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 24 0 R ] /Contents 23 0 R >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Length 5582 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(intensified the debate around race and intelligence \(pp. 133-8\). Given the significance of these developments )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the 1930s, they warranted fuller discussion as essential context to Kenyan eugenics and its link to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(validating settler supremacy. Omissions of oppositional viewpoints also apply to the upsurge of metropolitan )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(anti-colonialism in the 1930s. The Kenyan settler state and its treatment of Africans was a focus of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(metropolitan liberal and left critics of colonialism, including Norman Leys, author of )] TJ ET BT 445.304 739.445 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(A Last Chance in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Kenya)] TJ ET BT 64.676 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1931\), and a doctor in the Kenyan medical service before retirement in 1918, who is briefly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mentioned.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The author is so close to her subject, of which she is undoubtedly in command, that the wider context is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sometimes forgotten. Kenya was not unique and similar debates relating to the innate characteristics of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('native' or 'primitive' mind occurred in Australia, South Africa, Rhodesia, and indeed throughout sub-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Saharan colonial Africa. As education became a development priority, African \(and African American\) men )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were deemed suitable to 'vocational' rather than to academic education. Such issues divided the more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conservative paternalists from the progressive liberals and left, who supported African progress to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(independence. Debates about education were also gendered. Most discussions about race, intelligence and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(difference referred to male colonial subjects. Here, Campbell misses the opportunity to integrate a gender )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dimension to her study. Eugenics and the new scientific and biomedical discourse of hygiene, health and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(welfare also gave greater priority to colonised mothers and to the moral and sexual health of colonised and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(coloniser. The breakdown of patriarchal controls over women with migration to the cities was seen as a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(primary cause of social problems such as illegitimacy, juvenile delinquency and venereal diseases that also )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concerned eugenicists. Kenyan pro-eugenicists like Nellie Grant were involved in schemes to 'uplift' women, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and thus their communities in general, through domestic science and 'home life' education emphasising )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(health, cleanliness and hygiene )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 186.320 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 186.320 483.699 m 200.312 483.699 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 200.312 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Race and empire)] TJ ET BT 115.328 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( focuses primarily on the 1930s and the eugenics movement reflected the 'modernity of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(colonial project in Africa' \(p. 3\). The aim was to create a society based on insights from eugenics research, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(envisaging Kenya as a laboratory for 'scientific colonialism' \(p. 3\). In metropolitan policy, however, a new )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discourse of racial equality was emerging that was incorporated into official Colonial Office policy during )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Second World War. There was now more emphasis on social research as a basis for development. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Rejection of scientific racism was reflected in an emphasis on economic modernisation, education and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(metamorphosis, in colonial discourse, of the colonial subject into a potential commonwealth citizen. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Influential agents of these changes, including the architect of the monumental )] TJ ET BT 409.952 359.045 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(An)] TJ ET BT 426.284 359.045 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(African Survey)] TJ ET BT 497.936 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1938\), Sir )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Malcolm \(later Lord\) Hailey, distanced themselves from the eugenics-based research in Kenya \(p. 108\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Leading cultural anthropologists like Bronislaw Malinowsksi, who visited Kenya in the 1930s, were also )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(openly critical and scornful of eugenicists \(p. 24\). With these developments the Kenyan eugenicists became )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more isolated, as did the wider settler society, which was increasingly at odds with official commitment to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('native paramountcy' as opposed to white settler supremacy.)] TJ ET endstream endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 25 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 186.3197 484.0135 200.3117 495.8935 ] >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 28 0 R 30 0 R 32 0 R 34 0 R 36 0 R 38 0 R 40 0 R ] /Contents 27 0 R >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Length 5838 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(These developments reflected important changes in the context and articulation of racial discourse. Where )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(racial inequalities and divisions existed these were now attributed to cultural and environmental factors, not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to innate racial characteristics, and it was assumed that progress towards equality was possible with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(education and social and economic development. A new language of cultural and ethnic difference thus )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(emerged to replace the now discredited language of scientific racism. Eugenics, observes Campbell, was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('swiftly, though not entirely convincingly' displaced as the key to racial difference in post-war Kenya \(p. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(185\). But, she adds, as the Kenyan settlers became more entrenched with the emergence of Mau Mau in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1950s, biological arguments for racial difference were revived, albeit with a heavier emphasis on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(environmental factors \(p. 184\). As in apartheid South Africa, culture and ethnicity became euphemisms for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(race in official discourse )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 155.312 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 155.312 654.771 m 169.304 654.771 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 169.304 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. Belief in innate racial difference persisted, however. With the emergence of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(socio-biology and the new racism in the 1980s, questions of nature/nurture were revisited in explaining )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(enduring racial/cultural differences. Thus the key value of this book for advanced students and scholars, who )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(will be its main market, is that it expands on existing studies of eugenics in Europe and the Americas \(amply )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(referenced in the book\) to include the imperial eugenics movement, providing valuable additional historical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(context to the evolution of a British imperial race discourse that echoes still into the present.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.987 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 519.370 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 519.365 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(B. Bush, )] TJ ET BT 108.692 519.365 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Imperialism, Race and Resistance: Africa and Britain, 1919-1945)] TJ ET BT 425.000 519.365 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London, 1999\), pp. 59, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 505.109 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(69. )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 82.016 505.109 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 82.016 503.715 m 136.004 503.715 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 490.858 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 490.853 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bush, )] TJ ET BT 94.688 490.853 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Imperialism)] TJ ET BT 152.684 490.853 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, p. 229. )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 194.684 490.853 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 194.684 489.459 m 248.672 489.459 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 476.602 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 476.597 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(B. Bush, 'Gender and empire: the twentieth century', in )] TJ ET BT 330.968 476.597 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Gender and Empire)] TJ ET BT 426.284 476.597 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. P. Levine \(Oxford, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 462.341 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2004\), p. 105. See also A. L. Stoler and F. Cooper, 'Between metropole and colony: rethinking a )] TJ ET BT 64.016 448.085 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(research agenda', in )] TJ ET BT 161.468 448.085 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Tensions of Empire: Colonial Cultures in a Bourgeois World)] TJ ET BT 454.820 448.085 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. A. L. Stoler and )] TJ ET BT 64.016 433.829 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(F. Cooper)] TJ ET BT 115.016 433.829 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Berkeley, Calif., 1997\), pp. 26-31. )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 287.324 433.829 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 287.324 432.435 m 341.312 432.435 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 419.578 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 419.573 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(S. Dubow, 'Ethnic euphemisms and racial echoes', )] TJ ET BT 308.300 419.573 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Journal of Southern African Studies)] TJ ET BT 480.968 419.573 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 20 \(1994\), )] TJ ET BT 64.016 405.317 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(355. )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 88.016 405.317 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 88.016 403.923 m 142.004 403.923 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 379.061 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 364.805 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(muse)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 350.549 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/afr/summary/v079/79.4.phillipps.html)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 349.155 m 355.040 349.155 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 358.040 350.549 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 345.823 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 328.043 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 328.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/632)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 326.649 m 322.316 326.649 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 301.672 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.272 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/4149)] TJ ET BT 34.016 272.872 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/afr/summary/v079/79.4.phillipps.html)] TJ ET endstream endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 29 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 155.3117 655.0855 169.3037 666.9655 ] >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 31 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 82.0157 504.0295 136.0037 515.9095 ] >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 33 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 194.6837 489.7735 248.6717 501.6535 ] >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 35 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 287.3237 432.7495 341.3117 444.6295 ] >> endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 36 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 37 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 88.0157 404.2375 142.0037 416.1175 ] >> endobj 37 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 38 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 39 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 349.4695 355.0397 361.3495 ] >> endobj 39 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/afr/summary/v079/79.4.phillipps.html) >> endobj 40 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 41 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 326.9635 322.3157 338.8435 ] >> endobj 41 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/632) >> endobj xref 0 42 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000349 00000 n 0000000386 00000 n 0000000553 00000 n 0000000635 00000 n 0000004825 00000 n 0000004934 00000 n 0000005044 00000 n 0000005153 00000 n 0000008714 00000 n 0000008842 00000 n 0000008926 00000 n 0000009010 00000 n 0000016765 00000 n 0000016893 00000 n 0000016929 00000 n 0000017013 00000 n 0000024954 00000 n 0000025082 00000 n 0000025118 00000 n 0000025202 00000 n 0000030837 00000 n 0000030965 00000 n 0000031001 00000 n 0000031127 00000 n 0000037018 00000 n 0000037146 00000 n 0000037182 00000 n 0000037309 00000 n 0000037345 00000 n 0000037473 00000 n 0000037509 00000 n 0000037637 00000 n 0000037673 00000 n 0000037800 00000 n 0000037836 00000 n 0000037963 00000 n 0000038080 00000 n 0000038208 00000 n trailer << /Size 42 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 38303 %%EOF