%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 18 0 R 20 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140723064256+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140723064256+01'00') /Title (Popular Cultures in England 1550-1750) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4069 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Popular Cultures in England 1550-1750)] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(There has, in recent years, been a proliferation of work on popular culture in early modern England. Barry )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Reay?s )] TJ ET BT 71.672 244.811 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Popular Cultures in England 1550-1750)] TJ ET BT 266.348 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London and New York: Longman 1998. Pp. ix + 235\) is a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(perceptive and engaging synthesis, rooted in a thorough knowledge of recent work. The book is in a series )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(aimed at ?a student and non-specialist readership?, but there will be few specialists who will not learn )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(something from the book and who will not find themselves reflecting on the historiography of popular )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cultures.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Reay starts briskly with a working definition of ?popular cultures? as ?widely held and commonly expressed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(thoughts and actions?, the plural of cultures representing ?the subcultural splinterings \(or segmentation\) of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(locality, age, gender, religion, and class? \(1\). His method is to devote a chapter to ?different facets of early )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(modern culture?: in turn, ?sexualities?, ?orality, literacy, and print?, ?religions?, ?witchcraft?, ?festive drama )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and ritual?, and ?riots and the law?. In his final chapter he gives himself space to reflect on ?popular )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cultures?. The individual chapters can be read as self-contained studies, and one can foresee that some of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 75.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(them, perhaps particularly ?sexualities? and ?witchcraft?, will become common items on history )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(undergraduate and graduate reading lists. There are occasional cross-references from one chapter to another, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(65)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Friday, 1 January, 1999)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Barry Reay)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780582489547)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1998)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(24.99)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(248pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Longman)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://vig.pearsoned.co.uk/catalog/academic/product/0,1144,0582489547-FEA,00.html)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London and New York)] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.579 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hugh Cunningham)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 6916 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(but the overall reflection is held back until the concluding chapter. There are, however, certain common )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(emphases, and it is not difficult for readers to identify Reay?s approach to the study of popular cultures.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Reay on p.1. helpfully lists what he calls the key-words for his history: ?ambiguous, complex, contradictory, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(divided, dynamic, fluid, fractured, gendered, hybrid, interacting, multiple, multivalent, overlapping, plural, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(resistant, and shared?. In Reay?s early modern England there are no boundaried Leavisite organic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(communities; instead the early modern world is subject to a process of post-modernization. The key-words )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(are those which self-regarding students of cultural studies scatter freely among their work.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 672.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The insights to be gained from such an approach are many. In the chapter on sexualities, Reay argues that, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 658.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(across social boundaries, early modern sexuality was focused on marriage and procreation, and that a male )] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(language of sexuality ?saw courtship in terms of siege warfare and martial combat? \(18\). Misogyny was rife. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Women?s sexuality was openly acknowledged, but, in male eyes, as a danger - and as an excuse for rape. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Homosexual acts carried no implication of being ?a homosexual?, the latter a cultural construct of much later )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(times.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 575.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Reay successfully demonstrates the intermeshing of orality and literacy, writing of ?the orality of print?. By )] TJ ET BT 34.016 560.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this phrase he refers to the ways in which print \(ballads, chapbooks, plays\) was read aloud, sung, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 546.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(performed. An ability to read was much more common than an ability to write, and, amongst readers, there )] TJ ET BT 34.016 532.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were vastly different levels of ability, ?a hierarchy of print consumption? \(48\), but no ?simple division )] TJ ET BT 34.016 518.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(between elite and popular literature? \(55\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 491.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The chapter on religions is perhaps the least successful, if only because of the difficulty of compressing the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(religious experience of the English people across these tumultuous centuries into thirty pages. Reay?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(argument is that despite the sensational changes in public belief systems, English people had a capacity to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(absorb and transmute what they found valuable, such as a residual Catholicism in both belief and ritual, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 434.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to reject doctrines however fiercely preached if, like predestination, they carried little appeal; on the basis of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(religious ballads and chapbooks, England remained firmly Pelagian.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 394.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In the witchcraft chapter, Reay?s key achievement is to rescue witches from the status of victim, and to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 380.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(restore some agency to them - in effect to take them seriously as witches, that is as people who over a long )] TJ ET BT 34.016 365.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(period had acquired and perhaps traded on a reputation for an ability to do harm if crossed, an ability which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 351.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(often ran in families. Witches? confessions at trials, Reay argues, were their own ways of coming to terms )] TJ ET BT 34.016 337.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with their actions. He takes issue with those who suggest a sharp division between beliefs of this kind and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 323.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the belief of the learned that witches were agents of Satan, arguing an intermeshing of beliefs.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 296.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In ?Festive drama and ritual? Reay starts with the rituals of calendar customs, noting some changes under )] TJ ET BT 34.016 282.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Puritan impact, for example in the practice of holding church ales, but equally emphasising that old )] TJ ET BT 34.016 268.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(practices might resurface in a marginally different form. He then subjects to closer analysis both civic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 254.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pageantry and what he terms ?folk-ordered summer games and charivaris? \(143\). He argues that civic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 239.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pageants were all-inclusive in their appeal, but that different sections of society responded to them at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 225.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(different levels, the classical allusions, for example, being caught only by the elite. As to the summer games )] TJ ET BT 34.016 211.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and charivaris, we tend to know of them only when they came before the courts. The evidence from that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 196.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(source suggests that communities had ways of punishing behaviour which met with the disapproval of some )] TJ ET BT 34.016 182.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(group with a modicum of power, but that the punishment was also an occasion for revelry. ?The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 168.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(carnivalesque?, writes Reay, ?was central to early modern English culture? \(165\), but it tended to be a form )] TJ ET BT 34.016 154.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of carnival which reinforced ?male dominance and social hierarchy? \(167\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 127.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Rather less of a clear theme, though much telling detail, emerges from the chapter on riots and the law. Reay )] TJ ET BT 34.016 113.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(surveys judiciously the evidence on food riots and on anti-enclosure riots, drawing attention to the stress by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 99.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(participants on the legality of their actions, and to the participation by women. He goes on to note how )] TJ ET BT 34.016 85.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ordinary people would resort to the law to settle grievances. But these emphases, as he notes, can make )] TJ ET BT 34.016 70.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?riots? seem altogether too orderly and law-abiding: there was violence in crowd actions, there was an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 56.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(overall dominance by the authorities, and there was a wide variety of ?crime? such as poaching which )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 7424 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(suggested a gap between popular and elite perceptions of rightful behaviour..)] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(If one stands back from Reay?s analysis what is striking is the distance travelled in this field of study since )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(such enormously influential works as Keith Thomas, )] TJ ET BT 290.660 755.957 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Religion and the Decline of Magic )] TJ ET BT 459.308 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1973\), Peter Burke, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Popular Culture in Early Modern Europe )] TJ ET BT 237.344 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1978\))] TJ ET BT 269.336 741.701 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(, )] TJ ET BT 275.336 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and Edward Thompson?s reflections on patricians and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(plebeians. In a sense the book is an extended criticism of an approach seen to be embodied in those works. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(They are thought to contain both a grand narrative approach, a disabling separation of elite and popular )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(culture, and a treatment of popular culture as a residue. The criticism of them is rarely directly with their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(evidence. And though Reay is scrupulous in noting, for example, the care with which Burke formulated his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(distinctions between elite and popular, these keynote works are written of as belonging to a world of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historiography now firmly in the past. I cannot imagine that a student coming fresh to these topics will feel, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(after reading Reay, any great necessity or urge to actually read Thomas or Burke or Thompson. What is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(curiously lacking is what one might call any hand-to-hand engagement with these writers \(one can imagine )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(how Thompson might have relished that!\). Instead they are criticised out of hand for what is seen as a flawed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(methodology. But is Reay?s methodology any better?)] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It may be taken as fundamental to any historiography that it should have a means of explaining both )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(continuity and change. Reay comments that his ?brief? is the period 1550-1750 \(3\), and urges readers to be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?relaxed? about these dates and about his excursions outside them. The latter are considerable. In the chapter )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on festive drama and ritual he starts with Samuel Bamford?s recollections of late eighteenth-century )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Middleton \(though noting that Bamford?s account is not entirely consistent with earlier ones\); in the chapter )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on orality and literacy he jumps forward a further fifty years and uses Mayhew?s interviews with London )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(street vendors; and in the chapter on witchcraft he lights upon choice examples from late nineteenth-century )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Essex and Cambridgeshire. We are left wondering whether 1750 is in any way a meaningful endpoint: in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(terms of riots Reay notes that the second half of the eighteenth century was ?the real age of rioting? \(197\), )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(but offers no explanation for the change in tempo. A disadvantage of ending in 1750 is that Reay can avoid )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the argument of Peter Burke that in the second half of the eighteenth century the divide between elite and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(popular cultures had become so wide that scholars began to rediscover ?the people? and their ways. How, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(one may ask, would Reay explain this pervasive sense of rediscovery?)] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For the most part the two hundred years from 1550 to 1750 are treated as ones without any significant )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(change. The major exception to this is the chapter on religions where Reay arrestingly outlines the changes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which would have been experienced by imaginary 60-year-olds in 1558, in the 1630s, and in 1720. Other )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(changes are also noted: for example, the Puritan impact on civic ritual \(161-2\), and a change in the character )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of food riots after 1660, with the stopping of transport more common after 1660 than before \(172\). But the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(general tone is to downplay the extent and nature of change \(210-2\). In the chapters on sexualities and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(witchcraft \(this surely very odd\) it makes no appearance. And we are left wondering whether continuities )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(may have endured way beyond 1750.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The truth is that in Reay?s approach there is no easily available explanation for change. In the bad old days )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(when many scholars employed some notion, crude or refined, of base and superstructure \(and where culture )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was the superstructure\), cultural change could be explained by change at the level of the base. And one )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(would expect to see a period of economic change reflected in change in the superstructure. We have, of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(course, learned to avoid such crude determinism, and the emphasis in cultural studies is both on culture as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(agency and on the relative independence of ?culture? as an arena of human thought and activity. Change, if )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(it happens therefore, will be generated from within the sphere of culture not from something outside it. That )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(phrases it too starkly, but it may serve to highlight the difficulty of explaining cultural change in the kind of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(approach adopted by Reay. Hence, not surprisingly, not much change happens, and where it does, as in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(religion, that change \(?reformations?\) may have much less impact on day-to-day life than one might expect )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(85-90\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Part of the difficulty in recognizing or explaining change stems from the argument that the boundaries )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(between elite and popular cultures were fluid. Reay would like to do away with that kind of bipolarity )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(altogether, partly because it fails to give weight to a \(third\) culture of ?the middling sorts?, but mainly )] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 7597 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(because of the boundary-crossing and intermeshing of elite and popular. One of the explanations for cultural )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(change in the late eighteenth century, embodied for example in Robert Malcolmson?s )] TJ ET BT 448.280 782.213 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Popular Recreations )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(in English Society 1700-1850 )] TJ ET BT 178.676 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1973\), was that an elite separated itself off from the ?common people? and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bore down upon many of the latter?s cultural practices. But, given Reay?s strong assertions about )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(intermeshing, this kind of explanation is hardly permissible. In the chapter on sexualities, for example, there )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is no mention of those trying to control sexuality and sexual behaviour. Reay is very unwilling to recognise )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that anything which might be called ?social control? could have a lasting effect on popular culture - he has )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(little time, for example, for the evidence to this effect assembled by Keith Wrightson and David Levine in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their study of Terling. As an agent of change, elite, or for that matter Puritan, reforming impulses are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(downplayed.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Reay?s working definition of popular cultures, quoted above, is at first sight commonsensical. What, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(however, it avoids is any engagement with the possibility that there were cultures which were in any sense )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?ways of life? rather than simply ?commonly expressed thoughts and actions?. The only instance in which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(he is willing to admit this seems to be the ?culture of Puritanism, a distinct lifestyle? \(83\).The overall )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(structure of the book directs us away from lifestyles to consideration of specific facets of life. The analyses )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(within them often suggest ambiguity and ambivalence within those restricted spheres, and they are unable to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(connect, say, sexuality and religion. ?Fracture?, that favoured word of modern cultural studies, is built into )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the mode of analysis, and of course discovered: there is a circularity in the argument. Reay is often trying to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(get inside the heads of his early modern subjects, and often succeeds, puzzled and worried when he fails to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(do so as in his discussion of witchcraft. But the successes are only very partial because they relate to one )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(aspect only of a person?s life or a community?s existence.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For a more rounded picture it is probably necessary to engage in studies of particular communities - the kind )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of study which Reay himself, in his )] TJ ET BT 207.344 458.837 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Microhistories: demography, society, and culture in rural England, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(1800-1930)] TJ ET BT 86.012 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1996\))] TJ ET BT 121.004 444.581 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(,)] TJ ET BT 124.004 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( has so notably carried out for the nineteenth and twentieth centuries for an area of rural )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Kent almost visible from where I write this review. Reay is of course aware \(208-10\) that regional )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(differences may cut across any generalisations he makes, but he uses this insight as grist to his mill of an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(emphasis on the ?fissures? within popular cultures rather than envisaging that there might be relatively self-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contained cultures \(whole ways of life\) rooted in a particular environment.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(I have argued that Reay?s approach makes any recognition and explanation of continuity and change )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(problematic. Since a base/superstructure model of explanation is rightly rejected, one is left asking how this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fundamental issue of history as it applies to culture can be addressed. The answer, I believe, lies in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contextualisation. Reay refreshingly approaches directly the thoughts and actions that go to the making of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his popular cultures, but the cost of this is that he ignores or underplays context: the context of geography, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the context of power, the context of the ways in which livings were made, the context of the economic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(changes consequent on England?s interaction with the rest of the world. At the very least such factors shape, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(though they do not determine, popular cultures. They receive only the most casual attention in this book.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Authors work to word limits, and those word limits impose choices. Reay has chosen to focus on those )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(aspects of popular culture on which recent scholarship has been most lively, and the synthesis he has made )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of it is rich and stimulating. It is as much the scholarship on which he draws as his own use of it which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prompts my critique. For a book of quality of this kind, written with authority, can become a benchmark for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(future research, perhaps on a par with Peter Burke?s work twenty years ago. For all its strengths and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(insights, Reay?s choice of approach to the study of popular cultures embodies some fundamental )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(weaknesses, and is too dismissive of the contributions of earlier scholars. At the most fundamental level, in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(its relative neglect of context, it is in danger of dehistoricising the past. There is an irony here. Reay ends )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(forcefully, noting how efforts to embody some history into contemporary cultural studies have an extremely )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(foreshortened view of history, one which certainly does not stretch back to the early modern centuries. Reay )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(argues for a greater historicity in such studies, an alertness to the strangeness of the past; and yet, what it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(strikes me that he has done is to make his early modern people just like our post-modern selves: ?complex?, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?contradictory?, ?divided?, and ?fractured? .)] TJ ET BT 34.016 37.925 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET endstream endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 22 0 R ] /Contents 21 0 R >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Length 651 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 791.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 773.963 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 773.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/65)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 772.569 m 316.316 772.569 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 747.592 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 733.192 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/682)] TJ ET BT 34.016 718.792 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 23 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 772.8835 316.3157 784.7635 ] >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/65) >> endobj xref 0 24 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000349 00000 n 0000000386 00000 n 0000000547 00000 n 0000000629 00000 n 0000004750 00000 n 0000004859 00000 n 0000004969 00000 n 0000005078 00000 n 0000008639 00000 n 0000008767 00000 n 0000008851 00000 n 0000008916 00000 n 0000015885 00000 n 0000015950 00000 n 0000023427 00000 n 0000023492 00000 n 0000031142 00000 n 0000031226 00000 n 0000031929 00000 n 0000032057 00000 n trailer << /Size 24 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 32151 %%EOF