%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 24 0 R 47 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20141026044439+00'00') /ModDate (D:20141026044439+00'00') /Title (Women Letter-Writers in Tudor England) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 1772 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Women Letter-Writers in Tudor England)] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(654)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Monday, 31 March, 2008)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(James Daybell)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(978019925991)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2006)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(64.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(342pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oxford University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oxford)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bernard Capp)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7486 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It is a truth universally acknowledged and documented many years ago by David Cressy, that women in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(early modern England had far lower rates of literacy than men. James Daybell does not overturn this truth, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(but his book alerts us to the survival of a far larger body of correspondence by Tudor women than we had )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(imagined, and urges us to think again about the level of female literacy in the period. Cressy suggested that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the proportion of women able to write their own names rose from about 1 per cent in 1500 to 8 per cent by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1600, deriving his figures from a scrutiny of ecclesiastical court depositions. But as Daybell notes, women )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from the upper levels of society rarely gave evidence in these courts, and the figures may seriously )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(underestimate literacy rates among these groups. Daybell believes that most elite women were literate, to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(varying degrees, by the later 16th century, though the spelling of even aristocratic ladies could be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bewilderingly idiosyncratic. His study is based on an impressive body of some 3,000 surviving letters, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(written by over 650 different individuals, and he shows how they can give us an invaluable insight into )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(women's lives. He is also at pains, however, to stress that these letters must be read as texts, rather than )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(transparent statements of fact or feeling, for they were 'subject to generic and linguistic conventions; texts )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that were socially and culturally coded' \(p. 46\). Daybell provides an assured and reliable guide to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conventions that shaped composition, page-layout, forms of address and closing salutation, and so on. His )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(book is a fine analytical survey and, at the same time, an invaluable manual for the historian using and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interpreting this material.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Daybell has published extensively in the field over the last decade, and the present book represents the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(culmination of extensive research and careful reflection. It will become at once the standard work. My only )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(quibble is that, despite the title, his study begins effectively in 1540 when the Tudor period was already )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(halfway through. Clearly the number of surviving letters increased considerably in the second half of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century, especially from the 1570s, but Daybell acknowledges in passing that many letters survive from the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(earlier period, especially the 1530s, and he sometimes draws upon the rich correspondence of Lady Lisle )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from those years. Some explanation of the authorial decision would have been welcome.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Such quibbles aside, what do we learn from this study? As we would expect, the surviving material increases )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(quite dramatically over the course of the period. From the 1540s Daybell has found 80 letters by about 30 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(writers; from the 1590s there are over 800 by over 230 writers \(p. 39\). Again, as we would expect, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(material is heavily weighted towards the elite. Some 90 per cent of the surviving letters are from women )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(belonging to the aristocracy or gentry, with the other 10 per cent mainly from professional and mercantile )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(groups. Letters written by 'middling sort' and plebeian women, relatively common as we go through the 17th )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century, are very rare in the Tudor period. Daybell notes that men's and women's letter-writing display more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(similarities than differences, and in many respects social status weighed more heavily than gender. The great )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(majority of letters were functional in character, dealing with practical matters. Even letters sent by wives to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(absent husbands were generally concerned primarily with the smooth running of the household and its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(affairs, rather than expressing personal emotions. A very substantial number - roughly a thousand, by 350 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(different women - were letters of petition, many sent to courtiers and officials and seeking favours for the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(writer, family members, or her associates. Here gender did play a significant part in shaping the text. Most )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(petitioners quite consciously chose to emphasise their feminine 'weakness' and 'frailty', judging correctly that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the language of submission and humility was most likely to elicit a favourable response from male grandees. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Other letters were social, written to keep the writer in touch with family and friends, reinforce social bonds )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and pass on news that was often domestic or local, but might also include political, court and military news -)] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(subjects often regarded as essentially male.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As subjects, 'women letter-writers' might sound unproblematic. In reality, as much of the book explores in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(depth, they present numerous problems. Did they pen their own letters, dictate to an amanuensis, or write a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(draft from which a male secretary would work up a polished final version? Daybell shows us that women )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(employed all three methods, reflecting both varying levels of writing facility and also the nature of the letter )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and its intended recipient. Even highly literate women might seek help and guidance in writing letters )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concerning business and law. A letter of petition, especially to the queen or some high-ranking minister, was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(very likely to be penned by an amanuensis. In the case of 23 per cent of all letter-writers, only scribal letters )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(survive \(p. 93\). The same woman might thus employ different methods according to circumstance - though )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 19 0 R 22 0 R ] /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 8046 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not, as far as we know, at the same time, unlike the 17th-century lawyer, politician and ambassador )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bulstrode Whitelocke, who was understandably proud of his ability to write one letter while simultaneously )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dictating two others to his secretaries. )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 218.324 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 218.324 766.563 m 232.316 766.563 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 232.316 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Many women's letters, Daybell shows, were collaborative efforts, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(partly their own composition, partly written by a secretary, sometimes modified on the advice of a male )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(family-member who had read through a draft. That presents one problem for the modern scholar trying to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(identify the 'true voice' of the woman whose signature appears at the end. Equally problematic is the role of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(convention in the construction and language of letters. Some elite women may have had access to published )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(guides by Erasmus and Angel Day, and many more followed carefully the style and conventions they had )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(seen in other letters, sometimes copying out admired letters to serve as models. Many letters were thus in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(part formulaic, and in each case the modern reader has to disentangle the formulaic from the genuinely )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(personal. Respecting convention was by no means a trivial matter, for the writer was well aware that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(recipient would interpret a letter according to its form and language as well as its substance. Any significant )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(deviation from established convention might well be interpreted as evidence of ill breeding or as a deliberate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(slight, both potentially disastrous. Daybell shows us how to 'read' the layout and the blank spaces of a letter, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as well as its text. Thus leaving a wide gap between the opening greeting and the main text served as a mark )] TJ ET BT 34.016 582.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of respect, while text tightly crammed signified the opposite. A large space left empty at the end was a sign )] TJ ET BT 34.016 568.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of conspicuous consumption \(paper being very expensive\), while a beautifully written letter might not only )] TJ ET BT 34.016 554.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(accompany a gift but constitute a gift in its own right.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In many respects women's correspondence confirms evidence we have from other sources on issues of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(gender. For example, elite girls were usually taught the italic hand, judged the easiest to learn and read and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hence the most appropriate for a sex believed to have only limited intellectual stamina and capacity; by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contrast boys from the same social milieu would be taught the secretary hand, the dominant script for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(business, law and government. A few women could write in Latin, and significantly more knew French; )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(some used letters to mention or discuss the books they had read. It is striking to find that most avoided )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(religious matters, and their letters were predominantly secular in spirit. This contrasts sharply with women's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(poetry of the Tudor-Stuart period, and probably reflects both the functional character of most )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(correspondence and well-founded concerns over confidentiality. Women addressing their husbands generally )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(did so in respectful, deferential language, especially among the aristocracy. Their style was more intimate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and affectionate among the gentry and merchants, and increasingly so in the later decades. This may reflect )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(changes in the emotional climate of family life, though equally, as Daybell notes, it may simply reflect a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(natural change in tone as more family letters were penned by women themselves rather than dictated to an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(amanuensis. Certainly we have some letters, especially in the Thynne correspondence, where wives felt able )] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to express warm affection, and even erotic thoughts, to their partners. Maria Thynne, already well known )] TJ ET BT 34.016 314.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(through the work of Alison Wall, )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.000 314.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.000 312.627 m 210.992 312.627 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 210.992 314.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( emerges as perhaps the most frank and forceful of all the Tudor women )] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(writers, sometimes playful, sometimes bitingly sarcastic at the expense of her mother-in-law or husband. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Some of the warmest and most informal letters occur among those written by women to women, of which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 271.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(about 250 survive.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In other respects Daybell's findings encourage us to modify traditional views. If female correspondents were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(often conventionally modest and self-deprecating, they felt at liberty to adopt a very different tone when )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(writing to male social inferiors \(tradesmen or servants\), or reproaching a neglectful son or even husband. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Status was at least as important as gender. The duchess of Suffolk felt able to use playfully familiar language )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in addressing William Cecil, newly appointed Secretary in 1550, clearly feeling that his recent elevation did )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not outweigh their old familiarity and her vast superiority of rank. Also important, as mentioned, is the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discovery that many female correspondents were writing about matters of high politics and public affairs, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(traditionally viewed as male preserves. Women's letters, like men's, often moved freely between personal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and public matters, and the boundaries between private and public spheres were fluid. Indeed, women could )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(play a variety of political roles, not only writing petitions to the queen or senior officials, but delivering and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(supporting the petitions of others, and sometimes supplying advice to friends and family on timing and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 88.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tactics. Women at court were thus far more than mere 'points of contact'; they could play an active role )] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(guiding as well as serving their families in the provinces. In some cases substantial numbers of letters have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 59.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(survived written by a single woman - over 70 each by Bess of Hardwick, Arbella Stuart, and Elizabeth )] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj [16 0 R /Fit] endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 20 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 218.3237 766.8775 232.3157 778.7575 ] >> endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 21 0 obj [16 0 R /Fit] endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 23 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 196.9997 312.9415 210.9917 324.8215 ] >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 27 0 R 30 0 R 33 0 R 35 0 R 37 0 R 39 0 R 41 0 R 43 0 R 45 0 R ] /Contents 25 0 R >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Length 8589 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bourne, for example - and here we can use them to explore women's engagement with the political world )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more fully. The most significant finding, perhaps, is the fluidity of patronage networks: suitors did not rely )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on a single patron, but turned to several, in the hope of achieving a cumulative effect. Elsewhere Daybell )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(explores the significance of letter-writing in encouraging a growing sense of the self. Although the majority )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of letters were functional rather than introspective, the very act of writing prompted the writer to think of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(herself as an individual, with her own distinct voice and identity, however much that voice had to be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(modified by epistolary convention.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Daybell has explicitly chosen to write on 'women letter-writers' rather than 'women's letter-writing'. The two )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(subjects overlap heavily, of course, and he notes several times the fact that many more letters have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(undoubtedly perished than have survived. There certainly remains scope for further work on female literacy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and letter-writing drawing on other, indirect sources. Shakespeare's Mrs Page and Mrs Ford, the 'Merry )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wives of Windsor', are at home in the world of letters, as we would expect, for these are gentlewomen \(if of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(modest standing\). On receiving a love letter from Falstaff, Mrs Page remarks that she had missed out on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(such things in her youth \()] TJ ET BT 156.344 599.141 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Merry Wives)] TJ ET BT 217.988 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, II.i.1-2\), an interesting comment in the light of Daybell's observation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that very few love letters have survived from the Tudor period. It is perhaps more surprising to find the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(shepherdess Phebe writing a letter in )] TJ ET BT 213.320 570.629 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(As You Like It)] TJ ET BT 280.988 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, though Rosalind doubts that it could be genuine \()] TJ ET BT 523.652 570.629 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(As You )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Like It)] TJ ET BT 65.012 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, IV. ii. 8-30\); and it is Maria the maid who composes and writes the spoof love letter to Malvolio, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which is central to the plot of )] TJ ET BT 177.668 542.117 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Twelfth Night)] TJ ET BT 243.356 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. Moving away from drama, we find the adulterous Mary Deane )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(communicating with her lover in 1600, and writing in a secret cipher she had learned from her mother. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bridewell governors, unable to crack the code, contented themselves with ordering Mary to be whipped and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(deported to Scotland. )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 139.340 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 139.340 497.955 m 153.332 497.955 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 153.332 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( A generation later, the Lancashire yeoman's daughter Jane Martindale migrated to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London, around 1625, and then wrote home asking her mother to send a goose-pie by the carrier. The letter )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(has long since perished, but it is striking that her brother Adam, who supplies the information, saw nothing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unusual in such female correspondence. )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 228.632 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 228.632 455.187 m 242.624 455.187 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Women's correspondence from the 17th century survives in too great an abundance for anyone to undertake )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the comprehensive study that Daybell has given us for the later Tudor period, reflecting the growth of female )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(literacy as well as better survival-rates. Daybell's work has enriched and transformed our understanding of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the literacy, and the lives, of Tudor gentlewomen. Perhaps he, or another scholar, will place these findings in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a wider geographical context. In Italy and France we find published guides for women on the conventions of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(letter-writing long before the first appeared in England \(in 1638, translated from a French original\). Did elite )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(English women lag behind their continental sisters? None of the Tudor correspondence appears to have the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(easy warmth and intimacy of the marital correspondence between Magdalena and Balthasar Paumgartner, a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nuremberg merchant and his wife in the later 16th century. )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 321.620 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 321.620 314.883 m 335.612 314.883 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 335.612 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Let us hope that Daybell's project will )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(encourage other scholars to extend this fine study both chronologically and geographically.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The author's response is pending.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 240.867 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 210.250 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 210.245 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Diary of Bulstrode Whitelocke 1605-75, )] TJ ET BT 280.328 210.245 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ed. R. Spalding \(Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1990\), )] TJ ET BT 64.016 195.989 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(p. 344. )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 100.016 195.989 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 100.016 194.595 m 154.004 194.595 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 181.738 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 181.733 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Two Elizabethan Women: Correspondence of Joan and Maria Thynne, 1575-1611)] TJ ET BT 459.320 181.733 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. A. Wall, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 167.477 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wiltshire Record Society, 38 \(1982\). )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 244.328 167.477 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 244.328 166.083 m 298.316 166.083 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 153.226 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 153.221 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Guildhall Library, London, MS 33011/4, fos. 184, 194 v. )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 341.012 153.221 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 341.012 151.827 m 395.000 151.827 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 138.970 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 138.965 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Life of Adam Martindale)] TJ ET BT 204.020 138.965 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. R. Parkinson, Chetham Society, 4 \(1845\), pp.6-8. )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 467.672 138.965 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 467.672 137.571 m 521.660 137.571 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 124.714 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(5.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 124.709 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(S. Ozment, )] TJ ET BT 120.680 124.709 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Magdalena and Balthasar. An Intimate Portrait of Life in 16th-Century Europe)] TJ ET BT 502.352 124.709 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(New )] TJ ET BT 64.016 110.453 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Haven: Yale, 1989\). )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 164.324 110.453 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 164.324 109.059 m 218.312 109.059 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 84.197 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 69.941 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(oxford journals)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 55.685 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://ehr.oxfordjournals.org/content/CXXIII/502/721.short)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 54.291 m 319.664 54.291 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 322.664 55.685 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET endstream endobj 26 0 obj [24 0 R /Fit] endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 28 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 139.3397 498.2695 153.3317 510.1495 ] >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 29 0 obj [24 0 R /Fit] endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 31 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 228.6317 455.5015 242.6237 467.3815 ] >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 32 0 obj [24 0 R /Fit] endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 34 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 321.6197 315.1975 335.6117 327.0775 ] >> endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 36 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 100.0157 194.9095 154.0037 206.7895 ] >> endobj 36 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 18 0 R >> endobj 37 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 38 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 244.3277 166.3975 298.3157 178.2775 ] >> endobj 38 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 21 0 R >> endobj 39 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 40 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 341.0117 152.1415 394.9997 164.0215 ] >> endobj 40 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 26 0 R >> endobj 41 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 42 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 467.6717 137.8855 521.6597 149.7655 ] >> endobj 42 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 29 0 R >> endobj 43 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 44 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 164.3237 109.3735 218.3117 121.2535 ] >> endobj 44 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 32 0 R >> endobj 45 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 46 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 54.6055 319.6637 66.4855 ] >> endobj 46 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://ehr.oxfordjournals.org/content/CXXIII/502/721.short) >> endobj 47 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 49 0 R ] /Contents 48 0 R >> endobj 48 0 obj << /Length 652 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 805.999 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 788.219 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 788.219 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/654)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 786.825 m 322.316 786.825 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 761.848 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 747.448 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/3628)] TJ ET BT 34.016 733.048 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://ehr.oxfordjournals.org/content/CXXIII/502/721.short)] TJ ET endstream endobj 49 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 50 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 787.1395 322.3157 799.0195 ] >> endobj 50 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/654) >> endobj xref 0 51 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000349 00000 n 0000000386 00000 n 0000000547 00000 n 0000000629 00000 n 0000002453 00000 n 0000002562 00000 n 0000002672 00000 n 0000002781 00000 n 0000006342 00000 n 0000006470 00000 n 0000006554 00000 n 0000006619 00000 n 0000014158 00000 n 0000014249 00000 n 0000022348 00000 n 0000022378 00000 n 0000022506 00000 n 0000022542 00000 n 0000022572 00000 n 0000022700 00000 n 0000022736 00000 n 0000022876 00000 n 0000031518 00000 n 0000031548 00000 n 0000031676 00000 n 0000031712 00000 n 0000031742 00000 n 0000031870 00000 n 0000031906 00000 n 0000031936 00000 n 0000032064 00000 n 0000032100 00000 n 0000032228 00000 n 0000032283 00000 n 0000032411 00000 n 0000032466 00000 n 0000032594 00000 n 0000032649 00000 n 0000032777 00000 n 0000032832 00000 n 0000032960 00000 n 0000033015 00000 n 0000033140 00000 n 0000033250 00000 n 0000033334 00000 n 0000034038 00000 n 0000034166 00000 n trailer << /Size 51 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 34261 %%EOF