%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 18 0 R 20 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140831044856+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140831044856+01'00') /Title (Black Tom: Sir Thomas Fairfax and the English Revolution) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4377 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Black Tom: Sir Thomas Fairfax and the English Revolution)] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(I have always enjoyed reading Andrew Hopper's work. It is an especial pleasure when compiling my reviews )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for the )] TJ ET BT 68.672 273.323 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Annual Bulletin of Historical Literature)] TJ ET BT 260.024 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( as in most years it contains an article by Hopper \(usually on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the subject of the north during the civil wars\). It was a surprise to see a biography of an aristocrat from an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historian whose work is usually about those somewhat further down the social scale. A similar point was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(made when I began work on my biography of Oliver Cromwell a few years back. It was, nevertheless, an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exciting prospect to read such a biography and Hopper is right to make comments about how few full )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(biographies there are of Sir Thomas. Indeed there are sections in the book where there is evidence of some )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(frustration with the prominence given to others, particularly Cromwell. Much of this is fair comment too )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and, as Hopper shows, Fairfax made the same point in the 1660s when he said 'my retirement makes me )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(seem dead to the world' \(p183\). This perception is probably a very general one; I have been told with great )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(confidence that a portrait of Sir Thomas was that of 'one of Cromwell's generals' while in Fairfax House in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(York. This is therefore a much needed book and, given the popularity of biography amongst the public it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(offers the opportunity to begin to change perceptions, not only about who was whose general but more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(importantly about Fairfax's role in the politics of the 1640s and particularly the creation of the republic.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 75.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hopper has chosen to present the biography as a work of 'two halves', similar to Sarah Barber's )] TJ ET BT 493.076 75.995 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(A )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.739 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Revolutionary Rogue: Henry Marten and the English Republic)] TJ ET BT 334.976 61.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Stroud, 2000\). The first 'half' is a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(637)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Monday, 31 December, 2007)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Andrew Hopper)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780719071096)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2007)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(16.99)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(272pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Manchester University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Manchester)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Martyn Bennett)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7431 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chronological biographical study, which reminded me of the tone of Peter Gaunt's )] TJ ET BT 430.448 796.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Oliver Cromwell, \()] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oxford, 1996\);)] TJ ET BT 109.004 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the second is a themed analysis, reminiscent of J. C. Davis's )] TJ ET BT 399.800 782.213 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Oliver Cromwell)] TJ ET BT 480.800 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, \(London, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2001\) as well as the latter two-thirds of Barber's work on Marten. Thus in the first half we progress from an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(examination of the Fairfaxes and the opening of the war \(a subject which is Hopper's home turf grounded as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(it is in popular politics in Yorkshire during the civil wars\). There is a swift progression through Sir Thomas's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(career in the first and second civil wars, on to the regicide and establishment of the republic in 1649. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(republic and restoration, aided by Fairfax's being 'dead to the world', is dealt with in a mere 15 pages.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The second half explores the salient themes of which, as you would expect, there are many: Fairfax and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(causes of the civil wars; questions of honour and religion; Sir Thomas and his image; and a look at the way )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sir Thomas his relatives sought to write themselves into history. There is one section which may surprise )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(some - gender and literature - and another whose inclusion may be understandable given what Hopper writes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(about the lack of biographies of Fairfax and the discussion above: Fairfax and Cromwell.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The first part of the book is fast paced; although it slows down in places where, in order to develop the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discussion, Hopper contextualises Fairfax in the local politics of Yorkshire. The quickened pace is with us )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(right from the start and his depiction of the dramatic rally on Heworth Moor, \(then two miles east of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(walls of York, now embraced by its purple-grey bricked suburbia\). As the then Sir Thomas, attempted to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(press a petition on the king but was fended off by Charles's minders, the folly of trying to stop a war with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(paper was played out. The pace slackens as there is an attempt to give a background analysis of what )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(brought about this dramatic and symbolic but otherwise fruitless scene. This lull in pace is symptomatic of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the work's problematic structure for while the full analysis of the background of these events is reserved for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(part two of the book, a tantalising and tangible vision of popular fear such as this needs an accompanying )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(explanation.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The pace picks up again, however, and we are virtually hurled through the war. The rise of the Fairfaxes, Sir )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thomas and his father Ferdinando, Lord Fairfax, as a military team to be reckoned with is explained with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(clarity and verve. Their strong political support in the West Riding and their seeming military strength is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(well rehearsed despite the brevity and speed. The pair's strategic and tactical defeat in the heart of their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(territory when the amateur soldier the earl of Newcastle outplayed them at Adwalton is well presented. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Fairfaxes' subsequent roles as the comeback kids and the concomitant revival of the parliamentarian cause in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Yorkshire, following the exposure of the treacherous Hothams, likewise sound and presented in a good and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fast-paced manner.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The sections depicting the war are, in my mind, problematic. Fairfax, in the context of the civil wars, was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(first and foremost a general. Had he failed in this sphere he would have completely faded from view and, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(like Lord Grey of Groby, would have been reduced to the role of an Osric providing support and sidelines to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the main text. Despite this, there is little consideration of Fairfax's leadership in the field. It can be argued )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that one of the most important parts of this book is the analysis of Fairfax's role in the revolution of 1648-9 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for, without a successful military career, Fairfax's motivation would only have been as important as Thomas )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Grey's for helping out with Colonel Pride's identification of MPs. The place where this lack of attention is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(perhaps most overt is in chapter two when Marston Moor, which Hopper recognises as 'the largest battle of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the civil wars', merits less than a page. Fairfax's role in this battle is almost as controversial as Cromwell's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and surely demands more attention.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The description of the battle of Naseby in the succeeding chapter is equally brief and Hooper directs his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 151.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(readers to the work of Glenn Foard. Again this is problematic for Hopper's own interest in Fairfax at this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(point in time clearly lies with the politics and this third chapter is largely given over to an excellent study of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(how Fairfax came to lead the New Model Army in 1645. Fairfax, Hopper asserts, is often portrayed as an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(apolitical choice; a candidate to whom the majority of rival protagonists in the arguments of 1644-5 had )] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(least objection, even if they did not have much confidence. Not so argues Hopper: the Fairfaxes were, by the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(end of 1644, clearly identifiable as part of the Saye and Sele group around which had coagulated the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(remnants of the more radical of John Pym's allies, including Oliver St John and his cousin Oliver Cromwell. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The battleground on which the Fairfaxes had made their mark would not be Selby, Marston Moor or in the )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 7241 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(end even Naseby: according to Hopper's contention it would be Westminster.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(At the centre of this battlefield was the fate of the Hothams. Briefly seen as a hero for keeping the king's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hands off the residue of the Tower of London's magazine whilst it rested in Hull, John Hotham Senior had )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(become involved in shady negotiations with the earl of Newcastle which had thwarted a series of campaigns )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the Midland and elsewhere. The arrest of John senior and his son 'Captain' John Hotham became a trial of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(strength between Saye and Sele's group and the earl of Essex's supporters. The Fairfaxes were too busy to be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(involved in the trial at the beginning of 1644 but, according to Hopper, this did not stop them sending 30 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(witnesses south. The eventual execution of the Hothams clearly placed the Fairfaxes in the camp of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('political' Independents and this put Sir Thomas in the forefront of those who established the New Model )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Army.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(With his extensive political network in the north, Sir Thomas was also now marked as an opponent of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(parliament's Scottish allies. Resentment towards the expense of Scottish forces was growing in the north and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Fairfax, in his central role, now became a conduit for that resentment. This, of course, in turn placed Sir )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thomas in the centre of the military/political crisis of 1646 when the relationship between parliament and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(army deteriorated sharply, leading to the stand-off in the middle of the year, which was eventually resolved )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by the army's seizure of the king in June and its march on London in August.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 532.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sir Thomas is usually shown to be politically conservative during this period, allowing others, such as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 518.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cornet Joyce or Cromwell to make the running: his absence from much of the Putney debates seems to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 503.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(underline this political inertia. Hopper argues that this is not the case; Fairfax may have been pushed firmly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(into the army's political maw by the impugning of his honour by Presbyterian MPs, but he took up its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(position with gusto. Although he later pretended he had not: Fairfax approved of the army's radicalisation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and of its accusations of treason levelled against the 11 Presbyterian MPs at the centre of the attack on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(army. He supported the mutiny against Sydenham Pointz, commander of the Northern Association Army, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and an ally of the parliamentary Presbyterians, and used it to gain control of all the armed forces in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(country. Furthermore, during the second civil war Hopper reads Fairfax's anger at the renewed conflict as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(anti-royalist, rather than anti-disorder or anti-rebellion: placing the monarch to be the root of the problem. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The execution of Sir Charles Lucas and Sir George Lisle must then be seen in this light.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The thorny issue of the trial and execution of the king is dealt with in chapter five. This is a very interesting )] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chapter which seeks to portray Fairfax again as active rather than reactive and conservative. Instead of being )] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(out on a limb in opposing the progress and outcome of the trial, Hopper shows a Fairfax riddled with doubt )] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(along side others in a similar state. He is also in a difficult position: prevailed upon by foreign )] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(representatives to intervene, singled out by the king as being different to his fellow officers and, marked by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his wife's angry interventions into the trial, Fairfax may have wished that the trial would not lead to the death )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sentence. He may also have hoped that the charges against Charles would be more limited, but in the end he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was powerless to intervene in any way. Outweighed in argument and rightly unconvinced of his ability to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(use force majeure, Fairfax could do nothing. On the other hand, Hopper posits, Fairfax might actually have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(been convinced that the country was better off with the king out of the way, rather than deposed and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sidelined. This is a convincing set of propositions, either of which challenge the picture of Fairfax as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(suddenly impotent and isolated. He may, however, have harboured a deep feeling of guilt, long before his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(apology after the restoration. Hopper suggests that this feeling of guilt lay behind his resignation on the eve )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the war against Scotland in 1650.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 151.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The second half of the book presents the analysis and begins with a return to the origins of the civil war. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This is unsurprising given that Hopper, as previously noted, has made his most important contributions to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(civil war history in the area of popular politics in the West Riding. The relationship between Fairfax and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(populist parliamentarian cause was essential to the success of the Fairfax family and the cause in general in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the north. Whist some contemporaries, notably moderates in the royalist camp, drifted towards their political )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(stance out of fear of populist politics, others in parliament's forces rode it and manipulated it. Lord Brooke is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(one good example: the Fairfaxes were no less able. Nevertheless, despite this being a biography of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Fairfaxes, Hopper avoids seeing his central figure as the Svengali of the popular movement: it was )] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 6339 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(demonstrably capable of working its own course when deprived of the Fairfax presence.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In chapter eight the book looks at the themes of religion and honour in order to explore more closely the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(personality of Thomas and his father. Part of the political motivation of parliamentarians, as John Morrill has )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(long shown us, was religion. This was often in a far more specific sense than was the case with royalist )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(officers For parliamentarians, a quite vague defence of the church as established sufficed. The Fairfaxes had )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a firm Calvinist approach to life which, while it offered as much confidence in one's elect status as it was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(possible to have, meant a life of dutiful service to the community at the appropriate level. For Ferdinando, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this meant being an active JP, and had Thomas's life not been interrupted by war, then no doubt his life )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(would have followed a similar pattern.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As far as religion was concerned, both father and son had sympathies which transcended a range of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(perspectives, including a limited appreciation of Presbyterianism. When it came to war, Fairfax is placed by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hopper firmly into the mode Morrill would recognise; they were fighting a godly war: royalists were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(enemies of god, not just of parliament. For the Fairfaxes the presence of a strong Catholic element in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(officer corps of Newcastle's army, made this distinction much clearer than was the case for, say, a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(parliamentarian in the south west, who had far fewer Catholic officers to oppose; despite sectarian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(differences universal Protestantism made being godly in the face of royalists more difficult to interpret.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 532.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapter nine explores Fairfax's image and this, Hopper shows, was clearly related to his close contacts in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 518.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London press. His relative John Rushworth, for example, was able to influence the context of several )] TJ ET BT 34.016 503.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(journals and to ensure a positive image for Fairfax in the Perfect Diurnall he even used the latter to advertise )] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Anglia Rediviva which painted Fairfax in glowing terms. Given that rival presses fought an internecine )] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(struggle within the parliamentarian cause, such shrewd media management was important perhaps even )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(essential.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 434.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The fascinating chapter on gender and literature looks closely at the relationship between Thomas and his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wife, Anne. Whilst it does look at a range of issues, the best section deals with Anne's intervention at the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(king's trial, and the impact that this has had on perceptions of Fairfax. Anne's comments suggest two )] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(possibilities: either they should be interpreted as an attempt to voice Thomas's thoughts or instead she was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(demonstrating marital instability, as no wife should be allowed to voice publicly ideas contrary to her )] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(husbands. Chapter 11 explores the relationship between Fairfax and Cromwell and their relationship with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history. It is interesting, but sometimes feels like an argument between rival reputations, such as those of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lennon and McCartney: it need not. It certainly moves us towards a more balanced view of the two men and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their relationships, but I think there is more to go at still.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 294.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The end of the book looks at Fairfax's reputation and the way he reconstructed history at the Restoration, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 280.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(how this work was completed and continued. It is this which has created the image against which Hopper )] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(has had to combat. In the presentation of Fairfax as a reluctant revolutionary, swept along by events, we are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(left with a shadow of the man Fairfax was. One great merit of this book is the three-dimensional Fairfax we )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(get from the analysis. This is not a Fairfax who became disengaged from events he seemed unable to control, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nor one who is pushed beyond his limits by an increasingly radical army. This is a man who is at the heart of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 208.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(all events until the war with Scotland forces him to decide on his future role, or gives him the opportunity to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bow out. True, Fairfax might have been reluctant at certain points to carry on with the developing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(radicalisation of politics, but he strove to remain at the head of the army at all times.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 154.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In short this is a very useful and worthy book. It gives us a forceful portrait of Fairfax and goes a long way )] TJ ET BT 34.016 139.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to asserting his importance and a new clearer perception of him. I hope it has the impact Fairfax's reputation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 125.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(deserves.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 99.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The author is pleased to accept this review without any further comment)] TJ ET endstream endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 22 0 R 24 0 R ] /Contents 21 0 R >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Length 1047 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(muse)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/ren/summary/v061/61.3.covington.html)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 766.563 m 363.032 766.563 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 366.032 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 763.231 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 745.451 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 745.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/637)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 744.057 m 322.316 744.057 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 719.080 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 704.680 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/3611)] TJ ET BT 34.016 690.280 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/ren/summary/v061/61.3.covington.html)] TJ ET endstream endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 23 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 766.8775 363.0317 778.7575 ] >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/ren/summary/v061/61.3.covington.html) >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 25 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 744.3715 322.3157 756.2515 ] >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/637) >> endobj xref 0 26 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000349 00000 n 0000000386 00000 n 0000000566 00000 n 0000000648 00000 n 0000005077 00000 n 0000005186 00000 n 0000005296 00000 n 0000005405 00000 n 0000008966 00000 n 0000009094 00000 n 0000009178 00000 n 0000009243 00000 n 0000016727 00000 n 0000016792 00000 n 0000024086 00000 n 0000024151 00000 n 0000030543 00000 n 0000030634 00000 n 0000031734 00000 n 0000031861 00000 n 0000031978 00000 n 0000032106 00000 n trailer << /Size 26 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 32201 %%EOF