%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 18 0 R 20 0 R 22 0 R ] /Count 6 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140818005834+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140818005834+01'00') /Title (Russia in the Age of Peter the Great) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4241 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Russia in the Age of Peter the Great)] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Russian historiography has been richly endowed with numerous topics of enduring interest such as the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(founding of the Kievan Russian State in the ninth century and its later demise, the Mongol conquest in 1236-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(40 and its consequences, the rise of the Muscovite state between 1300 and 1514, serfdom, Ivan the Terrible )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and his Oprichnina, Peter the Great and Westernization, the revolutions of 1917, Stalin and his Great Purge, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and most recently, the collapse of the Soviet Union. Each of these topics has produced a vast literature, much )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of it thoughtful and probably of world class quality. Lindsey Hughes's production joins that literature and, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(along with the classic works of S. M. Solov'v, V. O. Kliuchevskii, and P. N.Miliukov, will be one of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(books that everyone interested in Russia in the 1682/89-1725 period will need to read.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hughes's volume masterfully presents most of the major historiographic disputes \(what was developed in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(period 1689-1725 from the past and what was new? what was the rle of Peter's personality? what was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(imported from the West and what was native? which Petrine reforms proved to be ephemeral and which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(endured? was the Petrine experience on the whole positive or negative?\) as it discusses the major relevant )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(topics of the era: war and military change, the constantly reformed government, economic development, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(social change, the building of St. Petersburg, the arts, education and religion, secularization, Peter's court, his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 75.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(personality, his family and major assistants. The reader may be assured that much of the recent scholarship )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on these topics is accurately presented as well as that Hughes herself has read and creatively used most of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(64)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Monday, 1 March, 1999)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lindsey Hughes)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780300075397)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1998)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(656pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Yale University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://yalepress.yale.edu/yupbooks/book.asp?isbn=9780300082661)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(New Haven)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Richard Hellie)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 6837 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the published primary sources as well as some unpublished archival materials in Russia. \(In this respect, it is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(regrettable that the notes are at the back of the book, rather than at the bottom of the page, for many readers )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(will want to read the notes as well as the prose.\) Especially creative, in my opinion, is Hughes's use of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(large number of contemporary non-Russian commentaries on the period, ranging from ambassadorial reports )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to the memoirs of some of the many Westerners hired to assist in Russia's military modernization and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(economic development.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The major element that was "surprising" to me in this book is the presentation of the Petrine employment of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Greek and Roman motifs. Typically one learns that the "neo-classical" age began in Russia around 1730, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that the "Baroque" was the reigning style in Peter's era. Here we learn, however, that the first quarter of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(eighteenth century was full of Greek and Roman images, and thus the post-1730 "neo-classicism" was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(adumbrated decades before it became the dominant mode. The appeal of "neo-classicism" was to make the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(isolated Russian a man of the world, but Peter obviously had prepared the ground for such sentiments.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The end of the society chapter has a lengthy section presenting what little is known about women in the era )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(under review, an especially important topic in light of Peter's attempts to force elite women out of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(secluded terem \(a recent phenomenon anyway, as other authors have discovered\) into society.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 546.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hughes considers Peter's notorious play regiments, mock rulers and church heads under the rubric of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 532.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pretence and disguise. Her coverage of this topic is the most thorough I am aware of, especially the fact that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 518.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Peter's Drunken Assembly persisted from his boyhood until the end of his life. She makes the excellent point )] TJ ET BT 34.016 503.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that "Peter's masquerades were not true carnival at all, in the sense that `people are liberated from authority, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(behavior is unfettered, and hierarchy is suspended'." Rather, Peter's carnivals celebrated authority as sacred, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and attendance was compulsory \(266\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(I can think of nowhere else that a reader can gain a more thorough appreciation of Peter himself than in this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 434.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(book. Regrettably, however, no psychoanalytic approach is employed, as might be warranted by the death of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Peter's father when he was 4, his childhood, or his recorded dreams, but nevertheless we learn nearly all the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(facts we need to know about our hero's violence and alcoholism, his probable homosexual relations with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Menshikov, his trysts with many of the women who crossed his path. \(Peter is sometimes termed "a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(narcissistic-character type."\) Whether there were any "equals" of Peter in Russia may be debated, but it is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(certain that he was only willing to tolerate sycophantish yes-men in his immediate entourage. Hughes proves )] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(beyond a doubt that "objective merit" was not the major criterion for inclusion in Peter's circle. On a larger )] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(scale, the reader of the Hughes volume is almost certain to conclude that Peter was one of the "great men of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history," that he was personally involved in most of the significant events of his era, and, more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(controversially, that he was personally responsible for many or even most of the differences observable in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Russia between, say, 1690 and 1725.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(One of the enduring historiographic issues of the Petrine era is its legacy. For example, uncountable lives )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and treasure were sacrificed for the fleet, yet already by the 1730s Russia lacked a viable fleet. On land, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(southern territorial acquisitions at the expense of the Turks \(Azov\) and the Persians \(Derbent\) proved )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ephemeral and hardly worth the cost. Endless governmental reforms failed to impose order and legality or to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 208.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(make Russia better governed. Peter's local administration disappeared after his death and he failed to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(establish his desired"well-regulated police state." Secular printing nearly collapsed when Peter died and by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1728, Peter's publishing operation was all but dismantled .)] TJ ET BT 34.016 154.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Some things did last, of course, such as the poll tax \(1724-1887\), the gradually increasing Westernization of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 139.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the ruling elite, the regular sending of youth to the West for study, the developing of a native intelligentsia, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 125.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Urals metallurgical industry, and St. Petersburg. Hughes lovingly presents the details of the creation of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 111.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Peter's new capital, but she does not tally how many thousands of corpses comprised its foundation. I might )] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(also add that the laws promulgated to create the new capital are not listed in the very useful chronology on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 82.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pp. xxii-xxviii.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 56.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(I hope it does not seem churlish to express a few reservations about such a magnificent achievement as this, )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 7525 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(but that is one of the tasks of reviews. In the first place, it should be noted that Hughes herself devotes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(considerable space to stressing minor disagreements with authors whose significant contributions are not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(acknowledged. On a higher level, I should like to suggest that Hughes fails to stress the major point of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Petrine era which, as I see it, was the revitalization of the service state. In my terminology, in response to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1700 defeat by Sweden at Narva Peter launched the second service class revolution. \(The first service class )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(revolution began around 1480 with the result that a "garrison state" was created, which soon led to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(enserfment of the peasantry and the legal stratification of society. The first service class revolution )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(deteriorated in the seventeenth century as privilege replaced service. After Narva Peter put the land- and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(serfholders back in harness, but ultimately his service class decayed in the striving for privilege. Stalin )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(launched the third service class revolution in 1927-28 in response to the "war scare." He again put most of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(society in state service. For a third time, privilege again overtook the "new class," and the system predictably )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(collapsed in 1991. Hughes's readers will get a glimpse of the parallels between the second and third service )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(class revolutions, between Peter and Stalin, when they read the Acmeist poet Maksimillian Voloshin's lines )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(about Peter as "the first Bolshevik."\))] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(There are dozens of statements throughout the book supporting this thesis, but the point as a whole is never )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(made. Some of these statements make up the rest of this paragraph, for I regard this as the real significance )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the first quarter of the eighteenth century: Petrine "recruitment and industry were based on servitude." )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hughes mentions "the middle and lower service classes" \(137\), which logically should generate the upper )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(service classes, but instead she inexplicably prefers the inappropriate term "nobility" for both the upper and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(middle service classes \(see below\). "Lifelong compulsory service was the defining characteristic of being a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nobleman" \(172\). Peter "concentrated more power in the hands of the ruling monarch than ever before, to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(detriment of the nobility" \(185\). Female "`emancipation' was a female version of service to the state" \(201\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [("Cultural affairs were in the hands of the State, which disposed of all Russia's resources, both animate and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(inanimate. The engraver was a servant of the State, no less than a soldier or an administrator" \(232\). "With )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(few exceptions, all of the art of the Petrine era seems to have been created for public purposes" \(239\). "The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(whole population was harnessed for hard toil" \(269\). "For Peter state service was the highest calling" \(299\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The 1714 act on single inheritance sought "to bind the nobles to state service by interfering in traditional )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(inheritance patterns" \(303-4\). "Petrine education was imposed by the State in the interests of the State" )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(308\). "Poetry was harnessed to the service of the State" \(326\). "Nearly all the secular works published, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(some of the religious ones, were linked to the needs of the State" \(327\). "`Monasteries must use the revenue )] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from their lands for deeds pleasing to God and for the good of the state'" \(341\). "Upon ordination a priest )] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(had to take an oath of allegiance modelled on that for civil servants, in which he swore to be an obedient )] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(servant of the emperor" \(346\). "One of the original impulses of Peter's reforms of the Church" was "to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 314.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(maximize revenues and the fulfillment of service obligations to the State" \(346\). "The whole of life from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cradle to grave was military service" \(383\). "`The State was not the State of this or that class. It was the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(State's State'" \(386\). The same kind of state-society still existed in 1864 as was created in Peter's reign \(468\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 271.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [("Pluralism, the glimmerings of civil society, were killed at birth, because Peter could not break with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 256.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(authoritarian rule, and found no strong desire among his subjects to do so: they went from being `worthless )] TJ ET BT 34.016 242.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(slaves to being numbers in the Table of Ranks" \(469\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Historiography buffs wanting to know where Hughes comes down on the major issues of continuity, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(innovation, impact, and Peter's personality may be disappointed by a lack of decisiveness on these issues, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which typically is the result of a sophisticated approach recognizing that black and white presentations are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(too simplistic. Yet on some issues a more specific authorial verdict might be welcome, for it may seem )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contradictory that Peter both forced Russia out of Asiatic barbarism and backwardness to Western )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(modernity, but also held Russia back two centuries by reinforcing the recently created caste system and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(crushing all manifestations of a civil society. In my opinion, Hughes's readers would benefit from the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reflections of D. S. Likhachv, the dean of pre-Petrine Russia specialists, on the issue of continuity between )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Old Russia and Petrine Russia, just as they benefit from her retailing the negative post-Soviet scholarly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 88.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(views on the Petrine impact of A. P. Spunde \(d. 1962, published only in 1988\), Ia. E. Vodarskii, Anatolii )] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lanshchikov, and Evgenii Anisimov.)] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 7170 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In the case of the reform of the church \(the abolition of the Patriarchate and its replacement by the Holy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Synod, a government department\), the reader is likely to believe that the reform was more radical than it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(really was because the effective secularization of church administration by the creation of the Monastery )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chancellery in the Ulozhenie of 1649 is not mentioned \(see "The Church and the Law in Late Muscovy: )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapters 12 and 13 of the Ulozhenie of 1649," Canadian-American Slavic Studies, 25 [1991]: 179-99\). This )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is the moment to observe that Hughes tries to debunk the extent of secularization in the Petrine era, in spite )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the contemporary observation that the authority of the clergy was shaken: "formerly they occupied )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(without dispute the first places of honor in all public assemblies, but now their dignity has grown so vile )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([sic] that they are seldom . . . admitted to the table" \(336\). Moreover, I would stress that the entire issue is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(complicated by the facts that the Russian church was always the handmaiden of the state since the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(introduction of Christianity in 988, that confiscation of church lands had been a major feature of the first )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(service class revolution, and that significant numbers of Russians were still pagans in Peter's lifetime. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hughes's presentation of the church as a state tool is unexceptional, and it is not accidental that Peter's major )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cheerleaders were men of the cloth. Typical of the new secular mood was the Holy Synod's ruling in 1724 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that Aleksandr Nevskii was no longer to be depicted iconographically as a monk \(his image in his quisling )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dealings with the Mongols\), but only as a warrior-prince \(his image in his victories over the Livonian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Knights and Swedes\). The rle of church personnel in the Second Service Class Revolution is adequately )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(detailed, from the requirement that clergy had to report anything of interest spoken in the confessional to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(secret police, denounce tax-evaders and religious dissidents to the authorities, and keep records useful for tax )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(collection purposes. Hughes states that "it is hard to disagree with James Cracraft's conclusion that `of all the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(achievements of Peter's reign his church reform constituted the most decisive break with the past'" \(334\). In )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(my opinion, a knowledgeable person can agree with Cracraft's conclusion only if he understands that Peter's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(other reforms were also minimally decisive breaks with the past.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(On the "continuity theme," the plague quarantine measures and the passing of documents through fire, to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which Hughes devotes considerable attention \(314\), long antedated 1709.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(I have a problem with Hughes's presentation of society, which I find confusing. She uses the word )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [("nobility/nobles" very loosely to refer to everyone from the handful of boyars down through the tens of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(thousands of provincial landholders/owners, and even some people who had no land or serfs at all, even, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(apparently, all servicemen \(sluzhilye liudi, p. 162\). \(At least she is to be congratulated for eschewing the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(word "gentry," which is equally inapplicable.\) She erroneously calls a service landholding \(pomest'e\) a "fief" )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(106\) and the servicemen who held them "landowners" \(453\). Apparently my 1972 Enserfment and Military )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Change in Muscovy, where these issues are discussed at great length, is not available in the UK. At the other )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(end of society, the presentation of slaves \(sometimes misleadingly called "servants," or even worse, "serfs" )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([5, 110, 313, inter alia]\) is also confused and the index lists less than half the mentions of slaves in the text.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It is surely an error to calculate that there were 3.5 males per household in 1678, when the household tax was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(just about to be introduced \(332\). Most calculations put the mean household size \(MHS\) in 1678 at about 4 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(persons, or 2 males. The rise in the MHS to levels of 7 and higher was caused by the change to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(household system of taxation, which drove out solitaries and created the Russian extended family as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Russians crowded into one household to beat the tax system. It is also totally incorrect that "the average levy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(per taxpayer \(1720-3\) was 0.57 kopeks, of which 0.34 [kopeks] was in fixed taxes" \(137\). The median wage )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in this period was 4 kopeks per day, so, according to Hughes's presentation, a household could meet its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(entire annual tax obligations if \(assuming the MHS was 8\) one member worked one day per year something )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(totally unlikely! At the other extreme of implausibility, Hughes writes about the "70 grivna poll tax" \(452\), )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which would be 7 rubles, or over half a year's pay!)] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Peter's statement that "English freedom is not appropriate here" is quoted \(93\), but I wonder whether readers )] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of Hughes's tome will understand why that was so. Why was/is social cohesion wanting in Russia? Why )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(does the rule of law not work? Why do contracts mean nothing? These were major questions about Russia of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Peter's time, as they are of our time.)] TJ ET endstream endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 21 0 R >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Length 7552 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Another set of issues with both historical and contemporary resonance involve the Russian economy and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(why Russia was and is poor. Hughes mentions war, capital flight, corruption, the weakness of private )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(property rights and lack of capital and "enterprise culture" [she might have mentioned that anti-Semitism )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(kept the Jews out]. There were no systems of insurance or quality control, while there were "checks )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(downward on the amassment of power and wealth." The families forced to move to St. Petersburg lost two-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(thirds of their capital in the move, which in almost every respect was a veritable potlatch. There were no full-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(time retail stores because of insufficient trade to support them [and no Jews to start them up note that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Foreign Minister Peter Shafirov was the son of a POW-slave who went into trade after manumission, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that Tsar Peter discovered young Shafirov working in, presumably, his father's store]. Profits were not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reinvested, there was little competition, and less incentive to improve techniques. I would add that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(borrowing turnkey technology meant that no Russians participated in the process of developing it, which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(made advancing it difficult if not impossible. The government was constantly broke and could not pay )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wages \(which evoked much of the "corruption"\), and I would stress that there was no banking system or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(system of government debt/credit to take up the slack when the government needed funds, something typical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of "Asiatic systems." Perhaps nothing was as deleterious, I would aver, to the honest accumulation of wealth )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as the collective taxation system \(in this sense the change from the household system of taxation inaugurated )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in 1679 to the poll tax calculated on the basis of all males and first collected in 1724 made little difference: )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the local collective had to come up with the amount due, not either any specific household or male\), and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nothing did more to discourage long-term planning and investment than the constant changing of laws and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the capriciousness and arbitrariness which that embodied. Granted that warfare created exigencies which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(could not be ignored, but on balance the verdict must be that Peter's constant meddling in the economy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(probably did more to retard it than to advance it.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Most economic historians doubt that there were few if any "prosperous" economies in the world prior to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1750, and most countries' per capital incomes rose little above the equivalent of the $600 to $750 found )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(today in the poorest Third World Countries. Some of Hughes's foreign observers support such a conclusion )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for Russia between 1689 and 1725 when they note that most Russians had almost no possessions, what we )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(would term "wealth." The real tragedy of the second service class revolution \(reinvigorated by the third )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(service class revolution\) was that it created a political economy in Russia that continues to inhibit the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(creation of per capita wealth. Peter's social, cultural, and sartorial engineering was able to create a few tens )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of thousands of Russians \(in a land of 10 to 15 millions\) who looked like Westerners, but his "correctional )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cudgel" was unable to create any people who behaved like enterprising Dutchmen. It may not be accidental )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that Peter's legacy in 1999 is a country which accounts for less than 1 percent of global domestic product and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(has a total gross national product which is less than that of Belgium.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(I fail to see that "semiotic analysis" adds much \(other than mumbo-jumbo\) to this book. This is true for "the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(semiotics" of the fleet \(p. 88\) and also, in the last analysis, the use of a "semiotic approach" to make much of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a point that some of Peter's problems stemmed from his inability to communicate with his subjects \(384, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(452\). I would prefer to argue on the last point that most Russians were pre-literates with the inevitably )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(resulting right-brain mentality \(and thus the famous "intellectual silence" of Old Russia [299]\) and that, in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(brief, Peter's nauseatingly continuous use of violence was precisely the way to communicate with a Russian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(society of that make-up. Pre-literates \(non-readers\) cannot be appealed to by left-brained rationality, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(something that Peter himself intuitively understood very well. Peter himself personified the beginning of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(transition from the illiterate non-reader whose left-brain capacities were definitely limited. As Hughes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(summarizes the evidence: "There is no evidence that Peter ever read, annotated, or commented in any detail )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on `difficult' works of philosophy, theology, or history. . . . His scientific interests suggest a love of practice )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rather than theory, a search for sensation rather than rational reflection" \(368\). Literacy is a sine quanon for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rationalism, in its absence belief in the efficacy of reason is a non-starter, and Peter's educational record was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(definitely mixed and bore little fruit before 1725, when the Academy of Sciences \(staffed exclusively by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(foreigners\) was established in a country with almost no primary schools and not a single university.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Regrettably, neither Peter nor his admirers and imitators had the slightest understanding that human rights )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and dignity and personal autonomy were and are absolutely essential to sustain a cohesive, responsible, self-)] TJ ET endstream endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 24 0 R ] /Contents 23 0 R >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Length 1651 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(generating, productive society. For half a millennium autocrats, absolute rulers, and dictators in Russia \(and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(elsewhere\) have been picking and choosing from the Western technological and cultural package in hopes of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(surviving, maintaining independence, or overtaking and surpassing the West. The lesson would seem to be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that anything less than the entire package will yield disappointing results in anything other than the short )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(term.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Yale University Press is to be commended for producing an attractive book at a reasonable price. I hope that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(those who have read and considered this review will be induced to buy the book.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 672.677 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 658.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.695 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 635.915 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 635.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/64)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 634.521 m 316.316 634.521 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 609.544 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 595.144 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/408)] TJ ET BT 34.016 580.744 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 25 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 634.8355 316.3157 646.7155 ] >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/64) >> endobj xref 0 26 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000356 00000 n 0000000393 00000 n 0000000553 00000 n 0000000635 00000 n 0000004928 00000 n 0000005037 00000 n 0000005147 00000 n 0000005256 00000 n 0000008817 00000 n 0000008945 00000 n 0000009029 00000 n 0000009094 00000 n 0000015984 00000 n 0000016049 00000 n 0000023627 00000 n 0000023692 00000 n 0000030915 00000 n 0000030980 00000 n 0000038585 00000 n 0000038669 00000 n 0000040373 00000 n 0000040501 00000 n trailer << /Size 26 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 40595 %%EOF