%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 18 0 R 20 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140917060520+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140917060520+01'00') /Title (Tractarians and the 'Condition of England': The Social and Political Thought of the Oxford Movement) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4213 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Tractarians and the 'Condition of England': The Social and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Political Thought of the Oxford Movement)] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The Tractarian Movement, led by John Henry Newman, John Keble and Edward Bouverie Pusey, in its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(articulation of a radical vision of High Churchmanship in the era of reform, shook and stirred the spiritual )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and ecclesiastical life of the Church of England during the l830s and l840s and its influence continued )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(during the rise of mid and late Victorian Anglo-Catholicism and ritualism. It commenced in l833 with the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(publication of )] TJ ET BT 104.012 209.171 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Tracts for the Times)] TJ ET BT 201.020 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and for all practical purposes concluded in l845 with the secession of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Newman and others from the English church into the Roman Catholic Church. Further conversions followed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Gorham Judgement of l850.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 154.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(From the standpoint of professional historical writing and critical analysis, the Tractarian Movement )] TJ ET BT 34.016 140.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(became, for over a century, the unfortunate victim of is own hagiography. During the 19th century virtually )] TJ ET BT 34.016 125.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(all discussions of the history of the movement originated in contemporary religious polemics seeking to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 111.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(influence present-day religious life. The first substantial statement of Tractarian history came from the pen )] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of William Palmer, whose )] TJ ET BT 163.004 97.379 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Narrative of Events Connected with the Publication of the Tracts for the Times, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 83.123 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(with Reflections on Existing Tendencies to Romanism, and on the Present Duties and Prospects of Members )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.867 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(of the Church)] TJ ET BT 100.016 68.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( of l843, served to distance previously supportive High Churchmen \(by then seen to have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(become dangerously Romanish\) from the movement. Two decades later, Newman himself produced the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(644)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thursday, 31 January, 2008)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(S. A. Skinner)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780199273232)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2004)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(68.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(340pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Clarendon Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oxford)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Frank Turner)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 8703 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(single most influential historical document in the form of his )] TJ ET BT 328.676 796.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Apologia Pro Vita Sua,)] TJ ET BT 440.684 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( first published in l864 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and republished throughout his lifetime and ever since. Newman's volume shaped the history of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(movement to his own ends and addressed his contemporary situation in the English Roman Catholic Church. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This work furnished the template for all later Victorian treatments of the movement, especially H. P. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Liddon's )] TJ ET BT 78.512 739.445 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Life of Edward Bouverie Pusey)] TJ ET BT 228.500 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(4 volumes, l893-7\), as well as Anne Mozley's volume of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Newman's correspondence while in the Church of England and the volume of )] TJ ET BT 409.436 725.189 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Correspondence of John )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Henry Newman with John Keble and Others)] TJ ET BT 246.668 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(l917\) published from the Birmingham Oratory. The later )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(editors of the 30-volume edition of )] TJ ET BT 204.668 696.677 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Letters and Correspondence of John Henry Newman)] TJ ET BT 478.976 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( similarly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(looked to the )] TJ ET BT 99.680 682.421 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Apologia)] TJ ET BT 143.684 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( as furnishing the interpretive template of Newman's Anglican years and more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(generally of the history of the Tractarian Movement. Virtually all of the vast literature published in the early )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(l930s for the centenary of the movement similar drew upon the )] TJ ET BT 339.632 653.909 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Apologia)] TJ ET BT 383.636 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. With the exception of a few )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(notable historians, most importantly David Newsome and Peter Nockles, the influence of Newman's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Apologia)] TJ ET BT 78.020 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( as an interpretive template continued deep into the late 20th century and served to excuse lethargic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(biographers from actually delving into the vast body of manuscripts, newspapers and journalistic materials )] TJ ET BT 34.016 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(recounting the Tractarian Movement.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Into this vacuum of serious historical analysis have stepped two young historians. The first is Colin Barr )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with his excellent )] TJ ET BT 121.676 556.373 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Paul Cullen, John Henry Newman, and the Catholic University of Ireland, 1845-1865)] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(University of Notre Dame Press\), which appeared in 2003. The second is S. A. Skinner, whose path-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(breaking book is here under review. Both scholars deserve mention because, unlike most of their forebears, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(they have done extensive and labour-intensive research in a broad range of sources. They have aided the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(slow and often much opposed introduction of critical historical study into Tractarian history and Newman )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(studies.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Skinner's )] TJ ET BT 81.176 458.837 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Tractarians and the 'Condition of England')] TJ ET BT 288.668 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is a work of exemplary research and revisionist )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(analysis. His research has carried him into a broad range of manuscript sources that have received only )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(marginal use in the past. Moreover, unlike any previous Tractarian historian, Skinner has made extensive use )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the )] TJ ET BT 64.676 416.069 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(British Critic)] TJ ET BT 128.360 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, the journal that served as the major Tractarian publication from late l838 to late l843. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(He has also delved extensively into the novels of William Gresley and Francis Edward Paget \(Tractarian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sympathisers whose books portrayed the contemporary clerical world, most particularly in the countryside\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Skinner's exploration of both sets of printed materials illustrates the manner in which remarkably rich )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historical sources stand readily available on library shelves for the taking by the imaginative and industrious )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historian. In particular, the )] TJ ET BT 164.660 344.789 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(British Critic)] TJ ET BT 228.344 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is not a rare publication. It is to be found in many major research )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(libraries and its contributors have long been identified. Historians of the Tractarian Movement have all too )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rarely taken the initiative to read it. Skinner, in this book and in an excellent previously published 1999 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(article from the )] TJ ET BT 110.996 302.021 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Journal of Ecclesiastical History)] TJ ET BT 269.324 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(which might usefully have been incorporated into his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(present book\), has carefully and fulsomely analysed the )] TJ ET BT 304.292 287.765 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(British Critic,)] TJ ET BT 370.976 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( thus producing a major new )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contribution to our understanding of the Tractarian enterprise.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(By exploring in depth the pages of the )] TJ ET BT 220.664 247.253 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(British Critic)] TJ ET BT 284.348 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and the novels of Greseley and Paget, Skinner )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(introduces Tractarian supporters who have often been ignored or studied only in relationship to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(traditional triad of leaders. The single most important person to emerge from this exploration is Thomas )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mozley, a major contributor and Newman's brother-in-law. Previously Mozley has been familiar to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historians from his frequently maligned )] TJ ET BT 227.000 190.229 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reminiscences)] TJ ET BT 297.644 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(l882\), written in his old age, and from the radical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Tractarian articles he recruited as editor of the )] TJ ET BT 258.608 175.973 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(British Critic)] TJ ET BT 322.292 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( between l841 and its demise in l843. Skinner, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(however, has discovered a younger, more engaged Tractarian journalist writing passionately on numerous )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(social issues. He redirects our attention away from the question of whether particular Tractarians will or will )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not convert to Roman Catholicism. Indeed, that traditional emphasis has misdirected much analysis of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(movement. There is good reason to believe that few Tractarians really seriously considered converting until )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a series of exogenous events transformed the religious landscape from late l844 through to l845. By avoiding )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the issue of the conversions, Skinner actually allows us to think through the ideas that the Tractarians sought )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to set forth concerning social and political questions. In other words, he recognises that there was a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Tractarian Movement with its own sets of goals and outlooks and that the conversions were only one )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 7674 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historical moment in a much larger movement, many of whose sympathisers did not convert to Rome.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Skinner's chief argument countering the general, if not unanimous, opinion of previous scholarship is that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Tractarians were genuinely concerned with the social questions confronting early Victorian England. In )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(general historians, myself included, have concentrated on Tractarian theology and ecclesiology. Skinner )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(persuasively insists that there was a real social dimension to the Tractarian body of thought and that much of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(it flowed directly from their theology and ecclesiology. He carefully notes the social settings in which the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(various Tractarian writers, almost all of whom were clergy, operated. Wherever their careers took them they )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(found themselves confronting the poverty and social insecurity that touched so much of the English )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(population. Furthermore, Skinner demonstrates that very significant portions of the )] TJ ET BT 435.980 670.421 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(British Critic)] TJ ET BT 499.664 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(novels he examines addressed social questions. Indeed, the Tractarians clearly saw the social conditions of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the day as flowing from the same forces of modernity that they believed endangered the life and standing of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Church of England.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Possibly the strongest chapter in the book examines the Tractarian view of the relationship of church and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(state, again largely through analysis of generally ignored articles in the )] TJ ET BT 377.288 587.141 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(British Critic)] TJ ET BT 440.972 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. Skinner provides a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(brilliant analysis of the contorted views of the Tractarians in regard to Erastianism. He leads the reader to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(grasp more clearly and deeply than any other historian why the Tractarians had so many doubts regarding )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the contemporary connection of the church with the state. In their radical High Churchmanship they claimed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the standing and authority of the church derived from Apostolical Succession rather than from the accident )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of Erastian establishment. The growing religious pluralism of English political and parliamentary life had )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(led them to take that stance whereby they gave the Church of England what they regarded as a unique claim )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to be the only true church in the land. They deeply believed in the priority of the church to the state and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(absolute necessity that the former influence the moral vision of the latter. Keble especially argued that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(legitimacy of the state flowed from its Christian character. That is to say, he and other Tractarian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(commentators sought to envision the state as dependent on the church. In effect, according to Skinner, these )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(writers attemped 'to scale new heights of clerical sovereignty on the question of establishment' \(p. 110\). This )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(effort resulted in nothing less than a vision of 'Tractarian Theocracy' \(p. 116\). While, according to these )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(standards, the Tractarians viewed the contemporary relationship as thoroughly unsatisfactory, they were not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ready except in a few excitable moments to break the relationship. The rhetoric of their arguments did not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(result in action. After the secessions of l845 and the early l850s following the Gorham Judgement the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(remaining Tractarians reconciled themselves to establishment under the assumption that 'National )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(establishment constituted the state's proper recognition of its dependence on the guidance of the church' \(p. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(138\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Skinner's most original discovery regarding the Tractarian vision of society is the emphasis they placed on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the parish as a social unit, an outlook that flows directly from Tractarian clericalism and their emphasis on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pastoral duty. The Tractarians may have argued for the power of Apostolical Succession, but they never )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(placed much faith in bishops. Rather they placed their faith in individual clergy working in parishes, a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(viewpoint that for a writer such as Henry Wilberforce amounted to insistence on the parish as 'the instrument )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of clerical sovereignty' \(p. 150\). This emphasis on the parish also followed from their religious exclusiveness )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and their contempt for dissenters.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(What is most surprising in this parish vision is what Skinner presents as Tractarian populism. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Tractarians deeply disliked pew rents and entertained an almost democratic vision of the sacred liturgical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(space that emphasised equality of persons in the eyes of God. Skinner goes so far as to assert that 'The case )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(against "the pew system" was in fact the most emphatic and extensive element in Tractarian ecclesiology.' )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(p. 168\) He notes that Thomas Mozley's )] TJ ET BT 229.484 135.461 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(British Critic)] TJ ET BT 293.168 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( article on the subject was one of the longest ever )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(printed in the journal. Similarly Francis Edward Paget polemicised against the pew system in several of his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(novels, as did Gresley: 'The abolition of the pew system was intended to unite' the various classes, 'in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Christian fellowship as an antithesis to the divisions of the temporal world' \(p. 183\). The emphasis on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(parish flowed from conviction and also from experience. Skinner points to the direct parish experience of all )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his various protagonists. In this respect, it is important to recall that though the Tractarians aimed for a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(vision of a Church Catholic, virtually all of them worked within the confines of very small landscapes - )] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 7797 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oxford Colleges, parishes and monastic settings. None of them ever really contemplated or experienced a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(large organisation. The narrowness of their vision in practice flowed from both conviction and circumstance.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Skinner makes the very interesting point that the pastoral code of the Tractarians self-consciously sought to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(avoid commercial means of raising money to support the parish. They looked to the collection plate rather )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(than to church bazaars or festivals, which were used by evangelicals. They also disliked the large national )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reform societies that transcended parish boundaries. They insisted upon organisations that presupposed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Church of England membership. Tractarian critics saw the introduction of the offertory collection plate as no )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(less of a popish intrusion on the service of the prayer book than the introduction of auricular confessions.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 658.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(While Skinner makes a strong and convincing case for the broad concern of Tractarian writers in the social )] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(questions of the age, he very wisely does not seek to argue for any particular originality on their part. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(actual social and political ideas of the Tractarians tended to lie in this broad spectrum of conservative, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(paternal views of society. However, for them, these ideas came from their theology not from any )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(participation in wider theoretical foundations - the medievalism of Carlyle, for example, had its roots in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(St. Simonian binary opposition of critical and organic ages. Rather for the Tractarians the ideas flowed from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a much more straightforward idealisation of the Middle Ages and their general dislike, bordering in some )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cases on hatred, toward the Reformation. Still, even in their passionate critique, for example, of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Reformation and their 'nostalgia for the ecclesiastical and especially monastic beneficence it was held to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have effaced,' they embraced 'the stable of anti-commercial sentiment' of their era \(p. 204\). Their particular )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(outlook also led them to 'the distinct conviction that social ills were, ultimately, unamenable to purely )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(legislative remedies,' an outlook 'reinforced by a wider rejection of the state's usurpation of duties and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(capacities which were supposedly hitherto the province of the church'\(p. 222\). Furthermore, they rejected )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(political economy, with Francis Edward Paget in )] TJ ET BT 271.328 473.093 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Warden of Berkingholt; or, Rich and Poor)] TJ ET BT 495.980 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(l843\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(insisting 'on the absolute irreconcilability of political economy and Christianity' \(p. 225\). In large measure )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this flowed from the association of political economy with the Whigs and the Tractarian view of Whig )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(policy being anti-church and hence anti-Christian. Like other conservative, paternalistic critics the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Tractarians deplored the New Poor Law because of its association with political economy, administrative )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(centralisation and the workhouse, all of which embodied what one )] TJ ET BT 355.628 401.813 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(British Critic)] TJ ET BT 419.312 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( writer termed 'the selfish )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(idea' \(p. 231\). The journalists among the Tractarians deplored the New Poor Law; the novelists illustrated its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(evils in their narratives. The Tractarian alternative was 'a vigorous promotion of the machinery of the parish, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and of the duties of the rich to furnish alms under the auspices of the church' \(p. 239\). In this respect they )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were major advocates of personal, private charity. They rejected the devices of secular civil society.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The Tractarians, in their clerical populism, embraced a vision of spiritual equality, a scriptural view of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(blessedness of the state of poverty and a paternalism rooted in their rejection of Whig policies. Skinner )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(specifically rejects the view that the Tractarians were interested only or even foremost in social control. He )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(urges historians 'to take seriously the transcendent Christian conviction that man's temporal span was a mere )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interlude before the eternity for which the church was to prepare him' \(p. 288\). He contends that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('insistence that the suffering poor and the covetous rich would be duly rewarded in real places called heaven )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and hell' was a 'fundamental faith' that 'underwrote every syllable that tractarians directed to the condition of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(English question' \(p. 288\). In this respect, without ever making his theoretical outlook explicit, Skinner )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(clearly believes that religion and religious outlooks are an autonomous realm of human behavior and not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(meta-phenomena to be reduced to something else.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Without disagreeing on the autonomy of religion and religious life, one might wish that Skinner had given )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more attention to the economic lives of his protagonists. Their professional and economic well-being was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(deeply intertwined in the economic structures of the English church. Pusey and Keble did not leave for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Rome and hence retained very generous sources of ecclesiastical income, an Oxford Regius Professorship )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and a well-endowed benefice. To recognise the self-interest of clergy in the strength and prosperity of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(parish system is not to doubt their sincerity, but to face a major ecclesiastical social fact. One might also )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wish that Skinner had more fully recognised not only the passion of Tractarian social criticism, but their no )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(less passionate critique and criticism of Dissenters, evangelicals in general and the Whigs. In this respect, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their criticism of the Whigs often flowed from a critique of their non-Anglican Christian supporters. These )] TJ ET endstream endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 22 0 R 24 0 R 26 0 R 28 0 R ] /Contents 21 0 R >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Length 2086 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(are minor questions posed by a book rich and rewarding in prodigious research, convincing analysis and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(revisionist insight. It is to be hoped that this book and its author will have an important and ongoing impact )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on the history of Victorian religious life.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(oxford scholarship)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.oxfordscholarship.com/view/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199273232.001.0001/acprof-)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 711.795 m 492.308 711.795 l S BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780199273232)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 697.539 m 112.016 697.539 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 115.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(oxford journals)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://ehr.oxfordjournals.org/content/CXXIII/500/235.full)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 669.027 m 312.332 669.027 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 315.332 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 665.695 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 647.915 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 647.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/644)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 646.521 m 322.316 646.521 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 621.544 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 607.144 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/3618)] TJ ET BT 34.016 592.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.oxfordscholarship.com/view/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199273232.001.0001/acprof-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 578.488 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780199273232)] TJ ET BT 34.016 564.088 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3] http://ehr.oxfordjournals.org/content/CXXIII/500/235.full)] TJ ET endstream endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 23 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 712.1095 492.3077 723.9895 ] >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.oxfordscholarship.com/view/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199273232.001.0001/acprof-9780199273232) >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 25 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 697.8535 112.0157 709.7335 ] >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.oxfordscholarship.com/view/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199273232.001.0001/acprof-9780199273232) >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 27 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 669.3415 312.3317 681.2215 ] >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://ehr.oxfordjournals.org/content/CXXIII/500/235.full) >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 29 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 646.8355 322.3157 658.7155 ] >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/644) >> endobj xref 0 30 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000349 00000 n 0000000386 00000 n 0000000609 00000 n 0000000691 00000 n 0000004956 00000 n 0000005065 00000 n 0000005175 00000 n 0000005284 00000 n 0000008845 00000 n 0000008973 00000 n 0000009057 00000 n 0000009122 00000 n 0000017878 00000 n 0000017943 00000 n 0000025670 00000 n 0000025735 00000 n 0000033585 00000 n 0000033690 00000 n 0000035829 00000 n 0000035956 00000 n 0000036108 00000 n 0000036235 00000 n 0000036387 00000 n 0000036514 00000 n 0000036623 00000 n 0000036751 00000 n trailer << /Size 30 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 36846 %%EOF