%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 18 0 R 20 0 R 22 0 R ] /Count 6 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140818085233+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140818085233+01'00') /Title (Juan de Mariana and Early Modern Spanish Political Thought) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4329 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Juan de Mariana and Early Modern Spanish Political Thought)] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This is a comparatively short monograph on a very large subject, but it is a book of prime importance: a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(brilliant and incisive study of one of the most celebrated, indeed infamous, political philosophers of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Spanish Golden Age. In Spain, Juan de Mariana \(1536-1624\) was recognised as the exponent of a radically )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(new theocratic structure for the Spanish monarchy, while abroad he became known, not altogether fairly, as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a leading proponent of the doctrine of tyrannicide.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Dr Braun concentrates his attention on Mariana's tract, )] TJ ET BT 299.120 204.299 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(De rege et regis institutione, )] TJ ET BT 439.112 204.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which he circulated )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(privately in the 1590s as a 'mirror for princes' for the men who were charged with educating Prince Philip, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the heir to the thrones of Philip II. By the middle of the 1590s, the leading ministers and courtiers of Philip II )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were becoming profoundly anxious about the influence being exerted over the prince by Francisco Gmez )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(de Sandoval y Rojas, fifth Marquis of Denia. It was at the behest of Garca de Loaysa, the leading )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(churchman among Philip II's inner circle, that Mariana wrote )] TJ ET BT 330.116 133.019 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(De rege )] TJ ET BT 371.432 133.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(so as to provide a theoretical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(framework arguing against the adoption of a favourite or valido by the young king. Philip II died in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(September 1598 and Philip III duly took Denia as his valido. Within months, the new king had dismissed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(most of the leading servants of his father \(including Garca de Loaysa\), and effectively abandoned many of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 75.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the prerogatives of kingship to Denia. In 1599 in despair at and in defiance of the turn of events \(and his own )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(failure to influence them\), Mariana published a Latin version of his tract. It quickly became evident that in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(647)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Friday, 29 February, 2008)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Harald Braun)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780754639626)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2007)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(55.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(214pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ashgate)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Patrick Williams)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 8121 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the earlier unpublished piece he had launched a devastating attack upon the historical reputation of Philip II, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and had allowed himself to muse openly about the competence of the new king. Furthermore, he had aired )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his own anxieties that Philip III's inadequacies would lead to the loss of Spain to a new dynasty.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Dr Braun's study of Mariana and of )] TJ ET BT 207.140 741.701 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(De rege )] TJ ET BT 248.456 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is highly compressed in its analysis and uncompromising in its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(scholastic rigour. Political theorists will be more at home with his methodology \(and language\) than political )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historians; but his book will be required reading for everyone interested in political theory and courtly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(politics in Spain, for it adds substantially to our understanding of the intellectual background, to the ebb and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(flow of courtly politics. This is especially true because, by a remarkable historical quirk, Mariana was re-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(adopted as a political seer by courtly insiders at the beginning of the reign of Philip IV in 1621. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Understanding )] TJ ET BT 107.672 656.165 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(De rege)] TJ ET BT 145.988 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, therefore, provides a sharp focus for the tortured politics at the outset of the reigns )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of both Philip III and Philip IV. Juan de Mariana was a man who was equally dangerous to friends and foes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(alike, and Dr Braun is a sensitive and accomplished guide to an extraordinary and complex writer.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Philip II was the leading European statesman of his time. Deeply versed in the arts of kingly propaganda, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Philip assiduously cultivated his reputation as a 'prudent' king who deliberated long and hard before taking )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(decisions. Indeed, he consciously rejoiced in the sobriquet of 'the Prudent King'. His death was recognised )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(across Europe by many as signifying the passing of a political giant, while in Spain, it stimulated a flood of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(literature that was sometimes quasi-idolatrous in its eulogies of his achievements. More important still than )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the encomiums to the late king, were the writings that offered counsel and advice to his young successor. An )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(important service that Dr Braun performs is to insist that this flood of political discourse at the turn of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(16th and 17th centuries constituted the true beginnings of what became known as 'arbitrismo)] TJ ET BT 479.120 501.605 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(')] TJ ET BT 481.688 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, the proffering )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of advice to the king as to how he could remedy the politico-psychological crisis in Spain. Previously )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historians have tended to locate the origins of this powerful movement in the years after Lerma's departure )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from court in 1618.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Dr Braun redirects attention to the crucial years around the death of 'the Prudent King' and the beginning of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the 'valimiento)] TJ ET BT 105.176 418.325 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(')] TJ ET BT 107.744 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, or 'favourite-ship', and provides a very important gloss on the debates among historians )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(about the 'decline' of Spain. Here, he is in the most exalted company; for example, Miguel de Cervantes, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(greatest of Spanish writers, coined the term 'arbitrios)] TJ ET BT 287.468 389.813 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(' )] TJ ET BT 293.036 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to describe the devices proposed to the king so that he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(could remedy affairs. Cervantes understood well enough that the vocabulary of political discourse changed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dramatically at the turn of the 16th and 17th centuries. In )] TJ ET BT 310.640 361.301 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Don Quixote )] TJ ET BT 375.296 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1605 and 1615\), Cervantes satirised )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the inadequacies and failures of kings and governors, but not even he went as far as Mariana in savaging the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reputation of Philip II and Philip III. Moreover, none of the writers, the 'arbitristas)] TJ ET BT 428.120 332.789 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(')] TJ ET BT 430.688 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( who proposed arbitrios to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Philip III, were as remotely critical of the power and conduct of the late king \(or as dismissive of the stature )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the new king\) as Mariana.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mariana was the illegitimate son of a priest and it is interesting, although ultimately fruitless, to speculate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(whether his nerveless audacity had its roots in his standing as an outsider in society. He had entered the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fledgling Society of Jesus in 1554 under the patronage of Francisco de Borja \(who, curiously, was maternal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(grandfather of the marquis of Denia\). Following the completion of his first degree at Alcal, he became one )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the last Spanish scholars of the mid-Habsburg period to study abroad, spending 13 years in Italy and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(France. After his graduation from the Roman College of the Society of Jesus \(1561-5\), he became rector of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the University of Loreto and professor of theology at Messina University \(1567-9\). In the years 1569-74, he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(taught in the faculty of theology at the Sorbonne and played an important role in its revitalisation \(a most )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unusual achievement for a servant of Philip II\). If Mariana had ever held any optimism about the future, his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(years in Italy and France destroyed it; by the time that he returned home in 1574, he was convinced that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Catholicism was under such a serious threat across the face of Europe that it might not survive, even in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Spain itself.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It was not altogether surprising that, initially, he found a natural home in inquisitorial politics, serving as a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(censor in the production of the )] TJ ET BT 183.992 80.693 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Index Librorum Prohibitorum )] TJ ET BT 330.992 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of 1583. He also established his reputation as a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(writer, producing in 1592 the )] TJ ET BT 177.332 66.437 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Historia General de Espaa)] TJ ET BT 312.992 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, which marked him out as a leading figure in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(distinguished school of Castilian historians and won him a reputation as the Spanish Thucydides. It may )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 6292 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have been his fame as a historian that enabled him to cultivate powerful patrons; he earned the trust of, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(among others, Cardinal Gaspar de Quiroga, inquisitor-general and archbishop of Toledo, and Garca de )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Loaysa, archbishop-elect of Toledo and tutor to Prince Philip. It was almost certainly Garca de Loaysa who )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(encouraged Mariana to produce )] TJ ET BT 189.296 753.701 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(De rege.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mariana applied the broadest of brushes to this task. As a preparatory step, he questioned the very nature of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(monarchy. He broke with many of his distinguished Spanish forbears by arguing that there had been a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Golden Age immediately after the Fall during which rulers had displayed exemplary virtue. Unfortunately, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Golden Age had been progressively destroyed as powerful men intimidated their neighbours and created )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(putative monarchies. As Philip II lay dying in the 1590s \(a crucial juncture in the development of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Spanish monarchy\), astoundingly, Mariana argued that monarchy was nothing more than a necessary evil, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which had to be tolerated as the least destructive form of government. Moreover, he accepted only with the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(greatest reluctance the transference of power through the principle of primogeniture, once again, because it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was the lesser evil. There is no record of how Garca de Loaysa and his colleagues responded to the offering )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that the fractious Jesuit placed before them.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Philip II had ruled Spain for 42 years - leading the fight against heresy abroad, and defending the principles )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the Spanish monarchy at home - and it was a truism of Spanish courtly politics in the later 1590s that he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(had been a great, perhaps the greatest Spanish king. However, even Philip II's eulogists found it difficult to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(deny that his reputation had been damaged by the series of failures of his last decade: his decision to send )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('the Spanish Armada' against England in 1588 \(and two subsequent fleets, each of which failed abysmally, in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1596 and 1597\); his commitment to intervention in the French civil wars at a time when he was fighting a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(major war in the Low Countries; and his imposition of new levels of taxation in Castile to fight off the threat )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of invasion after the failure of 1588 \(the millones of 8,000,000 ducats agreed with the cortes of Castile for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the years 1590-6\). The failures of the years 1588-98 were reinforced when in 1596-1602, Castile was visited )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by the worst natural disaster in its history: a ferocious strain of bubonic plague, which carried off 600,000 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(people \(one-twelfth of the population of the kingdom\). The great plague was truly an apocalyptic event and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(it, more than the death of Philip II, marked the point at which Castilian resources began to decline and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ebullient self-confidence that had characterised its civilisation in the 16th century began to buckle. It was at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this extraordinary conjuncture that Mariana elected to publish )] TJ ET BT 333.296 387.557 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(De rege.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mariana did not even pretend that Philip II had ever been a great king; rather, he methodically savaged the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(twin poles upon which his reputation rested: 'the Prudent King' and 'the Catholic King'. Instead, Mariana )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(described him as a worthy successor to Nimrod, Alexander and Pope Julius II. He scathingly identified )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(errors of judgement which had profound and important long-term consequences; for example, he blamed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Philip for provoking the revolt in the Low Countries by executing the counts of Egmont and Hornes in 1568, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(arguing that a more conciliatory policy would have prevented the revolt. Mariana took even greater )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exception to Philip II's csaro-papism, denigrating the manner in which he had controlled appointments to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the episcopacy and had taxed the Church. But Philip II was not alone in his errors and Mariana believed that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(all Spanish monarchs for over a century had abused their power over the Church. This had been as true of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ferdinand and Isabella as it had been of the Habsburgs, and Philip II was only the most recent, albeit the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(worst, of the rulers of Castile and of Spain in this regard. Monarchy might have been a necessary evil, but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mariana left his readers in little doubt of its potential for wrong-doing, especially in its manipulation of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Church and its resources. Within the context of Spanish monarchical politics, this was iconoclasm on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(very grandest of scales.)] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 7660 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(While dismissive of Philip II, Mariana barely troubled to hide his contempt for Philip III. He noted that, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('often enough sons are unlike their parents in intellect, nature and morals' \(p. 33\) but, despairingly, insisted )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that even if a son was noticeably less able than his father, his rule would still be supported out of respect for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the dynasty. The most that could be said of the dynastic principle was, in his view, that it produced less-bad )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rulers than elective monarchy. He found it impossible to disguise his fears that Philip III would fail so )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(signally in his duties of kingship, and that through his inability to procreate he would hazard the endurance )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the dynasty itself. Mariana could not even find solace in Philip III's religiosity, urging the young man not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to lose his way in his own piety and spirituality.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 658.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(What, therefore, could Philip III and his advisers do to redeem the situation \(or to lessen the harm already )] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(done\)? In Mariana's view, Philip III could only govern well if he handed over control of his government to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(senior churchmen. Preparatory to doing this, the king would have to absorb 'the counsel of history', for while )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tutors and councillors often dared not speak their mind honestly and honourably, history unfailingly did so. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Philip had to recognise at the outset of his reign that 'the prince should always wish to rule over willing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(subjects' and that the respublica was 'held together by reward and punishment, fear and hope' \(pp. 66-7\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mariana insisted that Philip's tutors should impress upon him that a prince had to moderate his actions )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(precisely because he feared the people over whom he ruled. In particular, Philip III had to ensure that he did )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not over-tax his subjects lest they rise against him in their resentment and fury. Mariana dared even to draw )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attention to the slaying of two Catholic monarchs, Mary Queen of Scots \(1587\) and Henry III of France )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1588\), as having been justified because both monarchs had sought to preserve their kingdoms by political )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(stratagams rather than by the laws of God. Dr Braun argues that Mariana was attempting to intimidate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(princes in general \(and Philip III in particular\), to moderate their behaviour out of fear that their lives might )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(be at risk. Certainly, )] TJ ET BT 134.672 473.093 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(De rege )] TJ ET BT 175.988 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was replete with warnings that Philip III should not change the fundamental )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(laws and traditions of Castile, especially those which governed religion, taxation and succession. Mariana's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(strictures rebounded upon him and upon the reputation of the Spanish monarchy when, in 1610, Henry IV of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(France was murdered by a Catholic fanatic. Philip III had to disclaim responsibility, but the accusation that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mariana had urged \(and justified\) regicide stuck to him, to Spain and to the Society of Jesus.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Above all \(it was his central argument\), Mariana insisted that prudence obliged a prince to rule personally )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and not through a favourite. The heir should understand that he was obliged to take advice widely from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(within his court and government, emphasising that it was 'the mark of a great prince ... to have great )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(courtiers' \(p. 118\). Giving sole authority to an individual would deprive the many good servants of the crown )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of all hope of reward and might even, as a consequence, lead to the threat of civil war. These were precisely )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the truisms that Philip II and his inner circle of advisers were urging upon Prince Philip, so that he should )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(retain those advisers and not allow Denia to assume power as valido. Mariana insisted that the possible rise )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the valido had to be pre-empted by appointing as royal tutor a man 'conspicuous for his prudence' and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('outstanding in this reputation for erudition and virtue' \(pp. 118-19\). He did not feel it necessary to identify )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Garca de Loaysa as the appropriate choice. This was, of course, special pleading on the grand scale.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It was all the more imperative that the king should take advice from clergymen because Mariana could not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(see any salvation for Spain coming from any of the other secular arms of the body politic. He believed that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(neither the Castilian nobility nor the cortes of Castile were capable of restricting the overweening power of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Monarchy. The people of Castile were, in his view, incapable of defending themselves against a tyranny )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in which public affairs were run by 'the capricious will of the king and the desires of the few' \(p. 56\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 151.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(With an inept king, an overpowering valido)] TJ ET BT 243.656 151.973 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(, )] TJ ET BT 249.656 151.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a corrupted aristocracy and a feeble cortes, the Church alone )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(could be trusted to guide Spain through the hazards of the time. Mariana encouraged Philip III to grant )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(extraordinary privileges and authority to his bishops so that they could take hold of secular and courtly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(government, and even key areas of military power. He urged that they should be readmitted to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(membership of the cortes of Castile \(which had lapsed in 1538\). Furthermore, Philip III should recruit the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(members of his governing councils and juntas exclusively from the episcopacy. These proposals could not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(be squared readily with the principles adumbrated at the Council of Trent, and in this sense Mariana cannot )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(be fully regarded as a Counter-Reformation writer. In any event, Mariana's study of history should have )] TJ ET endstream endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 21 0 R >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Length 7369 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(disabused him of his belief that the ecclesiastical barons of Ferdinand and Isabella's reign could be taken as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(models for the new age in which churchmen were to guide the affairs of the monarchy: Jimnez de Cisneros )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and Pedro Gonzlez de Mendoza and their like were hardly appropriate role-models for the post-Tridentine )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Catholic Church.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Inevitably, Mariana's suggestions were swept aside and by the time that )] TJ ET BT 380.792 727.445 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(De rege )] TJ ET BT 422.108 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was published, Philip III )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(had effectively handed over management of the affairs of the monarchy to Denia. In November 1599, he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(raised him to the dukedom of Lerma and by the end of the year, Lerma was wielding authority on a scale for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which there was no real precedent. It was appropriate, therefore, that Garca de Loaysa was not confirmed as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(archbishop of Toledo \(he was replaced by Lerma's great-uncle, Bernardo de Rojas y Sandoval\), and that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(other senior ministers of Philip II were dismissed from office as Lerma consolidated his authority. For the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(best part of 20 years Lerma exercised almost untrammelled power, elevating his family and kinsmen to pre-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(eminence in court, Church and government, and earning a prodigious fortune from his exploitation of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(royal grace. Lerma remained in office until 1618, when he retired to enjoy his cardinalate for the last years )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of his life. Mariana's worst fears had proved to be understated.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(De rege )] TJ ET BT 75.332 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(might have remained as little more than a tract of antiquarian interest were it not for Philip III's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sudden death in 1621, when the new ministers of Philip IV adopted it as an emblematic text precisely )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(because it had been so strongly opposed to the development of the valimiento. Once again the tract became )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(central to the development of courtly politics, for Gaspar de Guzmn, count of Olivares, wished to position )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(himself as the chief minister of the new king rather than as his valido. This was, of course, an optical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(illusion, for Olivares was every bit as much a valido as Lerma had been, copying many of the stratagems that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lerma had used and emulating him in exercising the key office of caballerizo mayor.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The reappearance of )] TJ ET BT 134.960 461.093 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(De rege )] TJ ET BT 176.276 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(at the heart of courtly politics after nearly 20 years was itself rather quixotic. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(When Olivares and his supporters harkened back to a 16th-century Golden Age they could not acknowledge )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that the reign of Philip III had seen many positive achievements that had not been foreseeable in 1599. In )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(particular, his reign had witnessed a revitalisation of government due to Lerma's wish to associate with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(professional administrators so that he himself should not bear sole responsibility for governmental policies. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It also saw the reinvigoration of the cortes of Castile because the crown needed to tax its Castilian subjects )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more heavily. The millones were renewed in 1600, when the kingdom agreed to provide 18,000,000 ducats )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in six years, and again in 1608 \(this time for 17,500,000 ducats over seven years\). The taxpayers of Castile )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were now taxed substantially beyond their means, but still the burden grew. In 1611, the crown decided to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(divide the amount produced by the millones among the cities and towns of Castile \(the repartimiento\). This )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(proved to be a historic watershed for a storm of criticism broke on Philip and his ministers that lasted into )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the next reign.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The reign of Philip III also saw a radical development of the capital city. Admittedly, this came about almost )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by chance; in 1601, Lerma persuaded Philip to move the court to Valladolid \(the city in which he had been )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(brought up\) so that he could build up his own estates and buildings. The experiment failed, and in 1606 the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(court returned to Madrid. The restored capital then became not merely a courtly, cultural and social centre, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(but also a place of prime religious importance \(more churches and religious houses were founded in Madrid )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the years 1606-21 than at any time until the 18th century\). There is no record that Mariana approved of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(new importance of the clergy in the revitalised capital city.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Olivares could not accept Mariana's primary solution to the dangers facing the monarchy, for he could never )] TJ ET BT 34.016 151.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(allow the young king to rule through senior churchmen in secular and religious matters. However, he was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(able to identify closely with a tract, )] TJ ET BT 206.660 137.717 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Del cambio de la moneda )] TJ ET BT 332.972 137.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(published by Mariana in 1606\), which argued )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that Philip II, by debasing the coinage in 1599, had reneged upon his solemn duties to his subjects. Mariana )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was imprisoned from 1609-11 and, therefore, became publicly identified as a courageous opponent of a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(corrupt regime. It was this publicity which most certainly commended him to the olivaristas.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(There was, however, one important area in which Mariana was in agreement with Lerma, Olivares and many )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(other senior aristocrats: the robust condemnation of the operation of the statutes of limpieza de sangre. For )] TJ ET endstream endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 24 0 R 26 0 R ] /Contents 23 0 R >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Length 3121 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nearly half a century, these statutes had been used to exclude from public office men whose purity of blood )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was contaminated by Jewish or Moorish influence. Many members of the Society of Jesus had reason to fear )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the operation of the statutes, for in 1593 the General Congregation had excluded the descendants of men of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(doubtful blood from entering the Society. Mariana was deeply angered by the implementation of the statutes, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(arguing that their use was corroding Spanish national life. In this at least he proved to be on the winning side )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(within his own Order, and in February 1608 the Society revoked the implementation of the statutes.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Juan de Mariana was, therefore, a political theorist of exceptional originality and power, as well as a major )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historian. Dr Braun is to be congratulated on placing this most difficult of writers into his proper context and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in introducing him to a wider audience. There are a couple of misprints, but these will doubtlessly be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(corrected when this excellent study goes into a second edition, as it richly deserves to do. It is no part of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(business of a reviewer to suggest how an author could follow up such a book, but an edited English edition )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of )] TJ ET BT 47.012 627.653 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(De rege )] TJ ET BT 88.328 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(would, it is now evident, fill an enormous gap.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The author would like to thank Patrick Williams for this review and is pleased to accept it without further )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(comment.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 560.885 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 546.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(muse)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 532.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/cat/summary/v095/95.2.wright.html)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 530.979 m 345.032 530.979 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 348.032 532.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 527.647 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 509.867 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 509.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/647)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 508.473 m 322.316 508.473 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 483.496 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 469.096 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/3621)] TJ ET BT 34.016 454.696 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/cat/summary/v095/95.2.wright.html)] TJ ET endstream endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 25 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 531.2935 345.0317 543.1735 ] >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/cat/summary/v095/95.2.wright.html) >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 27 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 508.7875 322.3157 520.6675 ] >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/647) >> endobj xref 0 28 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000356 00000 n 0000000393 00000 n 0000000575 00000 n 0000000657 00000 n 0000005038 00000 n 0000005147 00000 n 0000005257 00000 n 0000005366 00000 n 0000008927 00000 n 0000009055 00000 n 0000009139 00000 n 0000009204 00000 n 0000017378 00000 n 0000017443 00000 n 0000023788 00000 n 0000023853 00000 n 0000031566 00000 n 0000031631 00000 n 0000039053 00000 n 0000039144 00000 n 0000042318 00000 n 0000042445 00000 n 0000042559 00000 n 0000042687 00000 n trailer << /Size 28 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 42782 %%EOF