%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 16 0 R 34 0 R 50 0 R ] /Count 4 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140418115152+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140418115152+01'00') /Title (Mandela: A Critical Life) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R 14 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4284 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Mandela: A Critical Life)] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(To say that the lives of prominent political leaders are symbolic of the political culture of their time is, of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(course, a truism. Nelson Mandela is one of the handful of 20th-century leaders for whom this statement )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(holds true in global terms, illustrated by the recent unveiling of his statue in London's Parliament Square. At )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the event, the veteran campaigner Tony Benn described the former South African leader as 'president of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(human race')] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 91.820 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 91.820 229.161 m 105.812 229.161 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 105.812 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( - most would be happy to indulge such hyperbole. However, behind the headlines, plans for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Mandela statue were hamstrung by wrangling: London Mayor Ken Livingstone had unsuccessfully )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(battled with Westminster Council to have the statue placed in Trafalgar Square, adjacent to South Africa )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(House, while the statue itself was subject to criticism from within the art establishment. It was, moreover, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the second depiction of Mandela by sculptor Ian Walters, whose earlier bust was unveiled by Oliver Tambo )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on the London South Bank in 1985. It is important to recall that this earlier version was modelled on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(speculation, for Mandela's actual physical appearance remained a mystery until his dramatic release from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prison in 1990.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(While we remind ourselves that Mandela was a somewhat obscure figure only a few years before his release, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(it is also worth recalling that his statue now shares a public space with that other South African leader who )] TJ ET BT 34.016 75.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(became a world statesman during the 20th-century: General Jan Smuts, 'handyman of empire'. Like )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mandela, the statue of Smuts was beset by political rows before its unveiling some eight years after Smuts' )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(638)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Monday, 31 December, 2007)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Tom Lodge)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780192805683)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2006)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(14.99)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(293pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oxford University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oxford)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Rob Skinner)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 15 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 91.8197 229.4755 105.8117 241.3555 ] >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 18 0 R 20 0 R 22 0 R 24 0 R 26 0 R 28 0 R 30 0 R 32 0 R ] /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 8898 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(death, ironically in the spot previously occupied by anti-slavery campaigner Thomas Fowell Buxton. In his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fascinating analysis of the genesis of the Smuts memorial, Bill Schwartz notes that the General served as a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('philosopher of race', for post-war Britain, an individual whose image could symbolically cast notions of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(racial superiority in terms of the 'essential liberality' of the imperialist past.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 393.632 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 393.632 752.307 m 407.624 752.307 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 407.624 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Mandela had joked, when )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(visiting London in 1961, that one day he might replace Smuts. They now share Parliament Square and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mandela has indeed replaced Smuts in the pantheon of heroes, having become a symbol of a 'post-imperial' )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(global discourse that seeks to transcend the language of race.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For there can be no more familiar figure in South African history than Nelson Mandela, whose own personal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(narrative is inextricably bound up in the public imagination with that of the broader struggle against )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(apartheid. This is, in part, testament to the power of life stories within politics, of the role played by a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(narrative of leadership in generating and sustaining popular support. In Mandela's case, his deliberate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cultivation as an icon of the African National Congress \(ANC\) cause was conceived initially as a way of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(focusing attention on the campaign for the release of South African political prisoners, but developed during )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the 1980s into the symbol of the ANC's legitimacy as a post-apartheid government. But his iconic status was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(secured by his leadership in the negotiations preceding South Africa's first democratic elections in 1994, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(then \(if one needs to be reminded\) as the country's first black president.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Given his mythic status, it is understandable that some have questioned the need for a new biography of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mandela - is it not \(to invoke the clich\) too soon to judge his long-term significance of Mandela?)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 504.956 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 504.956 528.723 m 518.948 528.723 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Furthermore, Lodge's biography can be added to an array of works covering the life of Mandela, including )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(some very weighty tomes indeed. Mandela's first biographer, anti-apartheid campaigner Mary Benson, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sought to explain how he had come to embody the liberation struggle and interwove the story of his life with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that of the history of the ANC's struggle - hers is a story of the evolution of a political leader, drawing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(substantially on Mandela's political writings and speeches.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 315.152 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 315.152 457.443 m 329.144 457.443 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 329.144 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( The first authorised biography was published )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(two years later. Written by academic Fatima Meer, whose friendship with Mandela and his wife Winnie, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(provides a more personal focus, it is illustrated by extensive extracts from Mandela's prison letters.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 508.772 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 508.772 428.931 m 522.764 428.931 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 522.764 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Yet, it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was Mandela's autobiography \(written in collaboration with the journalist Richard Stengel\) that saw the first )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attempt to provide an exhaustive account of his life.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 282.980 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 282.980 400.419 m 296.972 400.419 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 296.972 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Following his retirement from political life in 1999, a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(second authorised biography, written by journalist and political commentator Anthony Sampson provided, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(through its use of substantial new documentary sources, an immense and detailed portrait that sought to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unravel the public and private persona of Mandela.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 278.624 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(7\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 278.624 357.651 m 292.616 357.651 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(So what does this new biography bring to the scholarship on Mandela that earlier accounts have missed or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(neglected? Lodge himself suggests a number of points of departure from earlier assessments of Mandela, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(arguing that there was greater continuity in the development of his political beliefs from the 1950s until his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(release from prison - 'between the young Mandela and the older veteran of imprisonment'.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 466.244 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(8\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 466.244 288.627 m 480.236 288.627 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 480.236 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Lodge also )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(places emphasis upon the performative character of Mandela's politics - his deliberate construction of a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(public persona that projected what Lodge describes as a 'messianic leadership role'.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 433.580 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(9\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 433.580 260.115 m 447.572 260.115 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 447.572 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( What underpins such )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(questions are the critical instincts of one of the leading scholars of late 20th-century South African politics, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which provide a biographical account located within both the broader history of liberation movements and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wider theoretical approaches to political thought.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Perhaps inevitably, the structure of the book follows a familiar pattern: we move from Mandela's childhood )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the Transkei to his life in the city, his development as a 'notable' in Johannesburg society and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(metamorphosis into resistance leader; from the theatre of his trials to the story of his survival - in both )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(human and political terms - in prison in the 1970s and 80s; through the narrative of his return as leader, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(initially within prison, and then as the head of the ANC as it negotiated \(in all senses of the term\) its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(progress towards power in 1994; and finally, to his elevation to embodiment of the 'new' South Africa and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(world statesman. In dealing with Mandela's childhood, Lodge invests crucial significance in the complex )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interaction between the structures of Xhosa tradition and the mission-school, both of which helped to shape - )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(but not to determine - his later political life. Lodge's account then takes us to Johannesburg, where it was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(through his relationships with individuals like businessman and ANC activist Walter Sisulu, that Mandela )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(began to engage with politics. Lodge shows how contacts with individuals like Gaur Radebe, Anton )] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 19 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 393.6317 752.6215 407.6237 764.5015 ] >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 504.9557 529.0375 518.9477 540.9175 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 23 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 315.1517 457.7575 329.1437 469.6375 ] >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 25 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 508.7717 429.2455 522.7637 441.1255 ] >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 27 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 282.9797 400.7335 296.9717 412.6135 ] >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 29 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 278.6237 357.9655 292.6157 369.8455 ] >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 31 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 466.2437 288.9415 480.2357 300.8215 ] >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 33 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 433.5797 260.4295 447.5717 272.3095 ] >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 36 0 R 38 0 R 40 0 R 42 0 R 44 0 R 46 0 R 48 0 R ] /Contents 35 0 R >> endobj 35 0 obj << /Length 8370 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lembede and Oliver Tambo helped to establish Mandela as a significant figure in black political circles. His )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(association with both communists and the young Africanists who founded the influential ANC Youth )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(League in 1944, placed Mandela in a key position just as black politics was becoming simultaneously more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(assertive and more precarious in the wake of the National Party's election victory in 1948.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Through a closer inspection of Mandela's developing role in the ANC during the 1950s, Lodge examines the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(variety of ideological influences at work upon the individual who would become ANC 'volunteer-in-chief' )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(during the Defiance Campaign of civil disobedience during 1952. His early antipathy to communism was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tempered by a friendship with Moses Kotane, general secretary of the Communist Party - a development that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(has not been satisfactorily explored according to some critics.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 330.296 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(10\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 330.296 669.027 m 350.288 669.027 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 350.288 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Lodge provides a vivid account of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mandela's political career during the 1950s, balancing the personal narrative with discussion of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(development of the ANC's campaigns against apartheid, set against an increasingly repressive State. It is the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(early 1960s, however, that Lodge regards as the turning point when Mandela was recast as messiah of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(liberation struggle, as underground leader of the ANC \(itself banned following the Sharpeville massacre of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1960\), and, in the following year, as founding member of its armed wing, Umkhonto we Sizwe. While his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(career as guerrilla leader lasted less than a year, coming to an end with his arrest in 1962, Mandela's status )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was cemented at his trial alongside other Unmkhonto leaders in 1964, during which he gave a statement that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concluded with the famous assertion that the ideal of democracy was one for which he was prepared to die.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lodge then pieces together a narrative account of Mandela's 27 years as a political prisoner, drawing \(as he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(acknowledges\) on recent studies of the Robben Island prison community and its place within the wider )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history of South African liberation movements.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 261.332 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(11\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 261.332 500.211 m 281.324 500.211 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 281.324 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Lodge pieces together an account of Mandela's life in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prison, outlining how he both maintained and developed his authority, both amongst veteran ANC activists )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(like himself and with younger prisoners associated with the Black Consciousness Movement. Lodge also )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pays due attention to the personal aspects of Mandela's incarceration, and the importance of the relationship )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with his second wife Winnie. The narrative then moves, somewhat rapidly, through the 1980s and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(development of covert discussions with members of the South African security services to Mandela's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ultimate release from prison in February 1990.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It is the final two chapters that provide some of the most valuable analysis, offering both a detailed account )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of Mandela's role in the transition to democracy and a close examination of the nature of his political )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(authority as President from 1994 to 1999. Using the concept of 'moral capital', accumulated through )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(leadership by example and the deliberate performance of actions that symbolise the aspirations of a wide )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(constituency of followers, Lodge concludes with the suggestion that Mandela used such tactics to inspire an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ideal of citizenship rather than to hold sway through popular adoration; and that his position as 'democratic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hero' - both within South Africa and worldwide - rested upon the extent to which his own personal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(experiences had become part of the public history.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 275.960 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(12\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 275.960 288.627 m 295.952 288.627 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As suggested above, this new biography has not been without its critics, and aspects of the political life of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mandela do require further attention, especially the intricacies of the relationship between Mandela and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ANC, between man and organisation. However, the strengths of this account, not least that it is written by a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(leading expert in the field of black politics in South Africa, far outweigh its weaknesses. On balance, it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(probably is too soon for a definitive critical analysis of the significance of Mandela's life, nevertheless, this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(work provides both a concise and careful account of the life of one of the 20th-century's most important )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(public figures.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 143.331 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 112.714 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 112.709 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Guardian,)] TJ ET BT 134.684 112.709 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( 30 August 2007 )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 217.352 112.709 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 217.352 111.315 m 271.340 111.315 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 98.458 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 98.453 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(B. Schwartz, 'Reveries of race: the closing of the imperial moment' in)] TJ ET BT 397.952 98.453 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [( Moments of Modernity: )] TJ ET BT 64.016 84.197 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reconstructing Britain 1945-1964,)] TJ ET BT 231.680 84.197 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( ed. B. Conekin, F. Mort and C. Waters \(London, 1999\). )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 504.992 84.197 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 504.992 82.803 m 558.980 82.803 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 69.946 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 69.941 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(P. Chabal, review of )] TJ ET BT 165.332 69.941 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Mandela: A Critical Life)] TJ ET BT 284.336 69.941 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, )] TJ ET BT 290.336 69.941 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(International Affairs)] TJ ET BT 389.348 69.941 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 87 \(2007\), 819-20. )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 488.336 69.941 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 488.336 68.547 m 542.324 68.547 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 55.690 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 55.685 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(M. Benson, )] TJ ET BT 122.684 55.685 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Nelson Mandela)] TJ ET BT 201.680 55.685 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Harmondsworth, 1986\). )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 326.660 55.685 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 326.660 54.291 m 380.648 54.291 l S endstream endobj 36 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 37 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 330.2957 669.3415 350.2877 681.2215 ] >> endobj 37 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 38 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 39 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 261.3317 500.5255 281.3237 512.4055 ] >> endobj 39 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 40 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 41 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 275.9597 288.9415 295.9517 300.8215 ] >> endobj 41 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 42 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 43 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 217.3517 111.6295 271.3397 123.5095 ] >> endobj 43 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 44 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 45 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 504.9917 83.1175 558.9797 94.9975 ] >> endobj 45 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 46 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 47 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 488.3357 68.8615 542.3237 80.7415 ] >> endobj 47 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 48 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 49 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 326.6597 54.6055 380.6477 66.4855 ] >> endobj 49 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 50 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 52 0 R 54 0 R 56 0 R 58 0 R 60 0 R 62 0 R 64 0 R 66 0 R 68 0 R 70 0 R 72 0 R ] /Contents 51 0 R >> endobj 51 0 obj << /Length 4708 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 796.474 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(5.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(F. Meer, )] TJ ET BT 108.008 796.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Higher Than Hope: The Authorised Biography of Nelson Mandela)] TJ ET BT 427.328 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Harmondsworth, 1988\). )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 64.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 780.819 m 118.004 780.819 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 767.962 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(6.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(N. Mandela, )] TJ ET BT 126.668 767.957 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Long Walk to Freedom)] TJ ET BT 237.656 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London, 1994\). )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 321.980 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 321.980 766.563 m 375.968 766.563 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 753.706 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(7.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A. 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