%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 18 0 R ] /Count 4 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20141127122318+00'00') /ModDate (D:20141127122318+00'00') /Title (Food in Early Modern England: Phases, Fads, Fashions 1500-1760) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4624 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Food in Early Modern England: Phases, Fads, Fashions 1500-1760)] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A gentleman should never tell, but )] TJ ET BT 203.000 287.579 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Food in Early Modern England)] TJ ET BT 354.992 287.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is published 50 years after the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(appearance of Joan Thirsk's first book, )] TJ ET BT 222.464 273.323 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(English Peasant Farming)] TJ ET BT 345.800 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1957\). Between those dates, Thirsk has )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(published, edited and contributed to a formidable list of volumes and journals. This helps to explain why it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(has been Joan Thirsk who has done most to advance our understanding of agrarian change in early modern )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(England, last but not least, as the editor of not one, but two key volumes in )] TJ ET BT 396.332 230.555 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Agrarian History of England )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(and Wales)] TJ ET BT 84.344 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, a series for which she has also served as general editor. Thirsk's major contribution, along with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(her colleague Alan Everitt, has been her advocacy and exemplification of what has come to be known as the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Leicester School of Local History. Beginning first with a county study, then through a series of regional and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(national studies, Thirsk developed a regional framework for understanding the late medieval and early )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(modern agrarian economy and economic change in that period. As her work has demonstrated, the Leicester )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(School's model of regional ecologies offered a framework for an integrated history that moved beyond )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(economic history narrowly conceived. The map of regional ecologies, which Thirsk's own work has done )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(much to refine, provided a more appropriate unit of analysis than the old county study, in which not only the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relationships between agrarian, urban and industrial change might be analysed, but also the relationships )] TJ ET BT 34.016 87.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(between settlement patterns and social change and, more provocatively, between patterns of regional society )] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and those in the early modern mental and cultural worlds. The impact of this body of work on what used to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 59.483 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(be called the new social history of the later 20th century awaits its historian, but it is hard to overstate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(652)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Monday, 31 March, 2008)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Joan Thirsk)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9781852855383)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2007)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(30.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(416pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hambledon Continuum)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(John Walter)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7464 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thirsk's significance; much of what is admirable in the nuanced, more recent work in social and cultural )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history, with its 'rediscovery' of the significance of 'space' and the spatial variable, can be traced back to hers )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the Leicester School's influence - even when its practitioners seem apparently unaware of the umbilical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(link.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Much of the dynamic in Thirsk's work on agrarian history was, unsurprisingly, provided by the demands )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(placed on a pre-industrialised economy by demographic growth. It was a growing population's demand for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(food and, in a culture which privileged grains \('give us this day our daily bread ...'\), for increased cereal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(production, which acted as the major motor for change. The centrality of questions of harvest quality and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(production meant that this was more often serial, rather than cereal history, with price series and \(estimated\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(output figures brought to the fore. If food was never entirely absent from Thirsk's earlier work, production, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not consumption, dominated the discussion. Questions of what type of food were eaten and in what forms, if )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discussed, were inevitably subordinated to the economic historian's emphasis on supply and demand.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Food in Early Modern England)] TJ ET BT 186.008 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( magnificently redresses the balance. Its appearance, of course, marks a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(significant shift across a whole series of historiographies; for example, converging interests in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(importance of consumption and, not least, the emergence of food history as a subject fit for serious academic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(study inside and, significantly, outside the academy. Yet in its distinctive approach to its subject, let alone its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(formidable array of sources, this present work shows that Thirsk was never indifferent to the centrality of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(diet and dietary regimes to those earlier histories. At the same time, what makes this book exciting is the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(provocative arguments Thirsk advances for finding, in a close-grained focus on what early modern men and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(women ate, possible new answers to one of the key questions in the macro-history of the period: how did )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(England manage to expand and stabilise its food supply so as to escape famine, sustain demographic growth )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and underwrite urban and industrial growth?)] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Given the paradox of both recent and rapid growth in the field of early modern food history and the alarming )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('dark holes' yet remaining in our knowledge of the subject, Thirsk adopts a very practical strategy for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(monitoring change across the period. In the first half of the book, she divides the period up into shorter time )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(spans, whose varying durations \(from 20-60 years\) reflect her belief that changes in dietary practice did not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(occur evenly. As might be expected, Thirsk writes across the whole of this period with a command of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(economic changes that underpinned and responded to shifts in food preference. Within the shorter time )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(spans, Thirsk reconstructs patterns of consumption and cooking by moving between two worlds: that of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(writers on food and the world of the kitchen. Though sensitive to differences in diet broadly determined by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(class and region \(on which the second half of the book has more to say\), it is the household accounts of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(generally wealthier households that provide the evidence of what went into the kitchen and, with some )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(significant exceptions, printed books written for a middling and upwards readership, that provide evidence )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for writing on food. On the latter, Thirsk has very sensible things to say and is acutely aware, as presumably )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(are readers of this review, that books on food are as good to think with, as to cook from. But it would be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(good here, as has been the case in much work drawing on early modern print culture, to have a clearer sense )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of authorial intent and intended audiences.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The trends that Thirsk recovers from this approach may be broadly familiar, but there is a depth to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discussion and detailing of evidence that is very impressive. There are also some provocative arguments that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(only someone as steeped in the period as Thirsk is, could make and sustain. Although in her conclusion )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thirsk argues, perhaps surprisingly given the detail advanced in the core of the book, that public knowledge )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of food was minimal in 1500, this was from the beginning a food culture in which, at all levels of society, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(significant time and thought was given to food. Throughout the period there was a growing interest in new )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(types of food and in new ways of producing traditional staples, with some periods, for example the later 16th )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the later 17th centuries proving particularly fertile. While England in 1500 might have broadly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conformed to its place within Braudelian global patterns and to contemporary foreign comment with cereal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(eating forming the major part of the diet and, increasingly through the period, in the larger quantities of meat )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consumed, at all levels, Thirsk argues, there was an attempt to produce and eat a more varied diet. For the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rich this represented an attempt to enliven the palate; for the poor, to fill the belly. Thus, over the early )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(modern period, foods were moving into and out of the diets and up and down the social hierarchy. A )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 7557 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(renewed interest in garden plants among a small section of the elite in the Middle Ages led to a golden age )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of 'vegetables' in the later 16th and 17th centuries and by the later 17th century, root vegetables had moved 'a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(long way up the social scale' \(p. 288\). The rise of the garden \(still largely an unwritten chapter in the history )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the poor's diet\), along with increased access to 'need foods' in the wastes and commons, saw plebeian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(diets also bulked out with greens and herbs as foodstuffs. At the beginning of the period, butter, largely used )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for cooking in elite households, became increasingly prominent on the tables of the gentry and middling sort. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Over time, cheese became more in demand, more varied and more expensive, even if its use in cooking )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lagged some way behind. Depending on region, this might have given the poor greater access to those 'white )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(meats' - butter and cheese - and waste products \(whey\) which gave relish to an otherwise often monotonous )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(diet. However against this, commercialisation might see the otherwise valuable waste product of dairying, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which was sometimes distributed free to the poor, being used to fatten livestock. While mutton \(for the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fortunate only\) and herring were sources of protein, a greater catholicity in diet in a world in which 'hardly a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bird in the sky was not eaten' \(p. xi\) and which saw a growing market for small birds the British now like to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(think only unfeeling foreigners eat, offers one example of a much wider diet that, Thirsk argues, was 'free )] TJ ET BT 34.016 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for the taking'. \(Although Thirsk later recognises that urbanisation and industrialisation tended to remove the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 582.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(labouring poor from direct access to rural foodstuffs, this emphasis on 'food for free' perhaps needs greater )] TJ ET BT 34.016 568.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sensitivity to the changing regional, social and political factors that determined access to 'nature's larder'.\) By )] TJ ET BT 34.016 554.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the 17th century, England's growing dominance in a European world economy also brought an increasing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 539.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(range of new foodstuffs. If many of these were to be reserved for the tables of the rich, contemporary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 525.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(commentators were struck by the sight of ordinary Londoners munching oranges in the capital's streets. And, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 511.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(although its acceptance was to be gradual and contested, the potato had, by the end of the period Thirsk )] TJ ET BT 34.016 497.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(writes about, begun to make its transition from a regional introduction to a national staple.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(If over this period, and in some regions from an earlier date, a diet of wheaten bread and beef were to come )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to represent the symbolically cultural good in John Bull's England, Thirsk argues that this oversimplifies a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more complex regional and social patterning to diet and misrepresents the chronological changes in the early )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(modern dietary regime. For the most part, the story she has to tell is one of incremental change. England )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(experienced a 'quiet revolution', to which family tradition, regional use, popular knowledge and later cheap )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(print, all contributed and in which Thirsk is at pains to suggest women in the kitchen, as much as men in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fields, had a vital role to play.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(But in charting these, and it needs to be emphasised, many other changes, Thirsk also suggests that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(period witnessed key moments in the adoption of new foods \(for example, root vegetables in the hard times )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the 1590s, fruit in the 1620s, and pickled meat in the 1710s\). Indeed, she argues that on occasion these )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(changes might be read as a series of revolutions in England's foodways. These were not revolutionary in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sense that they represented radical new additions to the list of what was thought fit to eat. For example, a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('fruit revolution' is Thirsk's term for the qualitative differences that had been produced in fruit by 1600. But )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(they were or might have been revolutionary in terms of their consequences for a significantly increased food )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(supply. Of these 'revolutions', Thirsk pays particular attention to two. The first is the emerging skill of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pickling. Thirsk suggests that economic historians' neglect of the increased possibilities of food storage that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this represented, misses an important factor in explaining England's success in meeting the demands of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(increased population growth in the 18th century. The second was an 'incipient pulse revolution' \(p. 179\). In )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the first half of the 18th century, peas and beans - which had formerly been seen as animal fodder or a need )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(food primarily of the poor - had come to be eaten by all classes. Pulses offered a cheap source of nutrition, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and Thirsk suggests their consumption might, at least in the south, have exceeded that of potatoes. But if this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was a revolution, and hard data is of course hard to come by, it was one interrupted by the eventual triumph )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the potato.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Recent food history has sought to draw out the cultural and conceptual significance of the highly recursive )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fact of humans' daily need for food in social organisation and social and cultural identities. Taste, what is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(thought good to eat, is of course culturally shaped in complex ways and, we might emphasise, is subject to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(political regulation and contest. In constructing identities, consumption of a common food can create nations )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and commensality constitute consumption 'communities', while evident quantitative, and sometimes, subtle )] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 20 0 R 22 0 R 24 0 R ] /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 2404 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(qualitative, differences in what is eaten and how, can also be powerful markers of social difference and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(division. Thirsk is aware of these issues, but )] TJ ET BT 249.332 782.213 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Food in Early Modern England)] TJ ET BT 401.324 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( addresses food as hard social )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fact and cultural metaphor only incidentally. However, the rich fare it provides, offered as ever in Thirsk's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(accessible prose, furnishes repeated illustration of the potential of food history. 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