%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 18 0 R 20 0 R 22 0 R 32 0 R 42 0 R ] /Count 6 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140722160541+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140722160541+01'00') /Title (Pacifists, Patriots and the Vote: The Erosion of Democratic Suffragism in Britain During the First World War) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4526 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Pacifists, Patriots and the Vote: The Erosion of Democratic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Suffragism in Britain During the First World War)] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.195 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Pacifists, Patriots and the Vote)] TJ ET BT 183.692 266.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( offers fresh and insightful answers to questions about the British women's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(movement during the Great War that Jo Vellacott was instrumental in reopening exactly thirty years ago. It )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was in 1977 that she began what has arguably become her life's work: the recovery of those she called the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('anti-war suffragists'.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 134.312 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 134.312 222.033 m 148.304 222.033 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 148.304 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( These were a group of leading lights in the largest non-militant women's suffrage )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(organisation, the National Union of Women's Suffrage Societies \(NUWSS\), who resigned from the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(executive in 1915 in protest at its refusal both to launch a campaign to educate public opinion on questions )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of war and peace and to send delegates to the International Women's Peace Congress organised in The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hague. For their trouble, they were written out of the official histories of the NUWSS, penned by its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 152.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(president Millicent Fawcett and her ally Ray Strachey.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 295.976 152.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 295.976 150.753 m 309.968 150.753 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 309.968 152.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( In retrieving their voices, Vellacott's careful )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(archival work challenged existing storylines and opened up new areas of enquiry around women's suffrage, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(feminist responses to the Great War, and the war's long-term impact on British feminism. A reference point )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for scholars writing about this period, her views have not gone unchallenged over the past three decades. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 95.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This book continues the conversation in earnest.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Vellacott's principal focus is on women's suffrage. By debunking the tenacious legend that suffragists had )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unanimously backed the war effort, her earlier work undermined the then dominant narrative whereby )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(642)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thursday, 31 January, 2008)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jo Vellacott)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780230013353)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2007)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(45.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(227pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Palgrave)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2007)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Marc Calvini-Lefebvre)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 15 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 134.3117 222.3475 148.3037 234.2275 ] >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 17 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 295.9757 151.0675 309.9677 162.9475 ] >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 7449 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(British women were enfranchised in return for their dutiful support. The twin questions of why women were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(enfranchised and why the women's movement did not manage to obtain a better deal for them )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(enfranchisement was limited to women property holders and wives of householders over 30\) have animated )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historical research ever since. Arguing that women's enfranchisement was not a question of if, but when, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Vellacott is particularly concerned with the second of these questions. One answer, to which she previously )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(subscribed, was that the movement had no choice: in the context of war, no better deal could be achieved. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(But on closer inspection, she argues here that a better deal was, in fact, possible. The political conditions )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were favourable: cross-party agreement that reform was necessary, a pro-suffrage House of Commons, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(end of militancy, widespread admiration for women's war work, and a government keen to see the Reform )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bill passed. Furthermore, Sir John Simon, a Liberal member of the Speaker's Conference, tasked by the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(government to advise on electoral reform, urged suffragists to take the Speaker's recommendation of an age )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(limit of 30 or 35 for women as a baseline from which to push for more. Vellacott, while clear that this is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(suggestive, not conclusive evidence, maintains that '[h]ad there been a drive for a wider women's franchise, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(it is hard to imagine that the Bill would have been abandoned to keep the women out' \(p. 164\). So why was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(such a drive nowhere to be seen? The principle reason, she contends, was the Great War's impact on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 582.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('nature of the feminism that prevailed' in the NUWSS \(p. 1\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Drawing on her extensive knowledge of the NUWSS's minutes, methods and members, Vellacott identifies )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(two types of suffragists in its midst. Traditional suffragists, animated by a feeling of entitlement to rule over )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their social inferiors and pride in the empire, tended to support the Conservative Party, and were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(predominantly present in the south of the country, not least in their principal power base, the London Society )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for Women's Suffrage \(LSWS\). By contrast, democratic suffragists treated their social inferiors as equals \(or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(at the very least believed they had a responsibility to them\), were critical of the empire, supported the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Liberal or Labour Parties, and were predominantly present in the north. Where traditionalists only wanted )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the vote on the same terms as men, democrats championed adult suffrage. On the eve of war, the latter had )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(been in charge of the NUWSS for four years, after the adoption of a new constitution had loosened the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(LSWS's grip on the executive and brought in new women from the periphery. Under their leadership the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(NUWSS grew stronger by establishing links with the Labour Party and working-class women and men. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Despite their success, however, by July 1915 they had not only lost power to the traditionalists, but had left )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the NUWSS altogether. Why and how this happened is the subject of chapters three to eight, while the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consequences for the prospects of a broader women's franchise provide the material for chapters 10 to 12.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Taking us to the heart of the NUWSS's internal politics, Vellacott meticulously retraces the unfolding of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(events between August 1914 and June 1915, as matters increasingly came to a head between the two )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(feminisms. The democratic suffragists, arguing that there was a deep connection between militarism and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(women's oppression, pushed for the NUWSS to embark on a campaign to educate public opinion on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(issue of peace. Traditional suffragists countered both that militarism abroad was more dangerous than )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(militarism at home and that any such campaign would be, in Strachey's words, 'the ruin of suffrage' \(quoted )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(p. 86\) for it would be perceived as unpatriotic. Their disagreements were resolved through two councils, in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(February and June 1915 respectively. Vellacott's almost thrilling accounts of the motions and amendments )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that were mooted, carried and defeated at these councils are to be commended. The ambiguous role of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Fawcett, torn between her patriotism and her profound affection and admiration for the democratic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(suffragists \(the patriotism won out\); the paranoia of the patriots about the pacifists' intentions; the numerous )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tactical mistakes of the latter; and the abuse of the NUWSS's democratic procedures by the LSWS in order )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to guarantee victory, are all vividly portrayed.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In the process, two important secondary themes of this book emerge: that democratic processes are essential )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(but fragile; and that behind their appearance of inevitability, most political victories depend on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(accidental, on small things that tip the scales, on interpersonal chemistry, human fallibility and mean-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(spiritedness. Thus, Vellacott convincingly argues that the patriots' rout of the pacifists was less a reflection )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the balance of power across the NUWSS than of the way in which the former used and abused the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(organisation's internal politics to their advantage \(for example, refusing to move the date of the second )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(council despite knowing that a number of leading pacifists could not attend\). The pacifists, meanwhile, )] TJ ET endstream endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 21 0 R >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Length 7446 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(committed a series of blunders \(such as resigning too soon\) that weakened their position. What emerges is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that the pacifists had a broad following in the NUWSS and that anti-war sentiment went deeper and wider )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(than was previously thought. The sense of loss, of missed opportunity, is well rendered.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nevertheless, the NUWSS was left in the hands of the patriots, with three dire consequences for the prospect )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of a broad women's franchise. First, those most likely to fight for such a franchise were no longer in a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(position to do so. This is the 'erosion' of the book's subtitle. 'Dispersal' is perhaps a more telling term, for as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Vellacott shows, the democratic suffragist vision was not so much undermined as dislodged from its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(principal power base. As a result it found its energies dispersed among a number of other, less influential )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(organisations. This dispersal had begun before the LSWS takeover as the frustrated pacifists, energised by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Hague Congress, created a new feminist structure: the Women's International League \(WIL\), to which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(trades unionists, Quakers, Liberals and well-known writers such as Olive Schreiner rallied. Yet the WIL was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(only one of many organisations that sprang up to give voice to dissidents in Britain, and the attraction of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(these organisations caused democratic suffragists to drift imperceptibly away from one another. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Furthermore, the WIL had the disadvantage of being new, weak and associated in the public mind only with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(peace. So when the suffrage issue reappeared on the political agenda, the pacifists worked through a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(different organisation, the National Council for Adult Suffrage \(NCAS\). The NCAS was persistently )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(engaged in education work on the question of suffrage, paid attention to those left out of the Speaker's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(recommendations and listened to Simon. But it had no power base to speak of and was no match for the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(combined indifference to adult suffrage of the NUWSS and the Labour Party.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Indeed, the second consequence of the NUWSS split was that the best connected and most influential non-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(militant organisation in Britain was now dominated by a small, sociologically and ideologically homogenous )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(group with no interest in adult suffrage and little regard for democratic process. Here Vellacott decisively )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(undermines the prevalent view that the patriots' victory had kept the NUWSS 'a broad church'. To her, this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conclusion is 'rendered indefensible by its failure to take into account class and geographical factors' \(p. 95\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Indeed, after the June council, the NUWSS was controlled by 'a small group of middle- and upper-class )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Londoners, ... none of whom could speak for the wide constituency of working women and men touched by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the pre-war campaign' \(p. 95\). This group's lack of interest in a broad franchise was compounded by the top-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(level advice it was given by most insiders, bar Simon \(but including the Prime Minister\), that pushing for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(anything more than the Speaker's recommendations would cause the loss of women's suffrage altogether. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thus, without going to council first or consulting with the constituencies, the executive decided to make a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(major change to NUWSS policy and accept an age limit for women rather than hold out for the vote on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(same terms as men.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The final consequence of the patriots' victory was the quiet severing of the ties built up between organised )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(feminism and organised Labour in the run up to the war. This left the most likely champion of adult )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(suffrage - the Labour Party - free not to push for a better deal for women when the suffrage question )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reappeared. A first casualty of the new executive was the Election Fighting Fund \(EFF\), a policy set up in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1912 to bring financial and organisational support to Labour candidates in three-cornered contests following )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the party's pledge to reject franchise reforms that excluded women. Supported by a strong majority in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(NUWSS executive that included Fawcett, it had nonetheless been a controversial policy in those societies )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with close links to the Liberal Party. It was now all but abandoned by an executive whose 11 new members )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(came 'from or [were] connected with the relatively few societies which had never been comfortable with the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(EFF policy' \(p. 93\). Relations with the working class were further undermined by the change in policy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(regarding women's war work. At the outbreak of war, the democratic suffragist-dominated NUWSS )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(embarked on relief work that sought to alleviate women's suffering caused by war, particularly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unemployment. The LSWS, by contrast, sought ways to release more men for the front by putting women in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their place. Its priority, Vellacott contends, was less the welfare of women workers than the needs of the war )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(machine. Thus, under its new leadership, the organisation became more confrontational towards the trades )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unions, tended to reproduce the classist assumptions \(i.e., the poor in manual jobs, the rich as overseers\) that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dominated the attribution of jobs to women, and showed some interest but little commitment to protecting )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(women workers' rights. Let off the hook by this estrangement, the Labour Party gave in to its fear of losing )] TJ ET endstream endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 24 0 R 26 0 R 28 0 R 30 0 R ] /Contents 23 0 R >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Length 8138 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(manhood suffrage and to the rising sexism among its male rank and file, embittered by women's wartime )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(encroachment into the workplace. Vellacott points out that there was something rather self-defeating about )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this position: after all, the women who got the vote were likely to vote Conservative, those who did not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(would have voted Labour. Calling for more research into this area, she suggests that the long term )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consequence for the Labour Party was to turn it away from 'the potential of an integrative feminism towards )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(an exclusionary and even patriarchal emphasis on the class struggle' \(p. 178\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(There is no doubt that Vellacott's fresh take on how the vote was won enriches our understanding. In )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(proposing her counterfactual reading, however, it is arguable that she makes too much of Simon's advice - he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(appears to have been a rather lonely voice among insiders. She may also be too optimistic in thinking that a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(broad franchise was likely before the guns began blazing in August 1914. Nevertheless, by insisting on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(importance of political rapports de force, her book offers an illuminating and, I would argue, a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(complementary counter-point to the latest studies, which have given more weight to the war's impact on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cultural understandings of gender and citizenship in explaining the winning of the vote for women.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 508.952 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 508.952 612.003 m 522.944 612.003 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In addition to exploring women's enfranchisement, Vellacott compares the different responses to war that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(came out of the women's suffrage movement and evaluates them as forms of feminism. This too is an area )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that her rediscovery of the anti-war suffragists had prompted her to explore in a previous, and controversial, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(article. If some suffragists had opposed the war on feminist grounds, she argued, then this raised awkward )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(questions about the feminist credentials of those who had not. On her reading, what the different responses )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(revealed was a division in the movement between those 'whose suffrage claims still rested mainly on a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(demand to be admitted to the existing male political system, unchanged' )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 382.820 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 382.820 500.211 m 396.812 500.211 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 396.812 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and those who wanted the vote )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in order radically to change that system. The latter developed a 'sophisticated feminist view of the war' )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 529.580 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 529.580 485.955 m 543.572 485.955 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and opposed it; whereas the former, from the militant Emmeline Pankhurst to the constitutionalist Fawcett, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(did no such thing, falling unselfconsciously into the support roles expected of women in wartime. This )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relationship between attitudes to suffrage and attitudes to war, she continued, should give pause to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contemporary feminists. In particular, it should lead them to dislodge the militants from their privileged )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(position in the history of feminism in favour of those who had consistently rejected violence both in pursuit )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the vote and in opposition to the war. Subsequent scholarship has challenged her position and in this book )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(she both defends and clarifies it.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The principal attack on Vellacott's argument was mounted by Susan Kent who described the actions and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ideas of the pacifists as grounded in the essentialist \(i.e. un- and possibly even anti-feminist\) language of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(motherhood. To her, far from being inspirational foremothers, these women, by accepting the ubiquitous )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wartime dichotomy of women-as-carers/men-as-killers, had largely contributed to taking the British )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(women's movement down the blind alley of 'difference' in which it remained terminally stuck until the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Second World War and to which it must not, on any account, return.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 362.300 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 362.300 288.627 m 376.292 288.627 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 376.292 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Denouncing an 'ahistorical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(theoretical analysis that makes no sense in the context of the time' \(p. 31\), Vellacott counters that 'we need to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(distinguish between vocabulary and action, and to situate the discourse in the context of the time' \(p. 48\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(While I agree with her critique of Kent and her emphasis on contextualisation, I find this proposed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(action/rhetoric dichotomy problematic. Indeed, action and rhetoric exist not as two independent fields but in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a symbiotic relationship. Those feminists launched into relief and pacifist work precisely because of their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(belief in women's special insights into the world provided by their biological and social roles as mothers. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(That they did not think motherhood was the only role for women \(p. 32\) is beside the point: it is the role that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(matters, the role from which their claim to transform the political arises. In other words, we cannot focus )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exclusively on what they did and treat what they said as a sign of the times that can be safely ignored. That )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(we might want, as Vellacott justifiably does, to build a case similar to theirs in less essentialist terms is one )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(thing, but we do a disservice to our historical understanding if we pretend that what they said and what they )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(did were not intimately intertwined.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In addition to defending the pacifists' feminism, Vellacott offers a clarification of her thesis. Indeed, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(although never explicitly accusing the pro-war group of being non- or anti-feminist, her argument could be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(read as such. Any ambiguity is here lifted: '[i]t was of course not by definition anti-feminist to support the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(war effort' \(p. 32\). This formulation advantageously takes the heat out of the discussion of the split in the )] TJ ET endstream endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 25 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 508.9517 612.3175 522.9437 624.1975 ] >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 27 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 382.8197 500.5255 396.8117 512.4055 ] >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 29 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 529.5797 486.2695 543.5717 498.1495 ] >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 31 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 362.2997 288.9415 376.2917 300.8215 ] >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 34 0 R 36 0 R 38 0 R 40 0 R ] /Contents 33 0 R >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Length 8488 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(NUWSS and allows for an illuminating comparison, as we have seen, of the two feminisms' contrasting )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attitudes to war, Labour and suffrage. That said, I have found her reading of the pro-war suffragist line, at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(times, to be unduly close to that of the democratic suffragists' and wonder if a more sympathetic \(if not less )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(critical\) reading could not have been given. Take, for example, Fawcett's bitter disagreement with pacifist )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Helena Swanwick over the NUWSS's attitude to the war. Swanwick argued that suffragists must oppose the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(war because they had always opposed the idea that politics, whether national or international, rested on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(force. Vellacott describes Fawcett's answer, grounded in 'a virulent attack on German philosophy, policies )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and practices', as 'irrelevant' \(p. 50\). I have not read the document in question but I suspect that Fawcett's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(argument may have been that it was precisely because suffragists were opposed to the use of physical force )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and in favour of the rule of law that they should oppose Germany, a country whose philosophers claimed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that might is right, whose policy had been to violate international law by invading neutral Belgium, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(whose war practice was to use force even against civilians. These may be poor arguments, but they were not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(irrelevant to the question and often recurred in the animated debates between pacifists and patriots that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rocked the correspondence pages of the NUWSS's organ, )] TJ ET BT 311.768 611.141 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Common Cause)] TJ ET BT 388.100 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 391.100 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(7\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 391.100 609.747 m 405.092 609.747 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 405.092 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( It would be unfortunate if )] TJ ET BT 34.016 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Vellacott's important work of recovery of the pacifists led to an obscuring of our understanding of their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 582.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(opponents' views.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Which brings me to Vellacott's treatment of Emmeline and Christabel Pankhurst's response to the war. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Within her clarified framework, their Hun-hating brand of patriotism and staging of military recruitment )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(campaigns continue to fail to make the feminist cut, either in rhetoric or action. Thus, where Jacqueline de )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Vries suggested that their gendered interpretation of the war, whereby the 'feminine' values and qualities of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Britain and her allies were pitted against the 'masculine' ones of Germany, was arguably feminist, Vellacott )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(detects only a 'feminist theoretical flavour', noting that 'the representation of Germany as the male bully and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Belgium as the assaulted maiden was also much used by both government and press for pro-war propaganda' )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(p. 21\). This, however, misses the point: the government and press did not use these gendered images to go )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on to argue that this was a war for women's freedom, or use the deeply gendered language of war to argue )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for women's right to citizenship. As for their actions, Vellacott stresses their striking similarity with those of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the leading anti-suffragist Mrs Humphrey Ward, and argues that they amounted to 'conforming to the role )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(expected of women in wartime' as 'docile supporters of men's wars' \(p. 48\). Now, they were certainly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(supporters, but they were far from docile. There are chilling editorials from Christabel Pankhurst calling for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the country to spare none of its male blood in this holy war. )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 323.324 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(8\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 323.324 369.651 m 337.316 369.651 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 337.316 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Nor did they see it as the men's war. On the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contrary, they continuously insisted that this was women's war above all because of the threat that Germany, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a nation that privileged men and masculinity over women and femininity, posed to women's freedom. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(point with political arguments is not so much what you say, as Vellacott rightly claims when defending the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 314.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pacifists, but what you are trying to do in saying it.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 278.672 314.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(9\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 278.672 312.627 m 292.664 312.627 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 292.664 314.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( The pacifists were trying to use the widespread )] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(association of mothering with peace to make a case for women's active and immediate involvement in a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(transnational peace campaign. The Pankhursts were trying to use the widespread association of Germany )] TJ ET BT 34.016 271.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with the oppression of women to make a case for women's involvement as active political actors in the war )] TJ ET BT 34.016 256.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(effort and the polity.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The cumulative effect of Vellacott's discussion is to frame the Great War as dealing a nasty blow to British )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(feminism's historical evolution. This marks a sharp turn in her thinking. Her earlier work, written in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(context of Greenham Common Women's Peace Camp, unsettled the dominant narrative of pre-war apogee )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and post-war decline of British feminism by claiming that 1915, the year of the Women's Peace Congress )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and of the publication of some of the most striking pacifist feminist writings, should now be seen and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(celebrated as a landmark in the annals of feminism. )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 283.964 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(10\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 283.964 158.067 m 303.956 158.067 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 303.956 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Writing in the context of a global 'war on terror' )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which feminists have criticised but not \(so far\) effectively countered, and no longer focusing exclusively on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ideas and their legacy but taking in the history of the organisation as well, her assessment is more sombre. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(But it is not all despair. For if the Great War 'eroded' the democratic suffragist vision, it did not obliterate it. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The book's ultimate message, then, is one of hope. Even in the darkest of hours, feminists have fought, if )] TJ ET BT 34.016 88.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(clumsily, for peace. Even when no one was listening, as during the inter-war period mentioned briefly in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(epilogue, they have articulated a powerful alternative vision for the conduct of international relations. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 59.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Calling on feminists to reclaim that vision in the 21st century, the book ends with one final familiar and )] TJ ET endstream endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 35 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 391.0997 610.0615 405.0917 621.9415 ] >> endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 36 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 37 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 323.3237 369.9655 337.3157 381.8455 ] >> endobj 37 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 38 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 39 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 278.6717 312.9415 292.6637 324.8215 ] >> endobj 39 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 40 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 41 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 283.9637 158.3815 303.9557 170.2615 ] >> endobj 41 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 42 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 44 0 R 46 0 R 48 0 R 50 0 R 52 0 R 54 0 R 56 0 R 58 0 R 60 0 R 62 0 R 64 0 R 66 0 R 68 0 R ] /Contents 43 0 R >> endobj 43 0 obj << /Length 6807 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(important theme of her work: the use of history to re-open urgently needed avenues of political thinking.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 761.571 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 730.954 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 730.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(J. Vellacott-Newberry, 'Anti-war suffragists', )] TJ ET BT 283.280 730.949 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(History)] TJ ET BT 319.280 730.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 62 \(1977\), 411-25. )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 418.268 730.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 418.268 729.555 m 472.256 729.555 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 716.698 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 716.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(See M. G. Fawcett, )] TJ ET BT 159.668 716.693 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(What I Remember)] TJ ET BT 246.308 716.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London, 1924\) and R. Strachey, )] TJ ET BT 409.952 716.693 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Cause: A Short History of )] TJ ET BT 64.016 702.437 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(the Women's Movement in Great Britain)] TJ ET BT 258.224 702.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London, 1978\). )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 342.548 702.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 342.548 701.043 m 396.536 701.043 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 688.186 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 688.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The most important of these is N. Gullace, )] TJ ET BT 271.328 688.181 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [('The Blood of Our Sons': Men, Women, and the )] TJ ET BT 64.016 673.925 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Renegotiation of British Citizenship During the Great War)] TJ ET BT 346.364 673.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Basingstoke, 2002\). )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 452.024 673.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 452.024 672.531 m 506.012 672.531 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 659.674 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 659.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(J. Vellacott, 'Feminist consciousness and the First World War', in )] TJ ET BT 380.648 659.669 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Women and Peace: Theoretical, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 645.413 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Historical and Practical Perspectives)] TJ ET BT 245.000 645.413 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. R. R. Pierson and S. Broadribb \(London, 1987\), p. 121. )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 64.016 631.157 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 629.763 m 118.004 629.763 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 616.906 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(5.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 616.901 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Vellacott, 'Feminist consciousness and the First World War', p. 116. )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 393.644 616.901 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 393.644 615.507 m 447.632 615.507 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 602.650 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(6.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 602.645 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(S. Kent, )] TJ ET BT 106.016 602.645 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Making Peace: the Reconstruction of Gender in Interwar Britain)] TJ ET BT 417.980 602.645 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Princeton, NJ, 1993\). )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 530.300 602.645 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back )] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 530.300 601.251 m 557.960 601.251 l S BT 64.016 588.389 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to \(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 586.995 m 90.344 586.995 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 574.138 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(7.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 574.133 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(See, for instance, the correspondence page of )] TJ ET BT 284.276 574.133 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Common Cause)] TJ ET BT 381.608 574.133 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 2 October 1914, p. 460. )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 504.260 574.133 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(7\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 504.260 572.739 m 558.248 572.739 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 559.882 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(8.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 559.877 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(See, for instance, C. Pankhurst, 'War service for all', )] TJ ET BT 317.612 559.877 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Suffragette)] TJ ET BT 391.280 559.877 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 4 June 1915, p. 118. There is a )] TJ ET BT 64.016 545.621 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(minor factual error on p. 21 where Vellacott claims that )] TJ ET BT 334.292 545.621 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Suffragette)] TJ ET BT 407.960 545.621 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( reappeared in April 1915 )] TJ ET BT 64.016 531.365 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(under the new name )] TJ ET BT 163.988 531.365 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Britannia)] TJ ET BT 209.996 531.365 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. It did indeed reappear in April 1915 but adopted its new name only six )] TJ ET BT 64.016 517.109 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(months later, in October 1915. )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 213.668 517.109 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(8\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 213.668 515.715 m 267.656 515.715 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 502.858 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 502.853 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For the sophisticated version of this point, see )] TJ ET BT 287.672 502.853 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Meaning and Context: Quentin Skinner and his Critics,)] TJ ET BT 64.016 488.597 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(eds)] TJ ET BT 80.012 488.597 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(, )] TJ ET BT 86.012 488.597 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(J. Tully and Q. Skinner, \(Cambridge, 1988\). )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 301.328 488.597 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(9\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 301.328 487.203 m 355.316 487.203 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 474.346 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(10.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 474.341 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Militarism versus Feminism: Writings on Women and War / Catherine Marshall, C. K. Ogden and )] TJ ET BT 64.016 460.085 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Mary Sargant Florence.)] TJ ET BT 180.332 460.085 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( M. Kamester and J. 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