%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 18 0 R 22 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20150524112901+01'00') /ModDate (D:20150524112901+01'00') /Title (Women in Science: A Social and Cultural History) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4179 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Women in Science: A Social and Cultural History)] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In the introductory chapter to her engaging book, Ruth Watts remarks on the 'dissonance' between women )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and science and the seeming paucity of scholarly literature on the subject. Upon deeper investigation, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(however, Watts soon discovers that she is mistaken. Resulting from her comprehensive reading, review and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(research, this study brings together the work of scholars of gender and science from the 1980s to the present, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and displays their ideas in a form that is lucid and accessible to a wider audience. But the book goes beyond )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(synthesis in a number of important ways too, extending the discussion and asking new questions of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(connections between scientific knowledge, power and gender. Of special significance in this context is her )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(case study on women and medicine in 20th-century Birmingham which features in chapter eight.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Watts has set herself a very ambitious task. Not only does she chart the contributions of women to science, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(taken in its broadest sense to encompass medicine, mathematics and many levels of female participation; she )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(also explores the antagonisms between femininity and science, and the social and cultural antecedents to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(masculine colouring of the scientific enterprise which is still with us today. It is difficult to impose order on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(such a vast amount of subject matter without it appearing arbitrary or forced. It is testimony to Watts's skill )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that she manages to combine her text into a coherent whole, largely through using education as an organising )] TJ ET BT 34.016 75.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(principle. Around this theme, Watts weaves discussions concerning the access of girls and women to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(scientific education and the implications of gendered curricula. She also gives examples of how natural )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(651)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Tuesday, 1 April, 2008)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ruth Watts)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780415253079)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2007)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(60.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(320pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Routledge)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Claire Jones)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7461 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(philosophy and science have produced changing understandings of the female body and intellect which have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(had serious consequences for scientific women. All too often these theories of female inferiority have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(resulted in the closing of doors to women although, as Watts emphasises, women have always found cracks )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(through which to negotiate a way in. Indeed, the book is particularly convincing when discussing the ways )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in which women have participated in science as a part of informal networks from within the domestic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sphere, or have found a role at ease with their femininity as writers, translators, educators and popularisers of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(science.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Watts illustrates how women's personal circumstances have been an important variable in their access \(or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lack of access\) to science. The implications of class, family, faith and attitudes to education are teased out )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(alongside descriptions of the strategies that women used to succeed. These often required them to settle for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(part time or junior roles, sometimes pursuing a job or research without adequate pay or recognition. The way )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in which biography is interweaved skilfully into the text illuminates the theoretical discussions with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(immediacy, and sometimes, intimacy. Alice Stewart, from a privileged background and holder of a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cambridge Natural Sciences degree, became a consultant physician in 1935. Nonetheless, she had to be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(content with low paid jobs which she combined with care of her family, until the Second World War )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(changed everything. As a woman with children, Stewart could not be called up; instead, a temporary job at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Oxford Radcliffe Hospital led to a post as senior assistant at the Nuffield Hospital - an important )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(teaching institution. Because she was part of the war effort she received help with her children and was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(enabled 'to leap over barriers that would otherwise have blocked my way as a woman'. Success on research )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(projects allowed her, in 1946, to become the first woman elected to the Association of Physicians; while she )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(also helped found the )] TJ ET BT 140.000 499.349 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(British Journal of Industrial Medicine)] TJ ET BT 323.336 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. Despite the professional respect she had )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(earned, especially for her significant work on cancer, once the war had ended she was not awarded the chair )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that was the usual next step up. A chair was finally awarded to her by the University of Birmingham when )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(she was 90 years of age. Watts records her remembering that being a woman had allowed 'her to "slip )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(through the cracks", accepting low pay and bad prospects but able to go her own way since nobody took her )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(seriously. A man, she thought, with his "eye on the prize" would never have stood it' \(p. 176\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A pervasive question throughout the book is not just who makes science, but who owns science and why? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Answers are explored in chapters that are presented chronologically, albeit arranged around specific themes. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The focus is on Britain, especially England, although within the European context and with reference to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(America. The time period covered extends from the ancient Greeks through to the middle of the 20th century.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The introductory chapter sets out the theoretical ideas and debates which underpin scholarship in this area )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with an overview of the literature to date. Here Watts provides explorations and definitions of her key )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concepts: science, gender and education, all of which are interpreted very broadly to ensure maximum )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(inclusivity. The latter is important for a study with the partial aim of recovering the involvement of women )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(who were, for the most part, operating from the margins of science. Chapter two takes us 'From the fifth )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century CE to the sixteenth: Learned celibacy or knowledgeable housewifery', presented within the context )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of changing understandings of gender and science produced by Aristotle, Plato, Galen and less familiar )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(philosophers. Here we find measured discussions of women such as Hypatia, the philosopher and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mathematician of ancient Alexandria, and the 12th-century abbess Hildegard of Bingen. Watts places )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(particular emphasis on the history of medicine which she identifies as 'both the oldest and the most common )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(form of scientific activity for women' \(p. 191\). Women's association with medicine, herbalism, healing and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(midwifery is introduced here and remains a strong theme throughout the book. In the 15th century, however, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(such medical knowledge and skill \(and the presumption to authority that it implied\) could place a woman in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(danger of being accused of witchcraft.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The 17th century was pivotal in the development of scientific thinking; chapter three, 'Dangerous )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(knowledge: Science, gender and the beginnings of modernism', examines the flux of revolutionary ideas )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(surfacing at this time and assesses their implications for women. Watts debates the various ways in which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(these changes created spaces for women in science, yet at the same time heralded a conception of science as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(inherently, and self-consciously, 'masculine'. For example, Descartes's separation of mind from body )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(seemingly refuted any argument that women's power of reasoning was inferior due to her weak body, yet )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 7557 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(previous assumptions about women's incapacity for profound or abstract thought proved spectacularly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tenacious. Despite the new thinking, a stress on women's passive nature and slow intellect came to dominate, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in contrast to the perceived active nature of the new science and virile understandings of the men who were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(engaged in laying its foundations. However, some women questioned these conceptions; Watts discusses, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(among others, the contributions to natural philosophy of Margaret Cavendish, duchess of Newcastle, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Anne Finch, viscountess Conway. Although less familiar within the context of science, she also introduces )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the ideas about gender present in the work of dramatist Aphra Benn and the early 'feminist' writer on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(education Bathsua Makin. Watts is persuasive in describing the informal settings in which women pursued )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their scientific interests to whatever extent they were able. Mary Evelyn, for example, was known for her )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(education \(including mathematics\) and her household skills; she also had access through her husband to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oxford scholars who held her in admiration, yet she was still excluded from more profound learning and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(science. Her husband was a member of the Royal Society, but as a woman, she was excluded, despite joint )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(work with him and her taste for the new experimental philosophy. Empirical science was jealous of its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(standing and even the emerging institutions strove to obtain and retain masculine credibility and status.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapter four continues this theme with an exploration of 'Education in science and the science of education )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the long eighteenth century'. Watts begins with an analysis of the intersections of science, culture and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(gender with reference to the work of scholars including Ludmilla Jordanova, Patricia Faro and Londa )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Schiebinger. In the 18th century, visual imagery in medicine and science was gendered to delineate the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(masculine and feminine in complex ways precisely because of new thinking which put so-called natural )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(differences and sex roles into a state of fluidity. So, for example, astronomer Caroline Herschel is pictured )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(serving tea while her brother, William, polishes a mirror in a lithograph of the siblings working together. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(With the masculinisation of natural philosophy came an apparent exclusion of the feminine from Western )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(science; woman became associated with nature and the scientist's muse, not the scientist. Watts illustrates )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(how these assumptions intersected with education and impacted on the lives of individual women, including )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(botanists, mathematicians and natural philosophers such as milie du Chtelet and Laura Bassi.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('Radical networks in education and science in Britain from the mid-eighteenth century to c. 1815' is the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(subject of the following chapter. Watts demonstrates how women from dissenting backgrounds, such as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Quaker or Unitarian, whose families were typically more engaged with scientific thinking and reforming )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(educational ideas, were often advantaged in receiving an education equal to their brothers. This gave such )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(women the learning to engage with science; as teachers and writers, they could combine intellectual enquiry )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with womanly and religious ideals of service. Within this tradition, Watts provides a detailed discussion of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jane Marcet, in particular her )] TJ ET BT 177.968 330.533 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Conversations on Chemistry in Which the Elements of that Science are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(familiarly Explained and Illustrated by Experiments)] TJ ET BT 284.336 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. Directed explicitly to the ladies, this gave women the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(knowledge to appreciate and understand the public lectures on science which were becoming fashionable )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(among the upper classes. The analytical strength of this chapter is that Watts engages with issues of class )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and masculinity too. Marcet belonged to the upper class yet could only advance a limited way in science )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(because of her sex. Men of the lower to middle class, however, or men from the provinces, could find it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(equally difficult to gain a toehold in science, especially as scientific credibility and authority increasingly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(became associated with a manly, metropolitan masculinity.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapter six continues in chronological sequence with 'An older and a newer world: Networks of science c. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1815-1880'. During these decades a new map of science was emerging in Britain as new educational )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(initiatives took root and learned institutions, such as the British Association for the Advancement of Science )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(BAAS\) became established. Watts investigates the opportunities for women within this changing landscape, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(illustrating her conclusions with reference to the lives of individuals. There is comprehensive discussion of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mary Somerville, the mathematician and astronomer best known for translating La Place's astronomical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(work into English, extending it and adding her own examples. Somerville won the acclaim of scholars at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cambridge and elsewhere for making La Place's difficult, inaccessible mathematical thinking clearer, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ensuring that French advances in mathematical analysis and the application of the laws of gravity to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(astronomy became known in an England still adhering to Newtonian physics.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The late 19th century to the early 20th century is the focus of chapter seven: 'Science comes of age: Male )] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 20 0 R ] /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 7086 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(patriarchs and women serving science?' Close attention is paid to educational developments in England and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wales from 1880 onwards, including elementary, technical, further and higher education. Watts argues that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(at best these initiatives produced only uneven progress for scientific women, although the emergence of new, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as yet developing specialisms such as crystallography and biochemistry seemed to offer more opportunities )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for women. This chapter is based on meticulous, detailed research and contextualised with reference to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(American experience. There is also a table detailing the achievements and brief life histories of women who )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(achieved the highest honours in science in the first two-thirds of the 20th century, including three Nobel )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prize winners and other women who, controversially today, were not awarded this accolade.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In chapter eight Watts goes beyond a synthesis of the scholarly literature on gender and science to offer a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(detailed examination of 'Medicine, education and gender from c. 1902 to 1944 with a case study of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Birmingham'. Professionalisation is a reason often cited as to why women became excluded from science in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the late 19th and early 20th centuries. However, this is a term that requires unpacking, and in her case study )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Watts has managed to expose in detail the assumptions and formal and informal structures \(and sometimes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(luck\) that facilitated women's access or not. In Birmingham at least, networks of middle-class women, some )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of whom were engaged in local government, actively promoted educational and medical ventures which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(employed women. Nevertheless, Watts concludes that women had to be ready to take advantage of special )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(circumstances and were largely appointed to gender stereotyped roles.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapter nine, 'Asking questions of science: The significance of gender and education', weaves together the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(themes of the book by way of conclusion. Watts effectively refutes the notion that 'girls and women don't do )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(science. They have always been involved in the scientific activities of the day, albeit in varying degrees and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(numbers' \(p. 193\). She concludes that women have often contributed most to science when they were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(involved in activities not yet of a sufficiently high status or pay to exclude them. Women have frequently )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(been teachers and disseminators of scientific knowledge and, from the French salons of the 18th century, to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(20th-century Birmingham, membership of a formal or informal scientific network was vital. Historiography )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is also guilty of ignoring women; the history of science has all too often been written as the story of 'great )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(men', neglecting not only women but also men who were among the teams of people increasingly needed to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pursue 'modern' science.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In a book this extensive in scope, it would be unreasonable and ungracious to expect that all topics of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relevance to women and science could be addressed. There is little discussion of the significant number of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(women active in the 19th-century scientific and medical instrument trade, women inventors and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(technologists, or the women mathematicians who earned a living as 'computers' before such things were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(invented. Similarly, there is more to be said about women's relationship with learned societies. Women )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(published in Royal Society journals as lone or co-authors with relative frequency at the beginning of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(20th century. In addition, the growth of specialist scientific societies was in part fuelled by the exclusivity of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the elite institutions and the need of women and other amateurs to find an alternative outlet for their work. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(But this is in no way a criticism of this book.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Selection is all, and with )] TJ ET BT 155.348 235.253 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Women in Science)] TJ ET BT 243.320 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Watts provides an expertly crafted, comprehensive introduction )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to the subject, which readers can use as a platform for further research, while also highlighting much of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interest for scholars investigating women, femininity and science. There is a short glossary at the front of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(book, the contents of which are highlighted in the main text so that novices to the subject can easily refer )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(back. The extensive bibliography, which includes a variety of sources, such as websites, will be particularly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(valuable to those new to the subject. Watts has provided an invaluable resource that could be of interest to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(students of history, education, women's studies, philosophy and science. She synthesises the significant )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(literature, adds new knowledge and makes the whole accessible to a wide audience. This was sorely needed.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 90.223 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 72.443 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 72.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/651)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 71.049 m 322.316 71.049 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 46.072 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET endstream endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 71.3635 322.3157 83.2435 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/651) >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 23 0 R >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Length 234 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.354 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/3625)] TJ ET BT 34.016 781.954 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj xref 0 24 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000349 00000 n 0000000386 00000 n 0000000557 00000 n 0000000639 00000 n 0000004870 00000 n 0000004979 00000 n 0000005089 00000 n 0000005198 00000 n 0000008759 00000 n 0000008887 00000 n 0000008971 00000 n 0000009036 00000 n 0000016550 00000 n 0000016615 00000 n 0000024225 00000 n 0000024309 00000 n 0000031448 00000 n 0000031574 00000 n 0000031669 00000 n 0000031734 00000 n trailer << /Size 24 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 32020 %%EOF