%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 18 0 R 20 0 R 22 0 R 24 0 R ] /Count 7 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140819145155+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140819145155+01'00') /Title (Life after Partition: Migration, Community and Strife in Sindh, 1947-1962) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 3938 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Life after Partition: Migration, Community and Strife in Sindh, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(1947-1962)] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The dissolution of the British Raj in the Subcontinent in 1947, and the accompanying mass migration across )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the new borders between the newly-independent states of India and Pakistan, are certainly among the most )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(momentous developments in recent history. Not only do these events continue to dictate Indo-Pakistani )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relations even after six decades, they have also been feeding into a rather turbulent and complex interface )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(among the plural communities in one of the most populous regions of the world. As far as South Asian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historiography is concerned, 1947, or Partition as it is generally known, proved to be a threshold for the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 152.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(further diversification of an increasingly contested debate among historians. The erstwhile broad and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(overarching categories of the imperial school and its nationalist counterpart \(both in India and Pakistan\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were soon found wanting in properly explaining issues of class, community formation, ideological fissures )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and cultural separatism, along with the stark absence of women, ordinary people, peasants, tribes and even )] TJ ET BT 34.016 95.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the moffusil - rural/small town grassroots - from these two grand narratives.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The evolution of a plural and expansive historiography of South Asia owes itself to the reductionism of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(imperial versus nationalist schools, a binary approach which was found acutely wanting when it came to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(636)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Friday, 30 November, 2007)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sarah Ansari)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780195978346)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2005)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(11.99)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(255pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oxford University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://ukcatalogue.oup.com/product/9780195978346.do)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oxford)] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.195 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Iftikhar Malik)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7436 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(offering tangible explanations for momentous and complex thematic issues. Interestingly, both these grand )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(narratives continued to focus on 'high history', where only a select few actors at the top were seen to be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(deciding these fateful events, affecting hundreds of millions, without any recourse to socio-political, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(religious or regional complexities. Accordingly, the masses were either imagined to be simple mobs or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cheerleaders, lacking their own opinions and initiatives.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The post-1947 reincarnations of South Asian historiography, such as the Cambridge School or neo-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nationalist narratives, tried to hold their ground for a while, but the leftist and liberal challenges refused to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(go away; instead, they continued to demand the inclusion of issues of class and people in a discourse which, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to them, simply portrayed a new elite playing a pivotal and exclusive role in the political developments )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(leading to independence. The 1960s saw fresher themes and hypotheses enriching South Asian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historiography. Demolishing the monopoly of the grand narratives of 'high history', long-neglected areas like )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(gender and subalterns entered the debate. Greater access to archives, the celebration of peoples over power )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the evolution of newer paradigms involving tribes and peasants, within the context of acceptance of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ideology, spawned a sustained multi-disciplinarity as well as scepticism about the hitherto so-called received )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(truths.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sarah Ansari's recent study is a continuation of her early work which focused on Sindh from its annexation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by British India in 1843 to its inclusion in the state of Pakistan in 1947. In )] TJ ET BT 392.360 544.373 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Life after Partition)] TJ ET BT 483.044 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, she leaves her )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sufis and Pirs aside and tries to come to grips with the state functionaries and policies dealing with the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(people, especially those who had been displaced or were voluntarily on the move in the wake of Partition. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(She finds interesting parallels with Punjab, where such moves led to greater dislocation amidst more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bloodshed, yet the demographic transformation of Sindh following the outflow of Hindus and the influx of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Muslim refugees, and the resulting, often less-regulated settlements, have left their lasting imprints on all )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sides. Here, an interesting and not-so-dissimilar interface between the new states can be detected as they )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(faced similar issues. The reader also acquires in-depth knowledge of the immense speed and volume of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(demographic diversification within Sindh; a new province since its separation from Bombay Presidency in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1936. Ansari's research pieces together the details of refugee settlement in urban and rural Sindh under the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(auspices of the newly-independent government of Pakistan, which, like the provincial government, was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(based in Karachi.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The volume also brings out the multi-polar relationship between Pakistan, India, the refugee leadership and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the indigenous Sindhi elite, as the entire political and social spectrum underwent a dramatic transformation. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Newly-independent Pakistan was soon overtaken by the world's largest, and perhaps most painful, migration, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which not only changed the demography of this young nation, but also reconfigured its socio-political )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(composition. In the hot Monsoon month of August, also the month of fasting , the refugees flooded towns )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and cities across the Punjab and Sindh, radically transforming the ethos of a nation which for decades was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(destined to host refugees from the entire region - including the influx of millions of Afghans during the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1980s. The settlement of multitudes of helpless refugees--most of whom spoke Urdu or Gujarati--in a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(province where Sindhi was the lingua franca and where landholding patterns were also in flux, turned out to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(be a daunting experience. The settlement is often seen as chaotic, because of the lack of resources and proper )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(systems, but the involvement of voluntary associations and the prompt distribution of evacuee property )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(changed the demographic contours of Karachi, Hyderabad and Sukkur, the main provincial towns which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(overnight were transformed into bustling cities. As in other metropolises across the Subcontinent, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(refugees - who preferred to be called Muhajireen, or immigrants - chose to settle in similar ethnic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(neighbourhoods \(bastis\) named after their own places of origin in India, and a kind of self-assumed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(segregation evolved as an accepted pattern. As a consequence, the local Baloch community in Malir, along )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with other traditional Sindhi populations, were completely outnumbered by well-organised 'colonies', which, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unlike their Punjabi counterparts, assumed a type of cultural self-sufficiency. With Urdu adopted as the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(national tongue, these newcomers did not take any significant interest in the Sindhi language, and, in many )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cases, developed a degree of nonchalance towards Sindhi culture. These patterns, and the changes that came )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in their wake, resembled those which were happening with similar speed across the eastern borders.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Given Karachi's significance as the country's capital city, only major port and biggest financial centre, there )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 5350 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was almost boundless potential for physical and cultural expansion. However, its development was strictly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(shaped around the concerns of the refugees who, in many cases, decreed that they should be called 'New )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sindhis', thereby exacerbating a sense of alienation among the natives. The second wave of refugees arrived )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(during the early 1950s, as a result of communal schisms in India, although this new influx was better )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(organised than before. In the first wave, except for the airlift of a small proportion of influential and affluent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(refugees, most of the entrants into Pakistan had used a variety of modes of transportation, including boats, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(trains and pedestrian caravans. It is true that, unlike in the Punjab, violence directed against both the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(immigrants and emigrants was quite restrained, although the moneyed Hindu families - some of them known )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for their international commercial enterprises - were deeply antagonistic to the idea of Pakistan. On the other )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hand, the refugees passing through contemporary Punjab fell victim to an organised form of collective )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(violence that was aimed especially at women and younger people. The border population transfers between )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sindh and the neighbouring parts of India were interspersed with some degree of violence but these incidents )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were neither particularly common nor especially serious.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ansari locates contemporary conflictive pluralism, in Karachi in particular but also elsewhere in Pakistan, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(within the pre-1947 discourse and the accompanying construction of the idea of a Muslim community, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which had papered over intra-communal distinctions for a time but could not subsume them. She considers )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Pakistan to be 'a case of exceptional interest' because of the circumstances leading to its formation and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(subsequent difficulties. The problems of governance are certainly not unique to Pakistan as several post-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(colonial societies, including some developed countries, have found it hard to establish an all-encompassing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(solution. There is no doubt that Pakistan is one of the few case studies of separatism before the dissolution of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Eastern Bloc but, despite the element of violence in Karachi during the 1990s, it was not another )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bangladesh in making. Even the subversive activity in some tribal regions of Balochistan is not secessionist )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by nature in its objectives and seeks an equitable politico-economic share within an otherwise unbalanced )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(political set-up, which, because of the khaki dominance, tends to be centralist favouring the status quo.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ansari's discussion of the conceptualisation of communal embodiments - Muslim, Pakistani, Sindhi and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Muhajir - provides a pertinent background to this volume and attempts to trace the evolution of several )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(parallel and equally politicised communities in the lower Indus valley. She gives due weight to traditional )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(markers in the community formation but is equally sensitive to an instrumentalist explanation of 'artificial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(construction', which had optimistically suggested that eventually modernisation would have a levelling )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(effect by easing down competitive pluralism. Accordingly, the older forms of community consciousness )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were expected to give way to more professional and forward looking collectivities. This argument certainly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cannot explain the situation in countries like Canada, Spain or even the United Kingdom, where the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sustained forces of industrialisation and urbanisation have often proven inadequate in eradicating boundaries )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dividing various ethno-regional communities. However, Ansari is still reluctant to fully accept the role of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(colonial state in exacerbating the communal divide within South Asia, even by virtue of benign )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(modernisation.)] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 7391 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Partition, as Ansari observes, divided the Subcontinent into India and Pakistan along with separating it from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(its colonial past. Some historians may go even further and look at Partition inherently as the partition of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Indian Muslims, who now remain divided in three nation-states and which ironically lack the sort of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(channels that might encourage crucial and substantial cross-boundary contacts. According to this view, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Muslims might have been the main subjects of the processes and developments unleashed by Partition. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Partition in that sense might be seen as a cut-off point for South Asian Islam, although in all other political, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(administrative and educational spheres, the pre-1947 antecedents and legacies persist strongly at various )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(levels. Ansari is justified in emphasising a major historical deficit in South Asian historiography, where )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(explanations are sought as to why Partition happened in the first place instead of what happened in its wake. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The Indian Muslims seeking a new home in Pakistan preferred to be called refugees since they thought of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(themselves as voluntary immigrants to a place that 'belonged' to them, even though they had no other claim )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(upon it. In a sense, they were concurrently 'outsiders' and 'insiders', in a situation which, more like Punjabis )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(migrating into Indian Punjab and Delhi, created unique perceptions and relationships unseen in other recent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(migrations.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Just as Partition operated as one of the major driving forces in Indo-Pakistani relationships and underwrote )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Hindu-Muslim equation in the post-1947 Subcontinent, the migrations have also left ongoing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(transformative imprints at the regional and national levels. The historical background to these crucial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(developments lies in the evolution of Sindh as a new province and the demand to join Pakistan, where many )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Muslim Sindhis, from diverse social strata, saw a new beginning for themselves. Like Punjab following the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(irrigation schemes and resettlements, Sindh underwent an early form of agricultural revolution, whereas )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Karachi witnessed a manifold increase in its commercial and geopolitical significance. Railways, proximity )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to the Middle East and then the voluntary migrations from Punjab and Bombay into Karachi began to foster )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a greater sense of alienation among Sindhis in the pre-independence era. The Sindhi landlords, both from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(among the rural families and the descendants of the spiritual orders \(pirs\), were already uncomfortable with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Hindu moneyed class \(banias\) and the local bureaucracy known as Amils. Both of these groups belonged )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to the Lohana Hindu caste and were held in suspicion by the Sindhi Muslim landlords and the landless haris, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(who accused them of gradually gaining control of half of Sindh's arable land in lieu of unpaid loans owed by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Muslim peasantry. The construction of irrigation barrages brought in Punjabis, increasing the feeling of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(alienation among Sindhis, and by the third decade of the last century 'the issue of who was and who was not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a "Sindhi" had acquired political salience'.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Contestations over places of worship, such as the Manzilgah agitation of 1939-40, not only consolidated a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(stronger sense of Sindhi Muslimhood, it also highlighted the need for some trans-regional alliance, which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was certainly offered by the All India Muslim League \(AIML\). The Manzilgah buildings in Sukkur, mostly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in a state of disrepair, dated from the Mughal times and contained a mosque. There was also a Hindu temple )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the vicinity and when Muslims demanded control of these buildings from the government, local )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(influential Hindus protested. The latter formed a majority in Sukkur but, with the AIML and Sufi saints )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(making it into an Islamic issue, the agitation spread far and wide until eventually the judges gave a verdict in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(favour of the Muslims. Clearly, Sindhi society was already showing fissures when the great divide and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(migrations happened. The exodus of Hindus from Sindh made available vast tracts of land, residential )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(property and other local commercial enterprises to Sindhi Muslims. For instance, the rural )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(waderos\(chieftains\) seized 800,000 acres out of the 1,345,000 acreage abandoned by Hindus, although the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(urban properties were obtained mostly by the refugees from India.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Apart from identity-related issues, the economic, political and cultural fall-out from migration was to fashion )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(collective perceptions and official policies in Sindh anchoring the future shape of settlements as well as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(politicking in the province. Sindh's woes were exacerbated by a smaller degree of representation in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Pakistan's first constituent assembly, alongside the transfer of Karachi to the central government as a federal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(territory \(though the provincial government continued to operate from the same metropolis\). The early )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(settlement patterns in urban Sindh did evoke sympathy among Sindhis who had been supportive of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(creation of Pakistan, and soon the towns and cities were neighboured by tented villages housing refugees. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The travails of refugees in both countries were heart-rending but 'the consensus among foreign observers in )] TJ ET endstream endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 21 0 R >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Length 7423 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Pakistan was that the treatment meted out on the Indian side of the border was worse than that experienced )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by people leaving Pakistan, and so Muslim refugees arrived in a poor state'.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This early sympathy, however, was soon replaced by grudge as refugees also began to arrive from Punjab, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(leading many Sindhi politicians such as Ayub Khuhro to claim that 'for every one Hindu that [sic] has left, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(two Muslims have come in'. The number of refugees arriving in Punjab was in fact larger than in Sindh, but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the new demographic situation and accompanying configurations were more visible in the latter because of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(its smaller size and the pressure on existing urban centres. The rural population in Sindh increased by 40 per )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cent between 1901 and 1951 whereas in urban areas that figure was 120 per cent. The refugees, in many )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cases, were not skilled professionals capable of operating the factories left behind by their Hindu owners, but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a gradual industrialisation of urban Sindh soon took a decisive turn following the injection of new funds. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Industrialisation and urbanisation were crucially advanced because many refugees originated from urban )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(India and, seeking official incentives, tried to establish their own manufacturing and commercial concerns. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(However, given the fact that the standard of living among the people who left Pakistan was higher than that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the refugees coming in, more resources and greater effort were required to build up supportive civic and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(economic institutions.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As the result of a large-scale refugee influx, both India and Pakistan came under severe pressure to allocate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(evacuee property and assets to the incomers, which led to almost identical, and often chaotic, coping )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mechanisms in the wake of many cases of false or exaggerated claims. The refugee issues soon began to be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(politicised as their spokesmen tried to seek more incentives from the state through petitions and conventions )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and even by building up alliances with Punjabi politicians. In the process, Sindhi politicians such as Khuhro )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(felt that they were being ignored by the centre. Unlike the mostly urban Muhajir politicians, their Sindhi )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(counterparts generally represented landowning influences and accounted for a small group of families. In )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fact, as documented by Ansari, just five per cent of Sindh's inhabitants owned 95 per cent of agricultural )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(land, leaving 2.6 million landless haris in a pitiable state. While the Muhajir and Sindhi politicians engaged )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in a power struggle, the haris were largely left on their own, although some conscientious officials such as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(M. A. Masud did raise strong voices on their behalf. Even the official commission to investigate the issues )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of landlessness and exploitation by local feudal landowners was headed by Sindhi landlords, disallowing any )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(major land reforms. The institutionalisation of the urban refugee population though educational, media, civic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and commercial forums afforded them better opportunities for lobbying, which extended to their assumption )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of an air of victimhood, derived from the sacrifices that they had rendered to come to Pakistan.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The intra-refugee differences and tensions among plural communities in both wings of Pakistan pushed the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(state, as well as the refugees, towards seeking commonalities in an overarching Islamic ethos. The 'pull' for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(positing Pakistan as an Islamic dispensation also came from the untiring religious scholars \(ulama\), who in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(many cases were themselves refugees and used Urdu to spearhead the case for Islamisation. Karachi was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(soon to become a hotbed of Islamic activism pressuring the regimes to move the country's institutions )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(towards a strict Islamic orientation. But such pressures were only aggravating the day-to-day problems faced )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in East Pakistan and in plural provinces such as Sindh, pushing the Pakistani state towards further )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(centralisation in the form of One-Unit in 1955, which did away with the existing four provinces of West )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Pakistan. The reshaping of Karachi occurred because of an ongoing refugee influx not only from Urdu )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(speaking regions of India but also from other provinces. The Indo-Pakistani parleys eventually led to another )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(spate of immigration in 1952 and, as on previous occasions, these refugees also opted to settle in the existing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(urban colonies of their co-ethnics, turning the Pakistani metropolis into a megalopolis of segmented, even )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(segregated settlements. Efforts to create an encompassing sense of common identity employed markers such )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as Islam, migration and Urdu as shared bonds. As we saw in the 1970s and subsequent decades, these )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(markers strengthened a sense of Muhajir separatism, which often conflicted with the state and other ethnic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(communities in urban Sindh.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(By the time of the implementation of the One-Unit scheme for West Pakistan, there were still several )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(thousand refugees squatting on the roads in Karachi who had only recently arrived in Pakistan through a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(staggered system. These urban poor were joined by a growing number of other population groups arriving )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from upcountry to seek a better livelihood in Pakistan's political and industrial hub. Unlike the Punjabi )] TJ ET endstream endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 23 0 R >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Length 7488 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(working class, the Punjabi domination of the civil service and military irked both the rural Sindhis and urban )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Muhajir, as well as antagonising the East Bengalis. The Sindhi and even traditional Balochi presence in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Karachi became a minority as Muhajir dominated the local municipal corporation and controlled the English )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and Urdu media. These elements supported the One-Unit formula, as did the Sindhi political stalwarts )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(including Khuhro, the Pir of Pagaro, Pir Ali Rashdi and a few others. Whereas One-Unit might have suited )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Punjabi and Muhajir elite, it deeply offended Bengalis and Pushtuns who viewed it as the Punjabisation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of Pakistan. Many vocal Sindhi politicians such as G. M. Syed also opposed the One-Unit scheme, although )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Muhajir-Punjabi axis was to remain in place for the next fifteen years.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Suspicions between the Muhajir and Punjabi elite did not emerge more openly until the separation of East )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Pakistan in 1971, as earlier both felt threatened by a Bengali majority in the eastern wing. Islam, Urdu and a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(centralised system of government were deemed synonymous with Pakistani nationhood, and against a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(background of economic and political stalemate, Pakistan's already weak political culture began to see more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and more interference from the civil and military wings of the bureaucracy. In 1958, Pakistani generals led )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by Ayub Khan declared martial law, ending eight years of political governments which, while attempting to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(establish governance, had failed to consolidate a politics of consensus, constitutionalism and country-wide )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(empowerment.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In the meantime, with the weakening of the Muslim League and the emergence of several ethnic pressure )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(groups, Jamaat-i-Islami \(JI\) made its entry. Established in Punjab in 1941 by Syed Mawdudi, himself an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Urdu-speaking scholar from India, the JI worked for individual and statist transformation through Islamic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(revolution in a revivalist mould. It found many followers among the middle-class Punjabi and Muhajir )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(middle-class professionals and made its presence felt in the local elections for the Karachi Municipal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Corporation in 1958. The JI was to remain the main force in Karachi up to 1984, when a new ethnic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(organisation, the Muhajir Qaumi Movement \(MQM\), founded by the descendants of the refugees, emerged )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on the political scene and took Karachi by storm. The MQM was established by second-generation Urdu-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(speakers and proposed to work for Muhajir groups on its own without seeking fraternity with any other )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ethnic community in Karachi or rural Sindh. Earlier, Zulfikar Ali Bhutto's Pakistan People's Party \(PPP\) had )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tried to induct a national consensus on Islamic Socialism through co-opting various sections of the society. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The future politics of Sindh, and especially of Karachi, was to revolve around the MQM, Army, PPP, Sindhi )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(landlords and the JI.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Like the One-Unit scheme, martial law also received support from the Punjabi, Muhajir and rural Sindhi )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(elite, although East Pakistan and the Frontier remained wary of further centralisation, fearing consolidation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the Punjabi factor in its wake. However, the ordinary people heaved a sigh of relief as the generals made )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(promises about the removal of poverty and socio-political injustices. Commodity prices came down for a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(short while and a degree of official efficiency became apparent, although Pakistan's chronic problems of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(governance remained and perhaps became even more acute. The military regime pursued large-scale housing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(schemes in Karachi for the speedy settlement of the many squatters who lived there, but it also decided to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(shift the capital to Islamabad, a new city in the proximity of the garrison town of Rawalpindi. Ayub Khan's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(military regime was under pressure to introduce land reforms in Pakistan, which were resisted even by his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(own ministers such as Zulfikar Ali Bhutto. However, a minor reform delineating landholdings was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(introduced without breaking down the powerbase of the West Pakistani feudal landowners whose support )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ayub Khan needed to shore up his regime. He then promulgated a constitution in 1962 which concentrated )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(powers in his office and allowed a very limited franchise in a country where equal political participation and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(decentralisation had already turned into explosive issues.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ansari's )] TJ ET BT 75.836 135.461 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Life after Partition)] TJ ET BT 166.520 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is a based on extensive archival work in Karachi - her second home - and at The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(National Archives in London. In addition, she has consulted the contemporary American diplomatic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(correspondence and has widely studied the files of )] TJ ET BT 279.296 106.949 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Dawn)] TJ ET BT 307.964 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, the main English daily in Pakistan, which often )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(flagged the issues of the refugees, until recently with its assumption of a more liberal and mainstream )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(national profile. She was, however, unable to consult the Sindhi and Urdu newspapers which could have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(offered further evidence about shifting political alliances, as well as throwing a much-needed searchlight on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(local issues outside Karachi, which is certainly the focus of her research. The power of the vernacular press )] TJ ET endstream endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 26 0 R 28 0 R ] /Contents 25 0 R >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Length 2962 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the pre-television era cannot be underlined enough, although the enormity of literature on Pakistani )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(politics is certainly helpful in this regard. Most of the existing scholarship on Pakistan is still preoccupied )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with themes such as the formation of the country, the role of Islam, geopolitical developments and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(recurrent issues of governance, whereas socio-economic treatises hinging on identity politics and national )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(integration remain few and far between. It is surprising that in a country formed through Partition and where )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(every sixth person seeks his or her origins from somewhere else, these two themes are still waiting for some )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(holistic studies. In the same vein, the partition of Punjab falls within the realm of regional studies and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consequently its role as the powerhouse for the Pakistani state, and the parallels with Sindh in areas of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(refugee transfer and settlement, also remain unresearched. Following Ansari's detailed study of Sindh, there )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(should be sufficient incentive for a similar monograph on Punjab which might further help us understand a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(complex and always fluid politics of identity. In addition, as was observed above, such research is needed to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(continue the ongoing diversification of South Asian historiography regarding state formation and the public )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and private perceptions of political Islam.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(muse)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/jih/summary/v038/38.1bhagavan.html)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 569.235 m 355.364 569.235 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 358.364 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 565.903 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 548.123 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 548.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/636)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 546.729 m 322.316 546.729 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 521.752 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 507.352 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/4157)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.952 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/jih/summary/v038/38.1bhagavan.html)] TJ ET endstream endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 27 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 569.5495 355.3637 581.4295 ] >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/jih/summary/v038/38.1bhagavan.html) >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 29 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 547.0435 322.3157 558.9235 ] >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/636) >> endobj xref 0 30 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000363 00000 n 0000000400 00000 n 0000000597 00000 n 0000000679 00000 n 0000004669 00000 n 0000004778 00000 n 0000004888 00000 n 0000004997 00000 n 0000008558 00000 n 0000008686 00000 n 0000008770 00000 n 0000008835 00000 n 0000016324 00000 n 0000016389 00000 n 0000021792 00000 n 0000021857 00000 n 0000029301 00000 n 0000029366 00000 n 0000036842 00000 n 0000036907 00000 n 0000044448 00000 n 0000044539 00000 n 0000047554 00000 n 0000047681 00000 n 0000047796 00000 n 0000047924 00000 n trailer << /Size 30 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 48019 %%EOF