%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 18 0 R 29 0 R 31 0 R ] /Count 6 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20141128012109+00'00') /ModDate (D:20141128012109+00'00') /Title (The China Question: Great Power Rivalry and British Isolation, 1894-1905) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4068 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(The China Question: Great Power Rivalry and British Isolation, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(1894-1905)] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The central thesis of T. G. Otte's meticulously researched new study of British foreign policy is that the Sino-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Japanese War of 1894-5 produced the 'China Question' and with it, the problem of Great Britain's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('international isolation'. Otte's assertion is that British alliances with Japan in the east and the later 1904 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(entente with France were triggered by great power politics in east Asia between 1895 and 1905. Hence, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(China Question ought to be seen for what it was - the stimulus for the foreign policy elite to rethink Britain's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(place in the world. Under the impetus of a younger group of imperial-nationalists within the cabinet, elites )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concluded that Britain could no longer simply rely on its navy to protect its global interests. At the same )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(time, the decision to enter alliances was not a substantive break with the Unionist foreign policy of 'isolation' )] TJ ET BT 34.016 152.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exemplified throughout Lord Salisbury's years as foreign secretary and premier, but rather an extension of it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(through limited regional agreements.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 111.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The primary interpretative target of this nuanced approach to shifts in British foreign policy is the widely )] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(accepted view that British abandonment of 'splendid isolation' was essentially brought about by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 83.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(developments on the European continent. Methodologically, Otte questions the teleology that begins in 1914 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and works its way backwards to establish the progression of causes that led to World War I. The diplomatic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history that results from an excessive focus on Europe seldom notices that Britain was a global empire, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(646)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Friday, 29 February, 2008)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thomas Otte)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780199211098)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2007)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(68.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(352pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oxford University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oxford)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(James Hevia)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7133 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that decision-making in London had to take the empire, particularly British colonies in Asia and the British )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(establishment in China, into account. The China Question was thus the difference that made the difference.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(What is intriguing about this argument is not only the force with which Otte makes it, but his unapologetic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(empiricism that maintains an intense focus on the foreign relations archive and the private papers of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(British foreign policy elite. Just how successful Otte is in bringing the realities of global empire back into )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the discussion of British history, while simultaneously sustaining \(to coin a phrase from China studies\) a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('change within tradition' argument concerning British foreign policy-making through 1905, will be taken up )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in greater detail below. First, however, it might be helpful to situate the subject of this study as Otte presents )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(it.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The global situation that brought about change in British foreign policy involved two main elements: )] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(changes in military and communications technologies that produced an arms race among European powers )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(a background element for Otte\), and key shifts in political relations of power in Asia. Across Asia, power )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relations altered dramatically in the first part of the 19th century with the decline of well-established land-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(based empires - the Ottoman in the west, the Qing in the east - coupled with the rise of aggressive and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(expansive powers on the borders of these empires. Russia and Great Britain were at the forefront of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(European expansion into 'vacuums' on the edges of the older empires. By the end of the 1890s others were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(eyeing the potential gain to be had from carving up these 'decaying' and 'dying' nations, these 'sick men' of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Asia. From the perspective of London, competition over the spoils of Ottoman-Qing disintegration could )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(only upset the carefully honed 'balance of power' in Europe, the maintenance of which had been the central )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(feature of British diplomacy since the Congress of Vienna. While Ottoman weakness led to bipolar )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(competition between Britain and Russia in central Asia \(the so-called 'Great Game'\), Qing decline embroiled )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(all of the major European powers and posed the possibility that China might be carved up like Africa.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(At the same time, however, none of the powers \(Britain was no exception\) got far beyond imagining such a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(division. It was more common to think in terms of indirect relations - spheres of influence, as some would )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have it, or preponderance, as Lord Salisbury preferred - and a carefully balanced tit-for-tat between )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interested parties. Co-operative exploitation, through concessions and economic privileges rather than )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(political annexation, was at least tacitly accepted as the order of the day. As moribund as the Qing might )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have seemed, Britain's foreign policy elite still saw it as a buffer - some, like Lord Rosebury, even a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('bulwark' \(p. 36\) - against Russian expansion in central and east Asia, and many argued that British and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chinese interests were the same in various parts of Asia.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The China Question)] TJ ET BT 130.688 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( opens with Japan's defeat of China in 1894-5, when British perceptions had )] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dramatically shifted, and 'an infinitely larger Eastern question' loomed into view. Otte sees this as the result )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of a 'non-systemic power' \(p. 5\) forcing itself into the calculations of European ministries. In London, Lord )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Rosebury's government decided to remain neutral in the fray, opening up the possibility of alignment with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Japan at some future date. Such a possibility became more plausible because of British convictions that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Russia had territorial ambitions in North China and on the Korean peninsula.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(While the loss to Japan exposed China's military weakness, it was only part of the issue. The Qing dynasty, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 208.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(already in debt to foreign powers because of past wars lost, appeared to be a fiscal basket case. In order to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(make ends meet, the Qing went down the slippery slope taken by other non-European powers such as Persia, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Ottoman empire and Egypt, and borrowed from European firms. Concerned about British prestige in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Asia, the government made sure London lenders had a piece of this action.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 139.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The resulting competition for the opportunity to place the Qing regime in greater foreign indebtedness was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 125.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(followed in 1898-9 by a 'scramble' for new concessions, including railroad and territorial leases. Britain )] TJ ET BT 34.016 111.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(acquired the New Territories at Hong Kong and a naval outpost at Weihai on the tip of the Shandong )] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(peninsula. Otte doesn't think much of the Weihai acquisition, but he does grant that it was important for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 82.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(British prestige. At any rate, the real issue seems to have been the general sense that British policy was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(drifting, and that indecisiveness at the top accounted for Britain's global commercial decline \(p. 119\). Joseph )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chamberlain, described here as a 'political hyena', pushed for an agreement with Germany over their )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 7379 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interests in China. While nothing of substance materialised on that front, Britain was able to come to an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(understanding with Russia that broadly defined their respective railroad interests in northern and southern )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(China. The key point emphasised by Otte, however, was that Chamberlain, with the connivance of Arthur )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Balfour, had secretly opened back-channel negotiations with the Germans, indicating a critical movement )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(away from a consensus foreign policy and the emergence of a growing body of anti-isolationist sentiment.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Matters might have continued like this indefinitely, with tension existing between advocates of greater and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lesser diplomatic activity over east Asia issues, had peasants in North China not provided their own answer )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to the China Question. The Boxer Uprising indicated that a tipping point had been reached in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(deterritorialising processes affecting much of eastern China. Once it was clear that the European powers )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(would intervene militarily to protect their establishment in China, the British cabinet attempted to secure )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(agreements that would protect Britain's own interests. One result was an understanding with Germany. As it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(turned out, the Anglo-German accord looked much like the Open Door structure usually attributed to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(American Secretary of State John Hay \(absent from discussion here\) whereby all would have free )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(commercial access to China and no one would attempt to seize Chinese territory. Meanwhile, in August )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1900, joint military forces from British India, the United States, Russia and Japan took Beijing, relieved the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(besieged legations, and set about stamping out the Boxer movement. Settlement talks began in late 1900 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(against the backdrop of the Russian occupation of Manchuria. Confrontation appeared inevitable until the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Russians backed down and withdrew their forces.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(There followed several months of negotiation in Beijing, while in London visions of an arrangement with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(one or another of the powers, or a rapprochement with the triple alliance of Germany, Russia and France, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(danced in ministerial heads. Salisbury cautioned colleagues against making 'novel and most onerous )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(obligations', in order to meet a threat that really did not exist. Meanwhile, the financial strain of the Boer )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(War and the China incursion placed certain constraints on making large-scale peace-time commitments. This )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(led some to conclude that an agreement with Japan would at least shore up the eastern flank of the empire )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and discourage Russian adventurism in that region. Others, Balfour in particular, balked at this suggestion. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(He was afraid that an alliance with Japan would direct Russian energies back toward central Asia and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(favoured, instead, an agreement over vital interests with Germany, France and Russia.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Eventually an entente with Japan was reached, reflecting the competing and conflicting views of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Unionist cabinet. With Salisbury fretting that Britain might be drawn into a war in the east because of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Japanese injudiciousness, the agreement of 1902 committed the parties to remain neutral if either went to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(war with a third party, and only to declare war if either was involved in a conflict with two or more other )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(powers. The treaty acknowledged Japan's special interests in Korea, but did not commit Britain to defend )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(them. Nor did Japan agree to protect Britain's Indian empire. And while there was much trepidation in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cabinet over scenarios that would involve Britain in an unwanted war, when Russo-Japanese hostilities )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(broke out two years later the alliance restrained France and Germany. It also hastened an Anglo-French )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(entente that settled a number of colonial disputes.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Contrary to several decades of interpretation by diplomatic historians on both sides of the Atlantic, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(accords, Otte insists from his careful reading of the archive, were not a break with the policy of isolation. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Rather, as understood by British statesmen, these agreements were 'defined as selective engagement in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(international politics on the basis of limited agreements that provided for geographically clearly defined )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cooperation, whilst maintaining the maximum amount of freedom of manoeuvre possible' \(p. 337\). Splendid )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(isolation, in other words, did not come to an end in 1905; it was merely reworked in the hands of the new )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(foreign secretary, Lord Lansdowne. At the same time, there is irony in all of this. Lansdowne's agreements )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with Japan and France had contributed to the transformation of the international environment. While )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(isolation was re-affirmed in 1905, 'its apparent success helped to destroy its continued justification' \(p. 337\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(With this evocation of the ironies of history, the )] TJ ET BT 267.332 94.949 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(China Question )] TJ ET BT 346.004 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(abruptly ends. The Unionist cabinet had )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(moved a jot, but not enough to justify labelling the agreements with Japan and France as signifying a break )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with over 100 years of traditional foreign relations. We arrive at this conclusion after 300 pages of minutely )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(detailed and tightly argued text that operates at the level of the daily correspondence between the key actors )] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 21 0 R 24 0 R 27 0 R ] /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 8016 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in foreign-policy establishment. Throughout the book, other scholars are taken to task for failing to see the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('degree of internal coherence in foreign office thinking' \(p. 287\), as well as the consistency of purpose )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(demonstrated by a succession of Unionist premiers and foreign secretaries, in spite of internal cabinet )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(struggles and the challenge the younger generation posed to Lord Salisbury's version of British diplomacy as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('a moderating force' \(p. 17\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Within the context of imperial and colonial studies and the study of 19th-century Chinese history, Otte's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(work is an anachronism. There is, to begin with, an unreflexive use of the imperial archive throughout this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(work and a faith that attempts at historical reconstruction need look no further than the records left by great )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(men.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 57.680 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 57.680 669.027 m 71.672 669.027 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 71.672 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( While some commentators, notably Bickers and Tiedemann \(the editors of a volume on the Boxer )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Uprising to which Otte and I made contributions\), grant that it is important to consider the activities of those )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from the top of the hierarchy \(presumably a reference to a more social history-oriented approach\) there are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(questions to be addressed on how one goes about 'bringing the state back in'.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 401.624 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 401.624 626.259 m 415.616 626.259 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 415.616 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( In this case, the state returns )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the form of a diplomatic history apparently little touched by much outside of itself.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(That historical change is multi-causal is perhaps a truism, but the more important issue, I would suggest, has )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to do with the way in which complex polities are formed and reformed over time, and the effects such re-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(formations have on institutional structures and the ability of historical actors to act. At the point that Otte )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(begins his story, Britain had already gone through a half-century of serious administrative reform, and while )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(it might be the case that the Foreign Office remained unreformed, this was not the case for the War Office, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the army, the India Establishment or the consular service in Asia. Moreover, as Otte acknowledges, there is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(little doubt that the imperial state of the late 19th century was not the same state of the middle of the century. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Yet, precisely what had changed receives little attention here; Britain's elite react primarily to what is going )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on in European diplomatic circles, not to change within the state, the empire or British society.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Space prevents a lengthy treatment of this issue but it is perhaps worth enumerating a few of the more salient )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(areas of change. First, there was what William McNeil identified as the emergence of military-industrial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(complexes across Europe that linked armies and navies, parliaments and government agencies to a technical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(elite in a wholly new set of relationships, which by the 1880s involved the continual preparation and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(planning for war.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 116.996 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 116.996 388.419 m 130.988 388.419 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 130.988 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Planning, in turn, involved the imagining of probable scenarios. Given the nature of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(British empire, such 'futurism' meant preparing not only for war on the continent of Europe but along all the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(supply lines and transport routes that linked Britain to its empire. I will have more to say about this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(speculative planning shortly, but it seems inconceivable that the effects of such thinking did not influence )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the decision-making of the cabinet.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The second major change in the second half of the 19th century involved the transformation in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(production of knowledge and information stimulated by new communication technologies and reproduction )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(media. The information glut resulting from such tools as the telegraph created a crisis in virtually all of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(states of Europe; especially in Britain where the gentlemanly ideal, as opposed to the newer notion of a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(managerial technical elite, had hardly disappeared in spite of reforms. The state apparatuses, whether the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unreformed Foreign Office or the continuously restructured War Office, all felt the pressure of having to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(process vast new quantities of data and to be on top of such information, to know what it meant and what the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(implications for policy were. Change on this order, I would suggest, requires attention not only to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(personalities and ambitions of the elite, but to the relationship between parts of the apparatus and of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(formal and informal networks that had a role in the process. It is perhaps worth adding that the Committee )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for Imperial Defence, created by Arthur Balfour in 1904 \(and which gets only passing mention here\), was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(one among many developments which demonstrated the extent to which information management \(and this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(includes not only the flow, cataloguing and archiving of data, but increasingly its security\) required a level )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of technical expertise hitherto absent at the elite level of policy-making.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Questions might also be raised concerning elite motives throughout the period. Why were Britain's leaders )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(so concerned about a partition of China? Was it simply a matter of commercial interests in the Yangzi )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(valley, or were other factors involved as well? Were British activities in central Asia simply tactical moves )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and those in the Far East strategic, as Otte claims? In either case, )] TJ ET BT 348.284 52.181 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The China Question)] TJ ET BT 444.956 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( would have benefited )] TJ ET endstream endobj 20 0 obj [18 0 R /Fit] endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 22 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 57.6797 669.3415 71.6717 681.2215 ] >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 23 0 obj [18 0 R /Fit] endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 25 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 401.6237 626.5735 415.6157 638.4535 ] >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 26 0 obj [18 0 R /Fit] endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 28 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 116.9957 388.7335 130.9877 400.6135 ] >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 30 0 R >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Length 7457 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from a broader consideration of British policies in China following the settlement of 1860, and of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relationship between India and China that had already produced the first and second China wars. To be fair, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Otte recognises the importance of India in British thinking \(we are told that India is the 'keystone' of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(British empire\) but the British establishment in India is literally bracketed out of the picture.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The effect is an odd one. The government of India and its proxy in London, the India Office, which had clear )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(stakes in Chinese matters, are left about as much agency as the colonised populations of Africa and Asia. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Yet the India-China opium regime was still operating, India paid part of the cost of the consular service in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(China, and Indian army military intelligence continued to update information on Qing defences in North )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(China in case another seizure of Beijing became necessary. The result is that the strategic importance of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(North China for military and political planners in India is ignored. It ought to be considered in any effort to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(examine British stakes in China. The campaigns in 1858 and 1860 had demonstrated that a direct threat to, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(or occupation of, Beijing made the Qing extremely pliable; certainly this fact could not have been lost on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(other powers with interests in China. More importantly, British strategic thinkers were sure the lesson was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not lost on the Russians. There was, in other words, a more than imaginary strategic link drawn after 1860 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(between the north-west frontier of India and North China. And, I would add, such linkage also helps to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(explain the lease of Weihai as something more than a symbolic gesture. Having a base from which to protect )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the sea lanes into the Bo Hai Gulf insured the rapid deployment of India army forces to the North China )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Plain and sent a message to Russia about Britain's strategic commitment to the north.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A further point worth considering is the shift in British thinking about China itself. In the decades between )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1860 and 1890, British policy appeared to have two primary goals. The first was to make China, through a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(process of tutelage, the effective bulwark against Russian expansion imagined by Rosebury. The Qing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(leadership would be instructed by the British on how to identify and protect its interests in a world wholly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(transformed by European expansion into Asia. This pedagogical project was, however, not a disinterested )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(curriculum; rather it was concerned with convincing the Qing leadership of the common interests of the two )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(empires. The second objective was to maintain a concert of Western powers in China, all of whom would )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(keep time to the British concert master. Britain's leaders hoped that other powers would recognise that it was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(British leadership and willingness to use force that had opened China, and that Britain had been willing to do )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this for the benefit of all. Such co-operation and beneficence was reflected not only in the treaties with the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Qing that the British pioneered, but in the international make-up of the Qing Imperial Maritime Customs )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(IMC\). Led by an Englishman, Sir Robert Hart, positions in IMC had been open to nationals from all of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contracting parties in China.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The ecumenical approach to exploiting China began to change, however, in the middle of the 1880s when )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(France broke with the consensus and took unilateral action. Within a few years the various powers were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(competing for unilateral economic concessions in China. At the very least, this shift pointed to the general )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(failure of British policy in China, and accounts for efforts on the part of elements of the British )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(establishment to seek allies, such as the United States, for an open commercial door and support for the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(territorial integrity of China. It is here that British bilateral relations, especially those with Japan, take on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(significance. And while Otte may be right about a continuity in thinking regarding continental Europe )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(although his position seems hair-splitting\), the agreement with Japan signals a new approach to dealing with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(multi-centered competition for advantage in east Asia, and by implication, British interests throughout Asia. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(What is intriguing, therefore, is not the movement in the cabinet to a new position, but the length of time it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(took to arrive there.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(At the same time, however, Otte's intense focus on foreign policy does have one advantage: it exposes in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(stark clarity levels of elite anxiety probably best represented in the tendency to spin out, especially in private )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(correspondence, a series of scenarios organised around the calculation of forces and counter forces, actions )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and reactions of other continental powers to British actions. Two issues come to mind. First, how common )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was this kind of calculus in the second half of the 19th century among the elite? We know it is there in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(popular fiction of invasion fantasies and in the fears surrounding the empire which returned to haunt the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(imperial centre, but we know far less about how such anxieties affected the rulers of empire. One way of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interpreting Otte's sources is to conclude that the anxieties and fantasies were clearly there. Whether )] TJ ET endstream endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 33 0 R 35 0 R 37 0 R 39 0 R ] /Contents 32 0 R >> endobj 32 0 obj << /Length 5677 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(generated from an external threat, from a secret knowledge of the weaknesses of Britain, or from overactive )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(imaginations, the calculations seem to have taken on a life of their own. They are a kind of excess in a world )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(primarily concerned with secrecy and containment.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It is also worth considering the extent to which the intensity and pervasiveness of this sort of speculation was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(itself a function of a world created through diplomatic practice. To put this another way, might not Otte's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(argument, which I have characterised as 'change within tradition', be an effect of the sources he has selected. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In this case, the preponderance of formal elements within the historical record serves not only to occlude the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(presence of a host of other actors alluded to above in the decision-making process, but also to discipline or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contain changes evident at many levels of a rapidly altering imperial order. One does not have to entertain a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(deconstructivist reading of the imperial archive to note that the language of diplomacy sat uneasily beside )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the emerging techno-military world of the late 19th century, or that the very event that might serve as a sign )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the growing disjunction between the world of diplomacy and that of the techno-elite - the 1899 Hague )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Conventions concerning land warfare - is apparently absent from the sources as Otte presents them.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(My own sense is that Otte is correct about the China Question and right to draw attention to it as a key for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(understanding change in British foreign policy. There seems little doubt that Britain's role as a 'linchpin' for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(European multilateralism in China came to an end with, if not before, the Sino-Japanese War. But by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(keeping his focus squarely on European diplomacy and Britain's 'splendid isolation', the study misses an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(opportunity to reach an audience beyond those exclusively concerned with British diplomatic history. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Perhaps Otte is satisfied to speak to that audience, but it seems a bit questionable to do so while wishing to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(remind others that Britain was a global empire by 1894. Surely the very notion of isolation makes more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sense as an ideological position than as something having to do with the realities of power in an age of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(intense and unprecedented globalisation.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 438.195 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 407.578 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 407.573 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(On imperial archives, see, for example, J. L. Hevia, 'The archive state and the fear of pollution: from )] TJ ET BT 64.016 393.317 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the opium wars to Fu-Manchu', )] TJ ET BT 217.496 393.317 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Cultural Studies,)] TJ ET BT 298.844 393.317 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( 12 \(1998\), 234-64 and A. Stoler, 'Colonial archives )] TJ ET BT 64.016 379.061 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the arts of governance: on the content of the form,' in )] TJ ET BT 342.452 379.061 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Refiguring the Archive, )] TJ ET BT 457.772 379.061 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ed. C. Hamilton )] TJ ET BT 537.440 379.061 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(et al)] TJ ET BT 64.016 364.805 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. \(Cape Town: David Philip, 2002\), pp. 83-100. )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 295.004 364.805 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 295.004 363.411 m 348.992 363.411 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 350.554 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 350.549 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Boxers, China and the World)] TJ ET BT 225.344 350.549 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. R. Bickers and R.G. Tiedemann \(New York: Rowen and )] TJ ET BT 64.016 336.293 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Littlefield, 2007\). )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 152.012 336.293 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 152.012 334.899 m 206.000 334.899 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 322.042 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 322.037 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(W. McNeill, )] TJ ET BT 127.340 322.037 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Pursuit of Power)] TJ ET BT 230.348 322.037 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1982\). )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 458.660 322.037 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 458.660 320.643 m 512.648 320.643 l S 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 305.311 526.499 1.500 re S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 287.531 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 287.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/646)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 286.137 m 322.316 286.137 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 261.160 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 246.760 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/3620)] TJ ET endstream endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 34 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 295.0037 363.7255 348.9917 375.6055 ] >> endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 20 0 R >> endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 36 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 152.0117 335.2135 205.9997 347.0935 ] >> endobj 36 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 23 0 R >> endobj 37 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 38 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 458.6597 320.9575 512.6477 332.8375 ] >> endobj 38 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 26 0 R >> endobj 39 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 40 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 286.4515 322.3157 298.3315 ] >> endobj 40 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/646) >> endobj xref 0 41 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000356 00000 n 0000000393 00000 n 0000000589 00000 n 0000000671 00000 n 0000004791 00000 n 0000004900 00000 n 0000005010 00000 n 0000005119 00000 n 0000008680 00000 n 0000008808 00000 n 0000008892 00000 n 0000008957 00000 n 0000016143 00000 n 0000016208 00000 n 0000023640 00000 n 0000023738 00000 n 0000031807 00000 n 0000031837 00000 n 0000031963 00000 n 0000031999 00000 n 0000032029 00000 n 0000032157 00000 n 0000032193 00000 n 0000032223 00000 n 0000032351 00000 n 0000032387 00000 n 0000032452 00000 n 0000039962 00000 n 0000040067 00000 n 0000045797 00000 n 0000045925 00000 n 0000045980 00000 n 0000046108 00000 n 0000046163 00000 n 0000046291 00000 n 0000046346 00000 n 0000046474 00000 n trailer << /Size 41 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 46569 %%EOF