%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 19 0 R 21 0 R ] /Count 4 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20150629213324+01'00') /ModDate (D:20150629213324+01'00') /Title (Spying on Science: Western Intelligence in Divided Germany, 1945-1961) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4172 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Spying on Science: Western Intelligence in Divided Germany, 1945-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(1961)] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In )] TJ ET BT 47.012 266.195 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Spying on Science)] TJ ET BT 134.324 266.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, Paul Maddrell has provided an excellent account of the early and very difficult period )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the Cold War, when tensions between East and West had emerged and relations between the 'big three' )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(the USSR, the USA and Britain\) were deteriorating rapidly, finally reaching the critical point signified by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Berlin blockade. The focus on Germany reminds us of the geopolitical importance of that country, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(also the 'problem' it became during the 20th century following its defeat in the First World War, the rise of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nazism and the Second World War. The perennial question of 'what to do with Germany' emerged again as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Grand Alliance began to disintegrate. In contrast with 1918, the world of 1945 was a much more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(complex place and Europe was no longer a key player in the game of international politics. The atomic bomb )] TJ ET BT 34.016 152.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(had been used against Japan to end the war, and international relations entered a bi-polar phase with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(America and Russia positioned as the two serious contenders for world power.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 111.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Maddrell's painstaking and methodical research, undertaken in German archives and in interviews with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(people involved in intelligence and propaganda during the early Cold War, clearly illustrates for us both the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 83.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(very real threat of conflict with Russia felt by Washington and London as the alliance began to break up, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(also the strategies they evolved and implemented to deal with this. It is a new area of research, and an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(immensely interesting one that has largely been overlooked in the historiography of the Cold War. It is also )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(649)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Monday, 31 March, 2008)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Paul Maddrell)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780199267507)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2006)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(68.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(304pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oxford University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oxford)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Pauline Elkes)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 17 0 R ] /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7433 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(an important addition to our knowledge of that period, and increases our understanding of the tensions )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(between East and West, the rapid escalation of the Cold War in terms of the arms race, biological and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chemical warfare, and more specifically, the rapid recognition in the West of the potential of intelligence and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(propaganda as weapons in a 'Cold War' situation when a 'hot' war was to be avoided at all costs.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Drawing heavily on records of the former East German Ministry of State Security and the National Archive )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in London \(formerly the PRO, Kew\), Maddrell provides an incredibly detailed account of the acquisition of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(intelligence on the current and future Soviet weaponry by western - chiefly British - intelligence agencies in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Germany during the period between the end of the Second World War and the building of the Berlin Wall. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This, according to Maddrell, was when the fear of actual war was at its greatest. Intelligence on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(capability of the USSR, therefore, was a crucial component as an adjunct to traditional methods of warfare )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as it would provide the West with the ability to stay ahead in the arms race.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In 1945, the importance of intelligence \(particularly human intelligence\) supplemented by a diet of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(espionage and subversion could not be over-estimated. Whitehall was ahead of the game in its recognition of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this scenario and in its evolution and implementation of a strategy to counter the Soviet threat. Scientific )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(intelligence would provide information about Soviet intentions and capability in the field of biological and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(scientific warfare, their military and technological development and, crucially, their acquisition and planned )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(expansion in the field of atomic and thermonuclear weapons. Much of this information would come from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(human intelligence through the public space of a divided Germany, which offered a unique window of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(opportunity for the transfer of people, information and intelligence.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Maddrell points out that the British were leaders in the collection of scientific intelligence during this time, a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(period which he suggests saw the 'greatest revolution in military technology in history', with both the USA )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the USSR developing atomic and thermonuclear weapons, guided missiles and long-range bombers to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(carry them to their destination. By 1961 both countries had intercontinental ballistic missiles with which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(each could do devastating damage. One of the strengths of this book is the very clear and real sense of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rapid and revolutionary ways in which the arms race was emerging at this time, and the threats posed by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(scientific and biological warfare as well as the atomic bomb, which had been used by the USA with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(devastating effect on the people of Japan. Atomic bombs also delivered a message of sinister clarity to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(USSR in political propaganda in August 1945.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This transformation of weaponry and the huge commitment of resources required to achieve it led to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(formation in advanced countries of military industrial-academic complexes. The key concerns to defence )] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(planners are here identified as atomic, biological and chemical \(ABC\) weapons, guided missiles and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(electronics. Intelligence of the development of these technologies in the USSR was pursued for it was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(logical that no possible aggressor could make preparations without noticeable indications. Good intelligence )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(would provide information and, it was hoped, give decision-makers the rudimentary ability to predict future )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Soviet behaviour. This is classic intelligence theory put into practice - and a reading and application of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Michael Handel's 'politicisation of intelligence' theory would be an interesting exercise, particularly in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(locating the weaknesses or misunderstandings of analysis and decision-making at the time. )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 472.964 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 472.964 233.859 m 486.956 233.859 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 208.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(American and British policy towards the USSR was a dual track one of 'exploitation and denial'. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Exploitation took the form of information, skills, expertise and intelligence gained from key scientists and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(academics involved in the development of Soviet weaponry and technology who through inducements to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(leave the eastern German Democratic Republic \(GDR\) defected to the West. Their defection provided a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 151.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wealth of material, much of it mundane and some of it important. All of this intelligence was carefully )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(gathered and fed back to the centre through the Scientific and Technical Intelligence Branch \(STIB\) of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Intelligence Division, a small specialist team of interrogators who were employed to question defectors, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(refugees and ex-prisoners of war \(POW\) in order to extract scientific and technical information which might )] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(be useful to the West. This was part of the strategy which aimed to force the USSR to abandon satellites )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(gained during the latter years of the Second World War. Defection was seen to have a powerful )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(psychological impact and was, therefore, a key element in the West's psychological warfare strategy. It )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(denied key resources to the Communist regime, made useful people available to the West and was exploited )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 18 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 472.9637 234.1735 486.9557 246.0535 ] >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 20 0 R >> endobj 20 0 obj << /Length 6671 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in propaganda as a means of counteracting the idea that Communism was a 'better' social system. This, it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was believed, would push the East onto the political defensive. Finally, it caused resentment to grow behind )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Iron Curtain while discrediting their politicians and military commanders. Defection was seen as a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(powerful instrument as it put the Soviets under as much strain as possible. The USSR's condemnation of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(efforts to encourage defection appeared to confirm to the West that the strategy, which increased its own )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(power at the cost of the communists, was one worth pursing.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This policy of exploitation through defection provided the West with the opportunity to practice the second )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(strand of their policy: 'denial'. As well as providing the West with information from individuals, defections )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from the East also deprived the Soviets of expertise, skills and knowledge. Therefore, the denial of scientists, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(technicians, biological chemists and other individuals important to the Soviet war-making apparatus was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(achieved by encouraging them to migrate to become spies for the West, or to move to America or Britain to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(provide intelligence of the Soviet infrastructure and its development. Measures were also put in place to stop )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(workers from going over to the GDR to work. In addition, the denial of war-making resources was achieved )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(through their inclusion in an embargo of strategic goods crucial to scientific and biological development )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(adopted throughout all the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation \(NATO\) countries and others under the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(leadership of America.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The ideal place for these activities was in four-zoned Berlin, where the ingredients necessary for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('exploitation and denial' operations could be found. Because of the ease of travel across the city \(the borders )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were not secure\) any East German could easily make a trip to the West and back. West Berlin offered a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(crucial gap in the Iron Curtain which provided large-scale espionage opportunities to the West. In addition, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Soviet imperialism created opportunities for the West because its use of German scientific workers, POWs )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and material resources in post-war weapons development and military reconstruction made Germans )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(potential informants.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This strategy brought some rewards: the West gained information from Soviet POWs of the location of some )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(100 chemical factories and 80 other installations, which according to Maddrell had 'long-term significance'. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(One of these was the Shikani, a gas factory in the Volga, which was the Soviet principal chemical weapons )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(testing range. Another such installation was the Central Military Chemical Range, identified in 1987 in a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(landmark admission by the USSR that they did hold chemical weapons.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The book outlines for us the establishment and evolution of the different agencies and organisations that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(would put this preferred policy into practice. It also establishes that while Britain was an early Cold War )] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(warrior full collaboration with America in both policy and method was vital for its defence. Military )] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(collaboration required intelligence collaboration. An additional strength of this book is the detail given in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(description of the relationship between the Joint Scientific Intelligence Committee, the Joint Technical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Intelligence Committee, MI6 and the CIA.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Maddrell also gives information about counter-intelligence operations, including those concerning the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(atomic bomb, where the Soviet defector Gouzenko confirmed the penetration of Los Alamos and thus the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Manhatten Project. In fact the decryption of cables sent from Soviet offices in America to Moscow by the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 208.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Venona project revealed that the atomic and nuclear programme had been 'deeply penetrated'. He gives )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(details of Klaus Fuchs's counter-intelligence operations and his confession, which also identified other spies )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(at Los Alamos, among them the Briton Donald Maclean.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 154.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Maddrell's research shows that the USA widened its embargo on the Soviets to include non-war related )] TJ ET BT 34.016 139.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(goods, for he argues that until the 1970s the USA was keen to wage economic warfare on the USSR in any )] TJ ET BT 34.016 125.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(way that would weaken the Eastern Bloc's economies and deny them hard currency. In fact he argues that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 111.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from 1946 where the USA led, others followed. For example, the USA applied pressure through the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Marshall Plan, which it used as a 'lever', while also imposing its embargo on members of the Organisation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 82.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for European Economic Community. It seems that 'co-operation with the willing was supplemented by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prescription for the unwilling'.)] TJ ET endstream endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 23 0 R 25 0 R 27 0 R 29 0 R 31 0 R ] /Contents 22 0 R >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Length 4896 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Maddrell successfully paints a picture of American fears of the Soviets, which were intense in the early Cold )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(War years, and highlights their foreign policy objective of undermining the USSR's control in the Eastern )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bloc countries and forcing the Kremlin to give-up in East Germany. Encouraging skilled people to flee )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(would damage the GDR and make it unviable; consequently, in this critical intelligence operation the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Americans, British and Germans would work together closely.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 701.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The American-British collaboration is highlighted throughout this work, and Maddrell believes that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 686.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(American policy was formulated by the 'brilliant George Kennan'. He was the author of the critical Cold War )] TJ ET BT 34.016 672.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(intelligence telegram Article NSC68, which aimed to reduce Soviet power without resorting to war thereby )] TJ ET BT 34.016 658.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(forcing the USSR to abandon aggression and subversion. Thus the policy of containment and rollback )] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(emerged as a direct result of intelligence and the growing perception of the threat of the Soviets as the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(decade came to a close. But Maddrell points out that the Soviet states were not weak - the communists were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ruthlessly brutal, and American and British subversion attempts were consistently defeated by their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(formidable opponents in the Soviet security services. By the mid 1950s this aggressive containment became )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('competitive co-existence'. The suppression of the Hungarian Revolution of 1956 and the construction of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Berlin Wall in 1961 showed how little subversion could achieve as long as the communists were willing to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(act ruthlessly to retain their rule.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 532.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This book has much to offer to scholars of the Cold War and those involved in intelligence studies. With an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 518.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(easily accessible, contextual analysis of the complexity of intelligence and propaganda as instruments of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 503.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(West in its determination to challenge the threat of the Soviet Union, it provides stimulating reading and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(adds to our knowledge of this often overlooked area of historical enquiry.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 454.707 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 424.090 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 424.085 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(M. Handel, 'The Politics of Intelligence', )] TJ ET BT 261.980 424.085 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Intelligence and National Security)] TJ ET BT 426.968 424.085 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 2 \(1987\), 5-46. )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 507.956 424.085 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to )] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 507.956 422.691 m 547.952 422.691 l S BT 64.016 409.829 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 408.435 m 78.008 408.435 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 383.573 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 369.317 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(muse)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 355.061 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/tech/summary/v049/49.2.richelson.html)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 353.667 m 363.692 353.667 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 366.692 355.061 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET BT 34.016 340.805 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(oxford journals)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 326.549 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://ehr.oxfordjournals.org/content/CXXIII/500/262.full)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 325.155 m 312.332 325.155 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 315.332 326.549 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 321.823 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 304.043 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 304.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/649)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 302.649 m 322.316 302.649 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 277.672 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.272 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/3623)] TJ ET BT 34.016 248.872 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/tech/summary/v049/49.2.richelson.html)] TJ ET BT 34.016 234.472 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3] http://ehr.oxfordjournals.org/content/CXXIII/500/262.full?etoc)] TJ ET endstream endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 24 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 507.9557 423.0055 547.9517 434.8855 ] >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 16 0 R >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 26 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 64.0157 408.7495 78.0077 420.6295 ] >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 16 0 R >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 28 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 353.9815 363.6917 365.8615 ] >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/tech/summary/v049/49.2.richelson.html) >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 30 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 325.4695 312.3317 337.3495 ] >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://ehr.oxfordjournals.org/content/CXXIII/500/262.full?etoc) >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 32 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 302.9635 322.3157 314.8435 ] >> endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/649) >> endobj xref 0 33 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000342 00000 n 0000000379 00000 n 0000000572 00000 n 0000000654 00000 n 0000004878 00000 n 0000004987 00000 n 0000005097 00000 n 0000005206 00000 n 0000008767 00000 n 0000008895 00000 n 0000008979 00000 n 0000009063 00000 n 0000016549 00000 n 0000016579 00000 n 0000016707 00000 n 0000016743 00000 n 0000016808 00000 n 0000023532 00000 n 0000023644 00000 n 0000028593 00000 n 0000028721 00000 n 0000028776 00000 n 0000028902 00000 n 0000028957 00000 n 0000029084 00000 n 0000029202 00000 n 0000029329 00000 n 0000029443 00000 n 0000029571 00000 n trailer << /Size 33 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 29666 %%EOF