%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 19 0 R 24 0 R 37 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140818073430+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140818073430+01'00') /Title (Privacy and Solitude in the Middle Ages) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4305 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Privacy and Solitude in the Middle Ages)] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(On the opening page of her new book)] TJ ET BT 214.976 287.579 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [( Privacy and Solitude in the Middle Ages)] TJ ET BT 411.956 287.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, Diana Webb identifies its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(driving interests: first, 'in what medieval people regarded as reason or justification for retreating, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(permanently or temporarily, from the wider society, and secondly in their awareness of their dwelling )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(spaces'. Social scientists may welcome this book as a sociological study. Webb likens her research )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(proposition to that of the American sociologist Barrington Moore Jr, whose volume )] TJ ET BT 438.320 230.555 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Privacy: Studies in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Social and Cultural History)] TJ ET BT 167.696 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(New York, 1984\) came together because its author \(as cited by Webb on her )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(opening page\) 'wanted to see how other cultures treated this problem and if they were even aware of it'. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Another nod at the integration of history and sociology comes three pages later \(p. x\), with an Annalesian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(suggestion that Webb's book could help to chart the evolution of privacy as a concept. 'It has become )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fashionable recently', she notes, 'to investigate the medieval antecedents of such features of modern society )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as scientific and commercial mentalities; perhaps the same can be done for the ancestry of our attitudes to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(privacy.' At this the reader is left wondering whether the past is to be used as a hunting ground for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(antecedents of the present. This would be one way to read Webb's book, but her instinct is that of a historian: )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to investigate the past for its own sake, and she eschews the theorising that would have been necessary to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 87.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(establish her study within a sociological framework.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Again suggestive of an Annalesian inspiration is the idea, on the next page \(p. xi\), that privacy as a concept )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(650)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Monday, 31 March, 2008)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Diana Webb)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9781852854799)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2007)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(40.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(283pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hambledon Continuum)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Tom Licence)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 17 0 R ] /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7968 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(came hand-in-hand with the emergence of a middling sector in society, whose members inclined towards )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(intellectual pursuits and were at greater liberty than the great or lowly to employ living space as they )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pleased. The emergence of a middling sector, ascribed to various centuries, has been a nostrum for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Annalistes, most notably Jacques Le Goff in his book on purgatory. Webb hints at it recurrently, and in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(absence of guidance as to her main hypotheses it may be assumed on that basis to be one of them. If Webb )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(retains Annalesian impulses, however, they have shared in that movement's fragmentation. Her opinion of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(what history should entail, and what it in no way can, is plain from her apologies, that 'it would have been )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(quite impossible to trawl the literature and hagiography or the art, architecture and archaeological )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discoveries of the whole of medieval Europe' to find data to inform her investigation \(p. xvi\), and that she is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(neither anthropologist nor psychologist \(p. xvii\). Such defences put her in a class of cultural historians who )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(defer to a vision of total history yet recognise that it has become unattainable in our age of specialised )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(knowledge. In its place, Webb offers a 'personal and very incomplete exploration' \(p. vii\), 'as I have said, a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(personal exploration' \(p. xvii\). It is an approach to the writing of history answerable to no evaluative criteria, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for how is one to assess a professedly subjective exercise? Webb may be marketing her book to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(postmodernists as well as to social anthropologists, but because it sets out to sell itself so broadly and sets )] TJ ET BT 34.016 582.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(out neither hypotheses nor methodology, the sensation is of setting out on a mystery tour.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Webb's book is structured so as to trace the emergence, from classical antiquity, of two main forms of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(withdrawal, which are its interweaving themes. The first is the religiously motivated quest for solitude )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(monks, nuns, hermits, recluses\). The second is the lay quest for private living space. Chapter one introduces )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(both by assuming a refreshing perspective on the first from the viewpoint of a Roman mentality shocked at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(its rejection of sociability. Monasticism was as far removed from early 5th-century Roman mores as east is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from west, and yet - Webb skilfully drives home the paradox - it came eventually to be seen as the custodian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and preservator of all things Roman. The secular quest for privacy is prefigured in Pliny the Younger's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(retreats in pursuit of otium, i.e. constructive leisure. Senecan and Ciceronian ideas concerning solitude, or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('virtual' withdrawal into one's own thoughts as an occasional means of improving man's more natural )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(condition of sociability, are likewise introduced only to resurface in later chapters reformulated by monastic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and humanistic thinkers. So the scene is set, but without an initial explanation of the route chosen this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reviewer took a while to shake off the sensation that monasticism and the lay quest for privacy make strange )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bedfellows. As it turns out, the link \(at any rate, by the later Middle Ages\) was the pursuit of literacy. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(usefulness of Webb's experimental study may lie in the fact that by wedding these different forms of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(withdrawal together it illuminates the unresolving dialectic involving their relative contributions to learning. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nevertheless, it remains an objection to the coherence of her design, that the quest for solitude was religious, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(whereas the quest for privacy was literary and recreational. What have self-flagellating hermits to do with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 314.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Renaissance men of letters? In the introduction, Webb hints at antecedents, but sociologists will have to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(work out the theory for themselves.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The chapters devoted to monasticism are two, three, five and six. The first two explore its emergence and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(touch on the interrelation of its twin impulses \(eremitic and cenobitic\) in the deserts of late antiquity and in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(western Europe up to the middle of the 11th century. Chapters five and six investigate 12th-century )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conceptions of solitude, focusing on Carthusian and Cistercian commentators, and the life of hermits and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(recluses respectively. Throughout these four chapters, with an eye alert to spatial and conceptual solitude, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the author scouts territory that should be familiar to monastic scholars. I doubt that her real interest lies here, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(but rather in the later chapters on lay aspirations to privacy. This may explain why there are one or two holes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the mesh. Chapter two, although it embraces Henry Chadwick's position that monasticism as a movement )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was born of the desire of religious zealots for separation from the ordinary faithful, omits the context, that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the recent nominal conversion of the Roman Empire diluted the status of God's soi-disant elite. )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 492.800 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 492.800 143.811 m 506.792 143.811 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 506.792 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Without )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this context and some discussion of the sins which monasticism contrived to escape, it is not made as plain )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as it should be that 'solitude' and 'privacy' are not very easily yoked. An odder omission, from a chapter )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(entitled 'In search of lost solitude' \(chapter five\), is the loss of all reference to the man who most missed it, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 88.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(John of Fcamp, and the inattention paid to the corpus of scholarship on this topic that is the lifetime )] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(achievement of his editor, Jean Leclercq. Here, or between the treatment of Peter Damian at the end of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 59.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chapter three and Webb's discussion of Bruno of Cologne in chapter five, this reviewer also expected at least )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 18 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 492.7997 144.1255 506.7917 156.0055 ] >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 22 0 R ] /Contents 20 0 R >> endobj 20 0 obj << /Length 8554 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a nod in the direction of Henrietta Leyser's 'new hermits', who typically subordinated their quest for solitude )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to the duty of pastoral care. One should at least have hoped for comment on that other key debate concerning )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('the crisis of cenobitism', given that a quest for solitude was intrinsic to Romuald of Ravenna and Peter )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Damian's rejection of Cluniac monasticism as a suitable mould for their devotions. It is a pity that Webb )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(does not engage with these elements of the historiography, which touch so much upon her theme.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapter two, which sketches the career of St Antony before painting a picture of desert religion with a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(medley of anecdotes and apothegmata from Rufinus, Palladius, Cassian and others, resembles a window on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to a chaotic scene with few contours or signposts. Questions are raised and not answered \(several rapid-fire )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(questions in the penultimate paragraph of p. 15 are as rapidly abandoned\), and there is little sustained )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(argumentation. To be fair to Webb, it is perhaps an idiosyncrasy of this reviewer that he prefers the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Collingwoodian principle of structured evidential argument, if without the certitude of historical knowledge, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to this freer, exploratory approach. The latter has arguably the benefit of allowing a historian to range across )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(all interesting terrain. Webb's exploration brings to light original, compelling ideas. Her interpretation of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Evagrian St Antony as the hagiographical personification of a riposte to classical Roman assumptions that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(solitude was degrading \(in that the saint was unspoiled, even ennobled by it\) is a case in point. Equally )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interesting is the analysis in chapter three of different expressions of solitude visible in the )] TJ ET BT 470.960 570.629 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Life)] TJ ET BT 489.632 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( of John of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Gorze. In contrast, it is a little disappointing that after alighting on Peter Damian's seam of metaphors for the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(solitary life in )] TJ ET BT 104.348 542.117 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Dominus)] TJ ET BT 150.680 542.117 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(uobiscum)] TJ ET BT 196.676 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Webb neglects to exploit their potential for developing her discussion. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Damian eulogises the hermit's cell as a paradise, a prison, a warehouse, a workshop, a cleansing bath and, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(altogether, a catholicon. This was an opportunity for Webb to discuss the spirituality of the solitary life from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the viewpoint of a man who knew more about it than most \(p. 44\). Again, Jean Leclercq's labours would )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have been helpful. )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 125.324 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 125.324 483.699 m 139.316 483.699 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 139.316 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Chapter six, on recluses and hermits, titled 'In the Midst of People', works its way to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the conclusion that these religious 'lived in a ... condition of proximity, and even dependence on, the local )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lay population'. It is a conclusion true of recluses and a few hermits in their old age. Of hermits generally, it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(inverts the truth. The hermitages at Throckenholt near Wisbech, at Finchale \(in its early years\) and at other )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(studied locations were self-sufficient plots carved out of wastes by assarting and endowed initially or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(enlarged by aristocratic sponsors, kin and converts. No one in medieval society was less dependent on or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(proximate to other people than hermits, even if a few famous ones made their names as gurus. Webb is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(normally attentive to terminology and definitions, but in the case of hermits and recluses there is conflation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the two categories, and this perhaps might have led to confusion. My final problem with this chapter and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(also with chapter three \(in its use of the )] TJ ET BT 226.316 356.789 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Vitae sanctorum Hiberniae)] TJ ET BT 356.972 356.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\) is its uncritical citation of hagiography, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(apparently to supply historical information. In the case of Robert of Knaresborough, Webb turns to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(metrical Middle English )] TJ ET BT 153.680 328.277 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Life)] TJ ET BT 172.352 328.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( instead of the substantially earlier and more authoritative Latin )] TJ ET BT 480.308 328.277 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Lives)] TJ ET BT 505.640 328.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Having surveyed these four chapters \(two, three, five and six\), one might conclude that the omissions and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the undeveloped treatment of the theme of monastic solitude stem from an ambitious attempt to cover too )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(much ground. A book solely on monasticism could have focused the writer's research and thoughts. Happily, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more is to be gained from the chapters on privacy in the later medieval centuries, especially chapters 9, 10, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(11 and 12. Chapters four, seven and eight open up this avenue with explorations of aristocratic privacy in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(early Middle Ages, the later designation and partitioning of living space, and religion in the home \(which is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more a study of religiously oriented people living at home than of ordinary lay piety\). The last five chapters )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(8-12\), which draw extensively on Italian material, show Webb moving comfortably around her own )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(territory. In chapter nine an argument takes shape through the identification of a conceptual switch within )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the context of Italian Renaissance humanism - what may be termed the Petrarchan moment - when Petrarch, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(out of his syncretism of classical and Christian thought, arrived at a novel idea of solitude as an amenity for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(personal improvement. Was this the birth of privacy as we all enjoy it today? Webb is rather too canny a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historian to peddle such a notion as the birth of a new concept. Even so, she does imply that privacy as an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(idea akin to its modern counterpart first appealed, to leisured intellectuals \(like us?\), about this time. Chapter )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(10 pursues the implications of this new hypothesis with an innovative study of the emergence of the study as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 88.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a private work place, initially in a Dominican context then increasingly in Benedictine monasteries. Webb's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(research here has uncovered some early appearances and variants of the word 'study' both in Latin and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 59.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(vernacular. She also provides evidence of lay ownership of such rooms in the 15th century. It was at roughly )] TJ ET endstream endobj 21 0 obj [19 0 R /Fit] endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 23 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 125.3237 484.0135 139.3157 495.8935 ] >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 27 0 R 29 0 R 31 0 R 33 0 R 35 0 R ] /Contents 25 0 R >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Length 8178 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this point that the reviewer shook off his concern that monasticism and the lay quest for privacy might never )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have had anything in common. By drawing attention to the study's emergence in monastic and lay settings )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(at roughly the same time\) as a place for private learning, Webb arrives at a definitive symbol of their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(common ground: an interest in literary and intellectual pursuits.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapter 11 discusses the evolution of gardens as recreational spaces, the criterion for identifying them as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(such being aesthetic pleasure as opposed to functionality. Chapter 12, which is certainly one of the strongest, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is entitled 'Loss of community' and makes the valid observation that late 14th-century commentators in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(England and Italy thought that social elites were withdrawing to dine in private. It also explores such matters )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as the erosion of the common life in monasteries and the emergence of chambers and partitioning, although )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(it does not engage explicitly with the debate concerning late medieval lay piety, as to whether or not the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(gentry were withdrawing from the wider congregation of the laity into private chapels, chantries and their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(own books of hours. A millennium beforehand, monasticism and the classical pursuit of otium had little in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(common, but by c. 1400 \(Webb notes\) the ideal of penitential isolation was losing ground to the more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(comfortable and sociable ideal of privacy. Monks and the laity in practice preferred the latter, even if the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(corollary was that they appeased their consciences by holding the discipline and isolation of Carthusians and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(anchorites in correspondingly higher regard. Coming after these impressive chapters the conclusion is not as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(structured as might have been hoped, but there is at least a sense - albeit a retrospective benignity which by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(now has crept over the reader - that the book has at last come together.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(I did not stumble upon many errata, but the following idiosyncrasies and slips may confuse or mislead. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(author of the book )] TJ ET BT 125.336 501.605 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reason and Society)] TJ ET BT 219.320 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(p. x, n. 3\) is not A. Grant but A. Murray. 'Ancient Egyptian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(monasteries' \(p. 62\) refers to Egyptian monasteries of late antiquity. Also, the reference to the recluse )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Matilda of Wareham, as living in 'the women's cemetery' \(p. 86\), is a misreading of the Latin 'obuiam habuit )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in cimiterio mulierem' \('he ran into a woman in the cemetery'\) from p. 82 of Maurice Bell's edition of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Life of St Wulfric of Haselbury, cited elsewhere in Webb's footnotes. )] TJ ET BT 370.436 444.581 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Convent)] TJ ET BT 410.432 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(used on p. 70, n. 39, and p. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(216\) refers collectively to a religious community, not the premises it occupies, and the use of the word )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(religiosus/religiosa to describe an individual who lived a religious life without adhering to a rule was no new )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(development of the 13th century \(cf. p. 79\). )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 246.308 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 246.308 400.419 m 260.300 400.419 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 260.300 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Christina of Markyate seems to have been consecrated at St )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Albans as a nun or religiosa femina; this ceremony should not be confused with the special consecration )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ceremony for a recluse, as performed by Bishop Alexander of Lincoln in the 1130s at Sempringham, which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(involved sealing the postulant inside a cell \(cf. p. 84, n. 18\). In the endnotes, the author introduces two )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(translations printed by Benedicta Ward, both of which include the word )] TJ ET BT 381.296 344.789 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Sayings)] TJ ET BT 418.628 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( in the title. Confusingly \(at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(least to me\), she then uses )] TJ ET BT 162.332 330.533 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Sayings)] TJ ET BT 199.664 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( as a short title reference \(to the Alphabetical Collection, published in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1975\). She also employs three translations that include the words )] TJ ET BT 349.652 316.277 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Desert Fathers)] TJ ET BT 421.976 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( in the title. After this she )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(uses )] TJ ET BT 57.680 302.021 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Desert Fathers)] TJ ET BT 130.004 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( as a short reference. For clarification, readers should refer to notes five, six, seven and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nine, \(pp. 225-6\) and chase subsequent short references from there.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 252.867 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 222.250 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 222.245 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(H. Chadwick, 'The ascetic ideal in the history of the church', in )] TJ ET BT 369.284 222.245 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Monks, Hermits and the Ascetic )] TJ ET BT 64.016 207.989 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Tradition: Papers Read at the 1984 Summer Meeting and 1985 Winter Meeting of the Ecclesiastical )] TJ ET BT 64.016 193.733 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(History Society)] TJ ET BT 137.672 193.733 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. W. J. Sheils, \(Oxford: Blackwell,1985\), 1-23. )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 382.976 193.733 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 382.976 192.339 m 436.964 192.339 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 179.482 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 179.477 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The first significant study of Peter Damien's spirituality was Leclercq's, 'Saint Pierre Damien, ermite )] TJ ET BT 64.016 165.221 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(et homme d'glise', )] TJ ET BT 158.996 165.221 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Uomini e Dottrine)] TJ ET BT 246.992 165.221 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 8 \(1960\). )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 299.984 165.221 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 299.984 163.827 m 353.972 163.827 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 150.970 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 150.965 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(See for example S. Foot, )] TJ ET BT 185.672 150.965 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Veiled Women I: the Disappearance of Nuns from Anglo-Saxon England)] TJ ET BT 534.632 150.965 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 136.709 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Aldershot: Ashgate, 2000\), pp. 179-88. )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 258.992 136.709 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 258.992 135.315 m 312.980 135.315 l S 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 119.983 526.499 1.500 re S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 102.203 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 102.203 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/650)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 100.809 m 322.316 100.809 l S endstream endobj 26 0 obj [24 0 R /Fit] endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 28 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 246.3077 400.7335 260.2997 412.6135 ] >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 30 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 382.9757 192.6535 436.9637 204.5335 ] >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 16 0 R >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 32 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 299.9837 164.1415 353.9717 176.0215 ] >> endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 21 0 R >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 34 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 258.9917 135.6295 312.9797 147.5095 ] >> endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 26 0 R >> endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 36 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 101.1235 322.3157 113.0035 ] >> endobj 36 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/650) >> endobj 37 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 38 0 R >> endobj 38 0 obj << /Length 225 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 784.354 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 769.954 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/3624)] TJ ET endstream endobj xref 0 39 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000349 00000 n 0000000386 00000 n 0000000549 00000 n 0000000631 00000 n 0000004988 00000 n 0000005097 00000 n 0000005207 00000 n 0000005316 00000 n 0000008877 00000 n 0000009005 00000 n 0000009089 00000 n 0000009173 00000 n 0000017194 00000 n 0000017224 00000 n 0000017352 00000 n 0000017388 00000 n 0000017472 00000 n 0000026079 00000 n 0000026109 00000 n 0000026237 00000 n 0000026273 00000 n 0000026385 00000 n 0000034616 00000 n 0000034646 00000 n 0000034774 00000 n 0000034810 00000 n 0000034938 00000 n 0000034993 00000 n 0000035121 00000 n 0000035176 00000 n 0000035304 00000 n 0000035359 00000 n 0000035487 00000 n 0000035582 00000 n 0000035647 00000 n trailer << /Size 39 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 35924 %%EOF