%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 22 0 R ] /Count 4 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20141001075030+01'00') /ModDate (D:20141001075030+01'00') /Title (The Image of the Popular Front: The Masses and the Media in Interwar France) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4160 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(The Image of the Popular Front: The Masses and the Media in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Interwar France)] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(On the evening of 16 March 1937 Colonel de la Roque's extreme-right Parti Social Franais held a meeting )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in a cinema in the Socialist and Communist-controlled industrial suburb of Clichy. Mindful of its legal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(responsibilities, the authorities allowed the meeting to go ahead and banned the proposed counter-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(demonstration organised by the Left, who chose to protest anyway. After a night of rioting, the Republic's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(gardes mobiles had driven back the demonstrators, leaving five dead and 200 gravely wounded, one of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(whom died during the night. The Socialist Minister of the Interior, Marx Dormoy, was greeted with cries of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('Dormoy assassin!' A sickened Lon Blum contemplated resignation, but hung on to power until the summer, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(when the Senate rejected his call for increased powers to deal with the budget. However, to all intents and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 152.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(purposes, the Popular Front had died on the streets of Clichy in March.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 125.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Simon Dell's account of the Popular Front and the media begins with an even more famous night of rioting, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 111.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(6 February 1934, which brought down the Daladier government and paved the way for the reunification of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the French Left \(which would become the Popular Front\). On that evening, the events were covered for the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 83.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(left-leaning weekly )] TJ ET BT 129.992 83.123 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Marianne )] TJ ET BT 180.320 83.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by the veteran journalist Carlo Rim, who was amused to note that one of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(first bullets fired at the crowd passed straight through the hat of a young photographer. From this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('coincidence' \(the staple of news reporting\), Dell paints a fascinating picture of the way in which the Popular )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(639)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Monday, 31 December, 2007)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Simon Dell)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780230003286)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2006)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(47.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(216pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Palgrave Macmillan)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Basingstoke)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nicholas Hewitt)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7684 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Front not merely temporarily renegotiated the relationship between government, capital and the people, but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(also redefined the role of the news media. In fact, the two become one. As Dell concludes:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the history of the image of the Popular Front may be understood as a history of contingency. By this I mean )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more than that the image operated through the agency of its viewers. What I have sought to emphasise is that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(each successful transformation of the image was also potentially the moment of its failure. In 1935 the image )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(worked to secure the Popular Front from above but this was at the expense of the Front from below. In 1936 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this image contributed to election victory but the transformation of the Front from potential to actual )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(government resulted in a further curtailment of its popular base. And finally, when the image of the Popular )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Front succeeded in mobilising support for the cause of the Spanish Republic, this success resulted in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(destruction of the image. In each case, the success of the image as a site of exchange required more than the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(renewal of a mandate. For in each case the success transformed the very terms of the exchange. Perhaps this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(should be understood as a condition of hegemony. If hegemony is defined as the articulation of distinct )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(struggles then the successful conclusion of any individual campaign will require a process of rearticulation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(p. 155\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As this quotation indicates, Dell bases his study of the Popular Front on Gramsci's analysis, in the )] TJ ET BT 506.492 572.885 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Prison )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Notebooks)] TJ ET BT 84.680 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, of the Third Republic as an exercise in bourgeois hegemony, briefly punctuated from 1935 to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1937 by a counter-hegemonic project on the part of an anti-Fascist alliance. This analysis does not differ )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(significantly from most well-trodden narratives of the Popular Front, with their emphasis on the tensions )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(between popular aspirations and party political realpolitik. The originality of Dell's book, as its title )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(indicates, lies in its discussion of the role and exploitation of the media in the negotiation and articulation of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(those tensions.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Dell's exploration of 'the Republican Imaginary' contains a remarkably astute analysis of the development of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the role of the press photographer in the Third Republic and especially the creation of photographic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(agencies: just three in 1922, rising to 18 in 1929, and covering both the capital and the provinces. At the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(same time photographers, whether working for agencies or for individual newspapers, became a significant )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(part of the journalistic profession with an increasingly recognised status. Not, however, that they necessarily )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(benefited from technological advances; as Dell demonstrates, contrary to the received wisdom of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(revolutionary role played by the 35mm Leica in press photography, French photographers were still forced )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to use the heavy and old-fashioned plate cameras because the plates could be converted directly into prints )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(without the intermediary of an enlarger. This goes a long way to explaining the preference for static shots in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(French press photography during the inter-war years, although it clearly could not exclude the use of lighter )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cameras for war reporting, for example, and in the illustrated news magazines.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The bulk of the book is devoted to following the development of this 'Republican Imaginary' through three )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(key moments in the history of the Popular Front: the Quatorze juillet celebrations of 1935, with the solemn )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(swearing of the oath of allegiance at the Place de la Nation; the accession to power in May to June 1936 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(under the shadow of the strikes and factory occupations; and the subsequent disintegration of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Rassemblement in the wake of the Spanish Civil War. Using images taken predominantly from the two )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Popular Front dailies, )] TJ ET BT 140.684 220.997 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Le Populaire)] TJ ET BT 203.684 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and )] TJ ET BT 227.012 220.997 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(L'Humanit,)] TJ ET BT 286.580 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and the Communist news magazine )] TJ ET BT 463.232 220.997 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Regards)] TJ ET BT 503.228 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, Dell )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(explores the way in which the news photograph reflects the competing claims of hierarchy and democracy: )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from the essentially 'democratic' montages of Popular Front leaders and supporters in the brochure )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(commemorating the events of 14 July 1935, to more conventional pictures of ministers once in power.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 151.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This is a fascinating and well-researched account of the Popular Front through its own media although it is, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(perhaps necessarily, more concerned with news management by the Popular Front itself rather than with an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(overall analysis of visual news depiction. There are few comparisons or contrasts with the depiction of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(events of 1934 - 1937 in the right-wing or centrist press and, as Dell admits, no discussion of the powerful )] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(regional dailies. The author, quite rightly, devotes, considerable space to his analysis of Marc Ral's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(photographic montages in the brochure )] TJ ET BT 224.984 80.693 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(14 juillet 1935)] TJ ET BT 294.992 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( which, by involving the masses in the media )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(depictions of events in which they were participating, abolished a visual and political hierarchy. Yet it would )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(be interesting to know how common a pictorial device this was across the spectrum of the French press in )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 18 0 R 20 0 R ] /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 8279 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the inter-war years.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It would also be useful to compare the images studied here with those in the rest of the media, notably )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cinema but especially newsreel, which was often the primary source of visual news for the bulk of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(French urban population, as it was in other Western countries. It is true, as Dell claims, that the four major )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(newsreel companies were generally hostile to the Popular Front. However, this hostility was not always )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reflected in their coverage of events, such as the 'carnival' atmosphere surrounding the 14 July 1935 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(celebrations and the factory occupations of 1936. In this respect it could be argued that the book does not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(entirely sustain its subtitle of 'The Masses and the Media in Interwar France'. In addition, there are no )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(references to Popular Front feature films, for example: Renoir's )] TJ ET BT 341.444 670.421 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Le crime de Monsieur Lange,)] TJ ET BT 483.092 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( the lavish )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(government-sponsored )] TJ ET BT 146.996 656.165 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(La Marseillaise)] TJ ET BT 222.668 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, or Duvivier's )] TJ ET BT 294.152 656.165 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(La belle quipe)] TJ ET BT 368.144 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. Neither is there any discussion of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(French Communist Party \(PCF\)-funded 1936 propaganda film directed by Renoir, )] TJ ET BT 431.648 641.909 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(La vie est nous)] TJ ET BT 512.312 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(raises many of the issues dealt with by Dell.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(There is also one puzzling thematic lacuna: the congs pays and the summer holidays of the urban working )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(class in 1936 \(which did, incidentally, attract sympathetic coverage in the newsreels\). Perhaps the author )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(considered the imagery which derived from the summer of 1936 as akin to those cosy pictures and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(evocations of the atmosphere of fte, which were often privileged over serious political and social )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contestation in coverage of the factory occupations. However, in visual terms and in addition to its social )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(legacy, the Popular Front is indissolubly associated with the release of the urban working classes to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(countryside and the coasts. Some discussion of the role of the architect of this policy, Lo Lagrange, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(some of the other major cultural and leisure policy-makers, such as Jean Zay, might have shed more light on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the image of the Popular Front as it was conceived in action and reflected through an ambitious cultural )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(policy which privileged inter alia the visual arts.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As Dell correctly points out in the third substantive section of his book, the deep complexities of the Popular )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Front and its image were encapsulated in its responses to the Spanish Civil War in the summer of 1936. For )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Dell, it was the failure of the Popular Front to come to the aid of its Spanish counterpart which effectively )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('destroyed' the image and consecrated the revision of the 'exchange between leaders and led'. Yet, here again )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Popular Front and its supporters were divided along non-party political lines. As Charles Robert Ageron )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(points out, as late as 1939, French public opinion was broadly supportive of the Spanish Republicans, with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(74 per cent of respondents in an Institut Franais d'Opinion Publique poll of December 1938 considering )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Franco's Spain as 'an enemy power'.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 207.128 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 207.128 345.651 m 221.120 345.651 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 221.120 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( There was some indifference to the fate of Spain on a day-to-day )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(basis across the country as a whole. David Wingeate Pike notes that coverage of the Spanish Civil War was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(largely restricted to the Parisian 'political' dailies and to the regional press of the south-west. Elsewhere, in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nantes for example \(the site of one of the very first strikes and factory occupations\), the war was not a topic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of burning interest.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 125.672 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 125.672 288.627 m 139.664 288.627 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 139.664 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( In many cases, it was the Right, rather than the Left, who were the most concerned at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the events in Spain, often viewing the 'excesses' of the Republican militias as a warning of what might )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(happen in France under an unfettered Popular Front. Similarly, as Dell reminds us, those who supported the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Spanish Republic and attended the August 1936 peace rally at Saint-Cloud, were divided between )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interventionists and pacifists, but with a majority who broadly, if heart-brokenly, supported the cabinet's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(policy. The liberal Radical novelist Andr Chamson, who was also an adviser to Daladier and a major )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(architect of Popular Front cultural policy, reflected the anguish of the pacifist supporter of the Spanish )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Republicans. Chamson's )] TJ ET BT 154.508 190.229 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Retour d'Espagne)] TJ ET BT 240.068 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( of 1937, cited by Dell, is a moving account of the Republican )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(military struggle and of Fascist atrocities, but it concludes nonetheless with a call to France to remain )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(outside of the conflict.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(At the same time, it is difficult to see the PCF as the disinterested defender of the values of 14 July 1935 in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their calls for intervention, which sprang quite as much from Moscow's global foreign policy and its desire )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to assert itself against left-wing, often Trotskyite rivals, as they did from a fidelity to the former )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(revolutionary exchange between leaders and led. For instance, the veteran Communist militant Andr Marty, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the leader of the mutiny in France's Black Sea fleet in 1919, became a feared political commissar in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(French International Brigade, hunting down and executing allies of the Workers' Party of Marxist )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Unification \(POUM\) and the anarchists. In this respect, Malraux's )] TJ ET BT 353.120 49.925 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(L'Espoir)] TJ ET BT 394.364 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( represents the highest point of )] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 19 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 207.1277 345.9655 221.1197 357.8455 ] >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 125.6717 288.9415 139.6637 300.8215 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 24 0 R 26 0 R 28 0 R 30 0 R 32 0 R ] /Contents 23 0 R >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Length 4129 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his commitment to Communism. Dell is right to quote the fascinating observation of the Republican )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(intelligence chief, Garcia, that the early phase of the conflict was defined by an 'Apocalypse of fraternity', )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(but he omits Garcia's crucial conclusion: 'it is our modest function ... to organise the Apocalypse'. Malraux's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(novel is a plea for realism and hard-headedness over lyricism and emotion, and that plea is naturally )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(translated into support for Communist organisation over anarchist or POUM-inspired flamboyancy. Not for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nothing are most of his characters artists, perceived as those who impose order upon chaos, and Garcia )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(himself is an ethnologist who makes patterns out of human diversity. We are far from George Orwell's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Homage to Catalonia)] TJ ET BT 138.020 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, Ken Loach's )] TJ ET BT 206.828 696.677 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Land and Freedom)] TJ ET BT 298.820 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, and incidentally, from Malraux's )] TJ ET BT 464.624 696.677 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(L'Espoir)] TJ ET BT 505.868 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(distributed in 1937 and which portrays fraternity to powerful polemical effect. In this film at least, the image )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(has not yet been destroyed, and it might be argued that reflections of it survive way beyond the life of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(coalition itself.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The author is happy to accept this review and does not wish to comment further.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 592.755 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 562.138 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 562.133 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(C. R. Ageron, 'L'opinion publique franaise pendant les crises internationals de septembre 1938 )] TJ ET BT 64.016 547.877 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(juillet 1939', )] TJ ET BT 127.184 547.877 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Cahiers de l'Institut de l'Histoire de la Presse et de l'Opinion)] TJ ET BT 420.884 547.877 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 3 \(1975\), 218-19. )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 513.872 547.877 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to )] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 513.872 546.483 m 553.868 546.483 l S BT 64.016 533.621 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 532.227 m 78.008 532.227 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 519.370 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 519.365 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(D. W. Pike, 'L'Information des Franais et la guerre d'Espagne' \(Paris: Institut Franais de la Presse et )] TJ ET BT 64.016 505.109 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(des Sciences, Universit de Paris II, 18 November 1975\), p. 8. )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 365.960 505.109 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 365.960 503.715 m 419.948 503.715 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 478.853 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 464.597 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(oxford journals)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 450.341 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://fs.oxfordjournals.org/content/63/4/511.1.full)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 448.947 m 277.352 448.947 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 280.352 450.341 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 445.615 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 427.835 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 427.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/639)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 426.441 m 322.316 426.441 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 401.464 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.064 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/3613)] TJ ET BT 34.016 372.664 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://fs.oxfordjournals.org/content/63/4/511.1.full)] TJ ET endstream endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 25 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 513.8717 546.7975 553.8677 558.6775 ] >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 27 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 64.0157 532.5415 78.0077 544.4215 ] >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 29 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 365.9597 504.0295 419.9477 515.9095 ] >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 31 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 449.2615 277.3517 461.1415 ] >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://fs.oxfordjournals.org/content/63/4/511.1.full) >> endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 33 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 426.7555 322.3157 438.6355 ] >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/639) >> endobj xref 0 34 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000342 00000 n 0000000379 00000 n 0000000578 00000 n 0000000660 00000 n 0000004872 00000 n 0000004981 00000 n 0000005091 00000 n 0000005200 00000 n 0000008761 00000 n 0000008889 00000 n 0000008973 00000 n 0000009038 00000 n 0000016775 00000 n 0000016866 00000 n 0000025198 00000 n 0000025326 00000 n 0000025362 00000 n 0000025490 00000 n 0000025526 00000 n 0000025638 00000 n 0000029820 00000 n 0000029948 00000 n 0000029984 00000 n 0000030110 00000 n 0000030146 00000 n 0000030274 00000 n 0000030310 00000 n 0000030437 00000 n 0000030541 00000 n 0000030669 00000 n trailer << /Size 34 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 30764 %%EOF