%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 18 0 R 20 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20141121001842+00'00') /ModDate (D:20141121001842+00'00') /Title (Conquered England: Kingship, Succession and Tenure, 1066-1166) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 3921 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Conquered England: Kingship, Succession and Tenure, 1066-1166)] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This impressive study examines the consequences for land tenure in England of William of Normandy's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conquest of the country, glossed by his claim to have succeeded to the throne by the bequest of King )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Edward. Yet he believed, in line with French practice, that he became king at the moment of consecration, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(after which he could legitimately grant lands to his followers. Adjudication of tenurial rights was based on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the situation on the day of King Edward's death, but the great volume of evidence heard by the Domesday )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(commissioners was simplified and from this there emerged a new pattern of dependent tenurial lordship. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(William, as the heir of King Edward, was regarded as lord of all - which his English predecessors had not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(been.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The case for William's conquest of England, Garnett suggests, was justified by Lanfranc, drawing on Canon )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(75 of the Fourth Council of Toledo, while William of Poitiers wrote a vindication of the Conqueror's claim )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to the throne, not a history of the Conquest era. English and part-English writers began to cast doubts on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(William's case for the Conquest only in the earlier twelfth century.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 63.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For Eadmer, the most significant of the new practices introduced by the Conqueror was the requirement that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(anyone taking up office as bishop or abbot must first 'become the man' of the king by doing homage. He then )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(633)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wednesday, 31 October, 2007)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(George Garnett)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780198207931)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2007)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(65.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(401pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oxford University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://ukcatalogue.oup.com/product/9780198207931.do)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oxford)] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.579 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Emma Mason)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 6942 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(received the pastoral staff from the king's hand, and obtained control of his lands. The bishops and abbots )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were now tenants in chief. From 1066 onwards, vacant abbacies and bishoprics were in the king's hand. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Servitia debita were imposed, Garnett suggests, when English clerics acknowledged the lordship of William )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(I, and obtained confirmation of the lands of their churches. Servitia debita were not imposed on some pre-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Conquest houses, even though Domesday Book records that they held in chief, nor were they imposed on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(post-Conquest foundations. The obligation fell on the individual tenant in chief, rather than bearing any )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relation to the extent of his lands, which reinforced Eadmer's view that in most cases bishops and abbots )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(now held their lands 'on the king's nod'.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The act of homage, unknown in Normandy, was exacted both from the surviving Englishmen and from the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Frenchmen introduced by King Edward when they 'redeemed' their lands and submitted to William. Garnett )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(thinks it unlikely that the incoming laymen among the Normans did homage when receiving lands. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tradition was inaugurated in the ceremony held at Salisbury on 1 August 1086, when both tenants in chief )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and subtenants rendered homage to the king, an indication that all tenure depended ultimately upon him. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lord's acceptance of someone as his 'man' established the bond between them whereby the man held land of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the lord in return for service. The charter evidence, which largely survives only from the early twelfth )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century onwards, indicates that a lord would normally, but not invariably, 'restore' a landholding to the son )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of a deceased tenant, sometimes on harsher terms.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The Coronation Edict of Henry I acknowledged that a tenant could have an heir. Its statement that reliefs )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(would now be 'just and lawful' gave the impression that these would no longer be arbitrary exactions, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that heirs would therefore have some security of succession, but a 'just and lawful' relief was not defined. In )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Clauses 12 and 14 of the Edict, Henry extended his firm peace over his whole kingdom, and confirmed the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(possessions both of those who now became his barons and also, apparently, of subtenants and others, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reflecting the homage done to William the Conqueror at Salisbury in 1086. The Edict assumes that Henry I )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(succeeded to all revenues, including fines, farms and payments for the inheritances of others, which had )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(been agreed with William II, or which were due to him.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(During the Norman era, the decisive factor in determining the royal succession was not the theoretical claim )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the successful candidate but the speed with which he could move. In pre-Conquest Normandy, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(designation of the duke's eldest son as heir, to the exclusion of claims by his male kinsmen, kept the duchy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(undivided. Lineal succession was broken when Nicholas, the young son of Richard III, was excluded, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Robert the Magnificent succeeded. His son William succeeded in turn, despite being younger than Nicholas )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(had been at Richard's death, and no more legitimate. William's position was stronger, though, since the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(leading men had pledged fidelitas to him during his father's lifetime. Even so, his supporters struggled to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(protect him and to maintain his status until he reached adulthood.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Robert Curthose, the designated heir of the Conqueror in respect of Normandy, and of Maine on a different )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(basis, repeatedly rebelled because he was not allowed to rule 'his' county of Normandy. The Norman nobles )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(had pledged fidelitas to him, and these oaths could not be rescinded. Since England was an acquisition, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Conqueror could determine the succession as he chose, and he adapted the Norman custom of partition )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(between sons by his deathbed bequest to William Rufus.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In 1087, the English subjects of William II regarded him as their undoubted king, but his Norman barons, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with lands on both sides of the Channel, were in a dilemma. Robert, as the designated duke of Normandy, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was theoretically in a stronger position than William, who apparently received pledges of fidelitas only after )] TJ ET BT 34.016 151.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his coronation. The Conqueror's solution to the question of inheritance contained contradictions. He treated )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(England as an acquisition, despite claiming to hold it by hereditary right. In Normandy, he held the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(traditional ducal designation ceremony for Robert, yet omitted the custom of binding the younger brothers to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the successor. The resulting instability at the highest level permeated down throughout society, hence the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(speed with which William Rufus obtained consecration. Whereas in France the ruler's eldest son was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consecrated in his father's lifetime, this was never Norman practice, nor was it introduced into England. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(designation ceremony was the substitute.)] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 6708 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The king's sole control over tenures in England, because of the Conquest, made his position stronger than it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was in Normandy, but an interregnum gave scope for the redress of grievances, whether against the late ruler )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(or others, both in England and in Normandy. A new king, in 1100 or in 1135, quickly made deals with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(influential magnates and obtained speedy consecration, so that his power was secure before news of his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(predecessor's death became widespread. Successive rulers continued to treat England as an acquisition, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the alleged last wishes of the late king on the succession constituted an acceptable claim to the throne, when )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reinforced by the co-operation of the archbishop of Canterbury. Henry I's accession was the exception to this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on both counts.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 658.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Henry in turn designated his son William as his successor. The lay baronage did homage to him without )] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(becoming tenurially dependent on him, and the higher clergy took a solemn oath to transfer the kingdom and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(crown to him on his father's death. Following the death of William in the White Ship disaster, and the lack of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a son by Henry's second marriage, Henry insisted in 1127 that oaths be taken to accept Matilda as his heir, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(but no homage was done, since these oaths were conditional upon there being no son by his present wife.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 575.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Matilda probably took the style of Anglorum domina when she arrived in England in 1139, but used it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 560.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(inconsistently, and dropped it after her withdrawal from England. Most of the Norman barons, who had not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 546.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(done homage to her, and were hostile to Anjou, accepted Stephen until Geoffrey of Anjou extended his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 532.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(power over Normandy, where he was regarded as duke from April 1144. Matilda's supporters accused )] TJ ET BT 34.016 518.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Stephen of perjury, since he had taken an oath to her in 1127, but most people accepted that his consecration )] TJ ET BT 34.016 503.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wiped out any rival claims. He remained king even when in prison. In order to avoid mention of Stephen, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(draughtsmen of the young Henry's charters, and of some of those of his mother, implied the existence of 'the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Crown' as distinct from the person of the king, although the abstract concept of 'the Crown' lay well into the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(future.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 434.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As stated in Stephen's Charter of Liberties of Easter 1136, he was consecrated by the papal legate and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(subsequently 'confirmed' by the pope. Acts which Stephen expected to legitimise his rule in fact weakened it, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and papal prohibition thwarted his attempt to evade control over the succession by trying to have his son )] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Eustace anointed as co-king during his own lifetime.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 365.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The settlement between the rivals, proclaimed late in 1153, showed that while Henry did not owe his status )] TJ ET BT 34.016 351.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as duke of Normandy to Stephen, the latter, as king of the English, appointed Duke Henry to succeed him )] TJ ET BT 34.016 337.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(after his death. Henry did homage to Stephen in return for the expectation of becoming king in due course. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 323.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(His oath to be faithful to Stephen and to protect his life and honour was matched by Stephen's oath to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 308.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(maintain Henry as his son and heir. Henry, in accepting these terms, owed his eventual right to England to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 294.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Stephen's grant.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 268.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Garnett examines the inconsistency between these terms and the accounts of the settlement given by the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 254.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chroniclers. Robert of Torigni wrote that Stephen acknowledged the hereditary right which the duke had in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 239.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the kingdom of England, and that Henry had 'graciously conceded that the king might hold the kingdom for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 225.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the rest of his life, if he wished'. William of Newburgh, who largely followed Henry of Huntingdon, adapted )] TJ ET BT 34.016 211.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a sentence of his to indicate that it was by virtue of the settlement that Stephen became legitimate ruler, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 196.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(secured possession of the kingdom for the first time, and was now truly king, whereas previously he held )] TJ ET BT 34.016 182.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(only the title. Henry II's coronation charter owed much, unacknowledged, to Stephen's first Charter of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 168.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Liberties. Its distinctive features included the provision that both the king's current vassals and their heirs )] TJ ET BT 34.016 154.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(would enjoy the 'concessions and grants and liberties and free customs' which Henry I had given and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 139.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conceded.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 113.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Henry II refused to acknowledge grants made by King Stephen, as whose heir he had succeeded to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 99.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(throne, but he occasionally 'conceded' lands which Stephen had granted, usually to religious houses. An )] TJ ET BT 34.016 85.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(inquest into the royal demesne was intended to establish its extent in Henry I's day for revenue purposes. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 70.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Subsequent alienations might be confirmed, at a price, or else resumed. The royal demesne lands were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 56.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(increased, and revenues were enhanced, both by the success of this inquest, and that of one into the royal )] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 6621 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(forest.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The restoration of lands to the rightful tenants who held in Henry I's day, or often to their rightful heirs, gave )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rise to conflicting claims to estates. In some cases Henry himself heard and adjudged the case. Hearings in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his presence were much in demand, but he could not hear every dispute in person. Tenurial disputes were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(often complicated and varied in their nature, hence the evolution during the reign of procedures designed to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(resolve one or another type.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 686.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Garnett states that the 'writ of right' which gradually evolved over the reign into the form found in Glanvill )] TJ ET BT 34.016 672.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(had its antecedents in the reign of Henry I. The lord or the sheriff was ordered 'to do full right', to render )] TJ ET BT 34.016 658.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(justice. Such writs were issued at the instigation of plaintiffs, and were initially experimental in form. It was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(implied that the recipient would be enabled to hold the land as at the death of Henry I, the final moment at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which an ancestor could have been legitimately seised of the land. The 'right' to be done to the plaintiff )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(therefore echoed that of Henry II's own title to his kingdom from the moment of his coronation. In effect, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(settlement of 1153 was reinterpreted as the author of the Gesta Stephani, Robert of Torigni, and later )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(William of Newburgh understood it. Once again, procedures for settling conflicting claims to land defined )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(legitimate tenure by reference to the king's own title, which was rooted in an official interpretation of past )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(events. The basis on which the king's title rested shaped claims to land because all tenure depended )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ultimately on the king.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 518.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Novel disseisin was a procedure applied to deal with arbitrary dispossession of incumbents of churches )] TJ ET BT 34.016 503.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which occurred after the king's crossing overseas in August 1158. It was a quick remedy for those who had )] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(recently been dispossessed, but it did not deal with ultimate right. Taking the king's first Channel crossing as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the cut-off point avoided the complications arising from the many compromises which had been made since )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his first coronation.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 434.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Underlying all the legislation of Henry II's reign was a dependence on the king, which Garnett sees as one of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the most striking consequences of the Conquest. In the case of disseisin, the issue was originally the king's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(presence or absence from the kingdom. In every other case, it was the title by which he claimed England as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his 'right' or by his accession as king. The justification of the Norman Conquest, which gave rise to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unique role of the king in England, therefore underlay the emergence of the Common Law and its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(transformation of the tenurial system. All landholders succeeded to the titles of their ancestors. These )] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ultimately depended on that of the king who, by right of conquest, had enjoyed sole title and had originally )] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(distributed the land. William of Malmesbury, in his Gesta Regum, has William Rufus pointing out to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wavering Roger de Montgomery, during the rebellion of 1088, that in contesting his title the rebels would )] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(also contest their own.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 280.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(William Rufus had been chosen by the Conqueror to succeed him, but neither Henry I nor Stephen was the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(choice of his immediate predecessor. Even the Conqueror's claim to have been Edward's chosen successor )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was rejected by the Battle chronicler, who followed the writer of the Brevis Relatio in emphasising that he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(acquired the English kingdom by military victory, abandoning the fiction of continuity with the Old English )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(past.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 196.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(While the events of the period from 1066 to the earlier part of Henry II's reign are familiar to medievalists, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 182.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Garnett's interpretation provides a new perspective on them. His work, he tells the reader, gestated over )] TJ ET BT 34.016 168.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(many years, and he readily acknowledges the inspiration of Walter Ullmann and Jim Holt on its formative )] TJ ET BT 34.016 154.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(stages. The validity of the argument presented in the book is upheld by the great care with which Garnett has )] TJ ET BT 34.016 139.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(studied both the chroniclers and the charters of the period. Eadmer's Historia Novorum)] TJ ET BT 454.100 139.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is a major source for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 125.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the early part of the work, and the interpretation of the Angevin settlement makes use of Robert of Torigni )] TJ ET BT 34.016 111.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and William of Newburgh - the latter in preference to Henry of Huntingdon who had lived through the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(turbulent events of the long years which followed the death of Henry I, and on whose work William of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 82.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Newburgh drew heavily.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 56.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The writs which Garnett dates back to the reign of Henry I had in fact even earlier origins. Sir Richard )] TJ ET endstream endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 22 0 R 24 0 R ] /Contents 21 0 R >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Length 2279 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Southern pointed out many years ago, in his essay 'Ranulf Flambard', reprinted in his )] TJ ET BT 444.968 796.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Medieval Humanism )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(and Other Studies)] TJ ET BT 120.680 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Oxford, 1970\), p. 189 \(citing R. C. Van Caenegem, )] TJ ET BT 377.312 782.213 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Royal Writs in England from the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Conquest to Glanvill)] TJ ET BT 134.024 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Selden Society, 77, London, 1959\), esp. pp. 406-515\), that the judicial processes of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(writs of right, novel disseisin \(and praecipe\) all had their prototypes in the reign of William Rufus.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Garnett's work will now find itself in all bibliographies on the Anglo-Norman period. The judiciously-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(worded prose makes no concessions to students looking for a quick read in order to meet an essay deadline, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(but the book repays careful reading for those in search of a fresh outlook on a well-known period .)] TJ ET BT 34.016 672.677 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 658.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(oxford journals)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://ehr.oxfordjournals.org/content/CXXIII/504/1284.2.short)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 642.771 m 334.664 642.771 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 337.664 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 639.439 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 621.659 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 621.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/633)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 620.265 m 322.316 620.265 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 595.288 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 580.888 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/4151)] TJ ET BT 34.016 566.488 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://ehr.oxfordjournals.org/content/CXXIII/504/1284.2.short)] TJ ET endstream endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 23 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 643.0855 334.6637 654.9655 ] >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://ehr.oxfordjournals.org/content/CXXIII/504/1284.2.short) >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 25 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 620.5795 322.3157 632.4595 ] >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/633) >> endobj xref 0 26 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000349 00000 n 0000000386 00000 n 0000000571 00000 n 0000000653 00000 n 0000004626 00000 n 0000004735 00000 n 0000004845 00000 n 0000004954 00000 n 0000008515 00000 n 0000008643 00000 n 0000008727 00000 n 0000008792 00000 n 0000015787 00000 n 0000015852 00000 n 0000022613 00000 n 0000022678 00000 n 0000029352 00000 n 0000029443 00000 n 0000031775 00000 n 0000031902 00000 n 0000032015 00000 n 0000032143 00000 n trailer << /Size 26 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 32238 %%EOF