%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 19 0 R 24 0 R 26 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140916230425+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140916230425+01'00') /Title ('Gold tried in the Fire'. The Prophet TheaurauJohn Tany and the English Revolution) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 3898 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [('Gold tried in the Fire'. The Prophet TheaurauJohn Tany and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(English Revolution)] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.195 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [('Gold tried in the Fire'. The Prophet TheaurauJohn Tany and the English Revolution)] TJ ET BT 441.476 266.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is not an ordinary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history book, for many reasons: the daring task of rescuing the mental world of the most idiosyncratic of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prophets of the English revolution; the mastery of the archival and printed sources as well as the biblical and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(religious literature demonstrated by Ariel Hessayon; the awareness with which he controls his prose; and, his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(aim of questioning historical writing in the very act of writing history. On each of these points the book )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(achieves relevant results and succeeds in stimulating new questions.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 168.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(On the basis of this book, we now know the biographical background of Thomas Totney, the Lincolnshire-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 154.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(born goldsmith of London who God renamed on 23 November 1649. We discover the range of contacts, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 140.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(possible readings and the cultural materials which contributed to shaping his identity as a prophet and his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 125.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(astonishing rewriting of biblical myths. Even if nothing is conceded to Christopher Hill's account of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 111.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('revolt within the revolution', we learn, as well, that we cannot take for granted John Colin Davis's dismissal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the printed sources of the 1650s as pure fiction without first researching the archival sources. Finally, this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 83.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(book tries to let the sources speak for themselves by taking into account and exploiting the active role of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reader.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(655)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Monday, 31 March, 2008)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ariel Hessayon)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780754655978)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2007)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(45.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(487pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ashgate)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Aldershot)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mario Caricchio)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 17 0 R ] /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 8280 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(TheaurauJohn Tany is one of those 'ordinary people' who took the floor to express their view on religion and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(politics and found their way to publication during the 1640s and 1650s. Like a number of them, his only )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(memory in history had for a long time been that of the 'extravagant fanatic' and the 'madman'. However, his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fate was reversed together with that of the Ranters in the 1970s, following Hill's )] TJ ET BT 421.124 741.701 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The World Turned Upside )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Down)] TJ ET BT 62.684 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, which gave to the so-called 'lunatic fringe' the dignity of history. Since then, Tany has been evoked in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(many studies. He has been described, following Hill, as a Ranter or something similar. Davis contested this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(view in his )] TJ ET BT 89.684 698.933 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Fear, Myth and History)] TJ ET BT 203.672 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1986\). Others paid particular )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attention to his conflicting relationship with the two founders of the Muggletonian sect, John Reeve and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lodowick Muggleton. The influence on Tany of Jacob Boehme's texts and his significant place in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Judaising of early modern England have been discussed. All of these encounters with the words and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(thoughts of Tany have, nonetheless, been hindered by the objective difficulty of penetrating the sense of a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(corpus of writing which may look, at first sight, as confused printed mumbling; hence, the usual reminder of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(many commentators that Tany's interesting views are to be discerned under the veil of a probably real )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(insanity. Moreover, nothing was known of Tany's biography except for a few cryptic references in his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(writings or the newsbooks' accounts of his activities in and around London during the 1650s. Hessayon's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(book, in three sections suggestively entitled 'Genesis', 'Genealogy of the High Priest' and 'King of the Jews', )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(puts an end to the shortcomings of previous studies.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('Genesis' is the reconstruction of Totney's life up to his new 'birth' in 1649 as the prophet TheaurauJohn )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Tany. Hessayon tracks down details of his early life at Little Shelford, Cambridgeshire, in a family of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(modest yeomen farmers. It seems that the local community was not characterised by any 'irresistible rise of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the godly'. Nonetheless, all clues in the sources seem to indicate that the future prophet had grown up within )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a godly environment, though one unacknowledged as such by the surrounding people. Coherently, he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(entered the godly community of London, where he was apprenticed and set up his shop in the parish of St )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Kathrine Creechurch. St Kathrine Creechurch had been troubled by Stephen Denison's denunciation of a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Familist conventicle in the 1620s - one of the main cases in which the divisions which fissured the London )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(puritan community came to the public eye, as the studies of Peter Lake and David Como have shown. )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 525.284 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 525.284 414.675 m 539.276 414.675 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Totney was permanently marked, as Hessayon is able to point out in his writings, by the frightening and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(uncompromising sermons which Denison continued to preach on the doctrine of election and reprobation in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the 1630s. Moreover, Totney's refusal to baptise his first son, and his marriage by licence during the period )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of Lent, point at some kind of 'confrontational godliness', and also entail disagreement with the minister of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the parish. It appears that Totney refused to act diligently as a ship money collector in 1640, that he took the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Protestation Oath, probably participated in iconoclastic practice and enlisted in Parliament's army, in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(regiment of Cromwell or Middleton. The 'birth of the prophet' TheaurauJohn Tany is understandable, as the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(last chapter of the section shows, within the culture of puritan penitence and of the mystical ideas of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(purgation, illumination and union with God.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The second section of )] TJ ET BT 141.992 261.509 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [('Gold tried in the Fire')] TJ ET BT 250.460 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( shows at first how the God who renamed Thomas Totney, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(TheaurauJohn Tany and made him the high priest of 'Aaron's order' and 'of the tribe of Reuben' had )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consulted heraldic records and read some of the books circulating in England in late 1640s. The genealogy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of his surname from Totney to Tany and the adoption of a coat of arms, which is reproduced and recalled )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(several times in the prophet's pamphlets, were only made possible through research in an ordinary of arms )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(compiled by Robert Glover in the 16th century. Decoding Tany's genealogical and heraldic language, current )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the 17th century but oddly extraneous to modern commentators, Hessayon demonstrates that, so to speak, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(God's intention was to link the London goldsmith to a Norman baron, who had supposedly arrived in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(England with William the Conqueror. The prophet's God-given name, while containing that of the noble )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ancestor, also echoed hidden meanings connected to letters of the Greek and Hebrew alphabets. In the first )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(part, the Greek letter )] TJ ET BT 136.316 118.949 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(theta)] TJ ET BT 160.316 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and the Hebrew )] TJ ET BT 242.288 118.949 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(thau)] TJ ET BT 263.624 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( were represented, signifying the Spirit of God and the divine )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(vision; in the middle, )] TJ ET BT 139.028 104.693 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(aurau)] TJ ET BT 167.696 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( recalled Tany's former trade and the title of Boehme's first book, )] TJ ET BT 483.620 104.693 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Aurora)] TJ ET BT 518.288 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(name John obviously recalled Christ's disciple and, through the transliteration of the Hebrew, the 'Dove', )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which symbolised God's love. Proclaiming himself a 'Jew of the tribe of Reuben', Tany fashioned his God-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(given identity so as to circumvent the prescription of the Mosaic laws about prophets having to be free from )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 18 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 525.2837 414.9895 539.2757 426.8695 ] >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 22 0 R ] /Contents 20 0 R >> endobj 20 0 obj << /Length 7854 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('any blemish' - this was promptly understood by John Reeve and Lodowick Muggleton, who threw in Tany's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(face the fact that he stuttered. All this meant, therefore, that the London goldsmith was part of social )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(networks in which he could gain access to rare heraldic information, to some meagre knowledge of Hebrew, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Latin and Greek, and to the basics of Boehme's concept of signatures and of the Kabbalistic doctrines. He )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(had to be aware also of the writings on the dispersion of the Hebrews, in which theories about the tribe of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Reuben were circulating at that time. )] TJ ET BT 214.316 725.189 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Hope of Israel)] TJ ET BT 304.640 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( by Menasseh ben Israel printed in English in 1650, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(some months after Tany's re-birth, is one such work. On this, Hessayon limits himself to showing that some )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of Tany's contacts, notably his patron and disciple Robert Norwood, had links - for example, with John )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sadler, who in turn was connected to Menasseh ben Israel via John Dury - which can explain Tany's access )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to books and theories otherwise out of reach to an ordinary London artisan. Similarly, Hessayon presents )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ample evidence that Tany had more than simply occasional contacts with the bookseller Giles Calvert, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(frequented John Pordage's family in Bradfield, where Richard Coppin, Abiezer Coppe, and the prophetess )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Elizabeth Poole had also found hospitality. Tany certainly came into contact there with the magus and digger )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(William Everard and could, quite plausibly, have been exposed to Behmenist meditations and alchemical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(knowledge.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Against the backdrop of his genealogical culture, moreover, Hessayon is able to situate Tany's agenda for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(social reformation in respect of the people with whom he has often been associated. It presupposed an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interpretation of pure and undefiled religion as active love, drawn from the Epistle of James. For Tany this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(meant acts and not just words, as it did also for William Walwyn, Abiezer Coppe and Gerrard Winstanley, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(among others. His agenda also implied some knowledge of Sir Edward Coke's )] TJ ET BT 413.132 513.605 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Institutes)] TJ ET BT 457.136 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, and opposition to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the 'Norman Yoke'. But for Tany, unlike the others, social levelling also entailed appropriating a Norman )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ancestry to fight 'tyrannical power' on equal terms, as in a trial by combat. Significantly \(or not?\), he defied )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(William Algernon Percy, earl of Northumberland, who had led the opposition to the King's trial in the House )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of Lords and had headed the parliamentary committee against 'abuses in heraldry' \(p. 189-90\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Like Coppe and Pordage, TheaurauJohn and Robert Norwood came up against the strictures of the law for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their religious opinions. Hessayon demonstrates that the charges were shaped so as to associate them with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Ranters, and that they were condemned under the Blasphemy Act. They were then released six months )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(later by a jury wishing to stick to the letter of the law and not to mingle the intricacies of theology. In actual )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fact, it had been plain that Tany and Norwood had held that there was no local hell, as opposed to claiming )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(there was 'neither heaven nor hell' \(the opinion indicted by the Blasphemy Act\). Showing the orthodox )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(representation of heterodoxy and also the orthodox's failure to understand the heterodox is, in Hessayon's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(scheme, the way to definitely penetrate the veils of Tany's obscure religion and world-view.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hessayon's most interesting findings in this respect are contained in the third and last section. He decodes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(TheaurauJohn's language by referring back to its sources, such as the New Testament and the writings of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Boheme. He shows and follows this prophet's way of reasoning by giving meaning to the 'radaxes' of words - )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which evoked the Hebrew philological understanding of words as being composed of root and functional )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(letters - and to his references to the number seven, including the seven languages which Tany claimed to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(know.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hessayon's procedure is quite peculiar. He does not simply present the results of his inquiry, but leads the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reader to an understanding of what TheaurauJohn could have read or listened to. Sometimes this ends in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conclusion that any direct borrowing from a source is undemonstrable anyway, except for a single but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(distinguishable echo - as in the case of the )] TJ ET BT 239.648 163.973 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Apocrypha)] TJ ET BT 292.304 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. The reader is, therefore, plunged into canonical and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(extra-canonical texts; neoplatonic, hermetic and syncretist sets of ideas; Pythagorean numerology, astrology )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and Jewish Kabbalah; and, the texts of Ficino, Pico, Cornelius Agrippa and Paracelsus, before returning to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(single lines of Theaurajohn's text. It is the mediation of Boehme - who 'with the exception of canonical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sources' was 'the most important influence' on TheaurauJohn Tany's thought - which conveys many of these )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(echoes. For this reason, Hessayon also devotes space to the networks through which the translations of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Boheme's works were promoted and realised during the 1640s and 1650s. The contours of their diffusion )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and of their readership - also analysed in greater depth in some other of Hessayon's essays )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 469.412 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 469.412 62.787 m 483.404 62.787 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 483.404 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( - is greatly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(clarified by this effort. It is true to say that Tany's vocabulary is indeed distinguished by the presence of the )] TJ ET endstream endobj 21 0 obj [19 0 R /Fit] endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 23 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 469.4117 63.1015 483.4037 74.9815 ] >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 25 0 R >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Length 7784 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(neologisms which John Sparrow and John Ellistone, the translators of Boehme's works, coined to render his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(meditations into English.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In this way, individual sections of TheaurauJohn's text are progressively elucidated. In the end it is, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(therefore, possible for Hessayon to attempt a reconstruction of the text as a whole. Chapter 12, 'The Book of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Theos-ologi According to TheaurauJohn', whose first version startled me in Hessayon's PhD thesis, is this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attempt; and it is entirely constructed of quotations which are only co-ordinated by punctuation and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conjunctions. These are pages which must be read and cannot be summed up. Tany's ideas on the Creation as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the 'unfolding' of God; Adam and Eve 'as the whole creations of God'; hell as 'separation from happiness'; )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and, 'this Earthly prison', 'the Trinity in Unity', the fall of Lucifer and God the 'Center' 'all over all' 'and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nothing', come forth in the full force of their originality. However, this is proposed just as an incitement to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(read the original. Wishing to avoid the trap of an anachronistic or orthodox reading of heterodoxy, Hessayon )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(acknowledges that he is unwittingly compelled to 'sacrifice the original on the altar of expediency', by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(selecting quotations to give them coherence and render them intelligible.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The final chapter and coda constitute the exposition of the last part of the life of the self-proclaimed 'King of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Jews'. There it is possible, with a high rate of probability and almost certainty, to account for his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dramatic millenarian gestures in and around London. It is also possible to establish that Tany, like the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Quakers, set sail to cross the channel to the United Provinces and that he drowned on the way back to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(England in December 1659. Hessayon refers to the fact that Tany was undoubtedly deemed mad by most of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his contemporaries, and shows that his 'posthumous reputation was mixed' between admiration and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contempt. Notwithstanding that, his books still continued to be read and annotated into the 18th century.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The real end is, however, represented in the chapter 'The Book of Theos-ologi'. There the central statements )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the entire work of )] TJ ET BT 135.656 461.093 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [('Gold tried in the Fire')] TJ ET BT 244.124 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( occur. In the general scheme of things, 'interpretation inevitably )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(renders violence to the texts'. In the particular, 'we do not know nor can we know what Tany intended, what )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Tany had in mind when he wrote his words' \(p. 352\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As Hessayon declares in his introduction, and as is indeed implied in his style of writing history, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ambition of )] TJ ET BT 92.684 392.069 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [('Gold tried in the Fire')] TJ ET BT 201.152 392.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is 'to ask questions about the nature of History and how it should be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(written' \(p. 18\). It is not that Hessayon is unaware that his is an interpretation competing with others. Rather, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(he seems to consider his as less 'fictional' than others, indeed as more 'persuasive', because it sticks to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sources and eliminates linguistic terms and concepts which are accused of conveying the ideological )] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(problems of the present into the account of the past. Hessayon does not make use of concepts which are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(often at the centre of the historical debate when historians deal with figures like TheaurauJohn. The terms )] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('Radical', in the substantive as well as in the adjective form, or the 'English revolution' \(despite the title\), are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nowhere to be found in his book, apart from the introduction where his entire discussion of relevant studies )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the field is also confined. Even when 'all seems to say the same thing' - that the young Thomas Totney )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was a puritan, for example - Hessayon immediately draws back by underlining that this could also be 'what )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(we wish to read into what we choose to see' \(p. 81\). While we are led to follow the paths of his research )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hypotheses concerning the networks of socially heterogeneous like-minded individuals surrounding Tany, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hessayon constantly refrains from advancing assertions that would imply a too-straightforward interpretative )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(presence, and leaves it to the reader to draw his conclusion. As the reader progresses through the more than )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(400 pages of this book it becomes more and more clear that Hessayon's project is, in a way, similar to that of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his chosen protagonist: to purge the 'gold' from the 'dross', that is, in my reading, to recover a sort of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historical objectivity bypassing the stratification of decades of historical interpretations; as if a sort of 'death )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the historian' could allow TheaurauJohn Tany \(or any historical subject\) to better emerge as he \(it\) was.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.461 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [('Gold tried in the Fire')] TJ ET BT 142.484 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is, from this point of view, highly problematic. As Carlo Ginzburg has argued, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('micro' has to enlighten the 'macro' perspective. Both approaches together can enlighten phenomena which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(are lost to them if singularly pursued, and it is the crux of the historian to allow them to dialogue, by moving )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(constantly between the 'close ups' and the 'extreme long shots'. Hessayon's way of dealing with the problems )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the false, the fictional and the truth in historical writing recalls that of Ginzburg, whose )] TJ ET BT 468.620 66.437 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Il formaggio e i )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(vermi)] TJ ET BT 61.340 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is cited in the 'Introduction' as an important model.)] TJ ET BT 308.312 52.181 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [('Gold tried in the Fire')] TJ ET BT 416.780 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( reveals the hypotheses, )] TJ ET endstream endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 29 0 R 31 0 R 33 0 R 35 0 R 37 0 R 39 0 R 41 0 R 43 0 R ] /Contents 27 0 R >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Length 6745 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(questions, doubts and uncertainties of the historian; and warns the reader of the gaps in the documentation, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the 'maybes' and conditional statements. In this way, it leads the reader through the truth-seeking process )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(up to the \(necessarily incomplete\) achieved truth. )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 273.968 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 273.968 766.563 m 287.960 766.563 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 287.960 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Hessayon's way of 'marry[ing] the particular to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(general', however, is one-sided: he wishes to 'establish some kind of certainty of the minute details so as to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(speak with authority of the bigger picture' \(p. 18\), but he discounts the inverse; how the 'extreme long shots' )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(can enlighten the 'close ups'. This is why, in a manner of speaking, what could be a script for a great )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historical movie, turns out to be actually a great script for a documentary.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The issue raised by Hessayon's book is whether we get closer to truth by leaving historiographical debates )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(aside and purging historical language from allegedly present-oriented terms. If it is a legitimate dialogue )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(between past and present in history writing and if questions arising from the present are to be allowed in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(inquiring the past; then my answer is yes. Not all the recoverable past is indeed significant in the same way )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(at all times.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Therefore, my question in the face of the book's conclusion: 'Nothing that has taken place should be lost to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(History' \(p. 394\), is why? In other words, what sense does the history of TheaurauJohn Tany have for us )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(today? )] TJ ET BT 69.008 572.885 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [('Gold tried in the fire')] TJ ET BT 173.480 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( does not answer this question. It does, however, raise the problem with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exceptional clarity and answers many of the questions about the world of the 'Radicals' of the 'English )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(revolution', and we have to thank Hessayon for this.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 509.475 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 478.858 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 478.853 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(P. Lake, )] TJ ET BT 106.676 478.853 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Boxmaker's Revenge: Orthodoxy, Heterodoxy and the Politics of the Parish in Early )] TJ ET BT 64.016 464.597 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Stuart London)] TJ ET BT 133.028 464.597 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Manchester: Manchester University Press, 2001\); D. Como, )] TJ ET BT 430.652 464.597 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Blown by the Spirit: )] TJ ET BT 64.016 450.341 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Puritanism and the Emergence of an Antinomian Underground in Pre-Civil-War England)] TJ ET BT 495.992 450.341 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(California: )] TJ ET BT 64.016 436.085 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Stanford, 2004\). )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 145.340 436.085 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 145.340 434.691 m 199.328 434.691 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 421.834 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 421.829 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('Jacob Boehme and the early Quakers', )] TJ ET BT 252.620 421.829 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Journal of the Friends Historical Society)] TJ ET BT 449.612 421.829 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 60 \(2005\); '"The )] TJ ET BT 64.016 407.573 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Teutonicks writings": translating Jacob Boehme into English and Welsh', )] TJ ET BT 418.388 407.573 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Esoterica)] TJ ET BT 464.384 407.573 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 9 \(2007\); A. )] TJ ET BT 64.016 393.317 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hessayon, 'Jacob Boehme, Emanuel Swedenborg and their readers', in )] TJ ET BT 404.264 393.317 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Arms of Morpheus: Essays )] TJ ET BT 64.016 379.061 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(on Swedenborg and Mysticism, )] TJ ET BT 217.004 379.061 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ed. S. McNeilly \(The Swedenborg Society: 2007\), pp.17-56. )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 509.972 379.061 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to )] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 509.972 377.667 m 549.968 377.667 l S BT 64.016 364.805 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 363.411 m 78.008 363.411 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 350.554 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 350.549 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(C. Ginzburg, 'Microstoria: due o tre cose che so di lei', in )] TJ ET BT 341.300 350.549 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Il filo e le tracce. vero falso finto)] TJ ET BT 499.292 350.549 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. )] TJ ET BT 64.016 336.293 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ginzburg \(Milano: Feltrinelli, 2006\), p. 256. )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 280.676 336.293 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 280.676 334.899 m 334.664 334.899 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 310.037 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 295.781 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(oxford journals)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 281.525 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://ahr.oxfordjournals.org/content/113/4/1232.full)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 280.131 m 287.012 280.131 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 290.012 281.525 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET BT 34.016 267.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(muse)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 253.013 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/ren/summary/v061/61.4.flinker.html)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 251.619 m 347.024 251.619 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 350.024 253.013 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 248.287 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 230.507 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 230.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/655)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 229.113 m 322.316 229.113 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 204.136 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 189.736 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/3629)] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.336 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://ahr.oxfordjournals.org/content/113/4/1232.full)] TJ ET BT 34.016 160.936 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3] http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/ren/summary/v061/61.4.flinker.html)] TJ ET endstream endobj 28 0 obj [26 0 R /Fit] endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 30 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 273.9677 766.8775 287.9597 778.7575 ] >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 32 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 145.3397 435.0055 199.3277 446.8855 ] >> endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 16 0 R >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 34 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 509.9717 377.9815 549.9677 389.8615 ] >> endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 21 0 R >> endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 36 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 64.0157 363.7255 78.0077 375.6055 ] >> endobj 36 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 21 0 R >> endobj 37 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 38 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 280.6757 335.2135 334.6637 347.0935 ] >> endobj 38 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 28 0 R >> endobj 39 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 40 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 280.4455 287.0117 292.3255 ] >> endobj 40 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://ahr.oxfordjournals.org/content/113/4/1232.full) >> endobj 41 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 42 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 251.9335 347.0237 263.8135 ] >> endobj 42 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/ren/summary/v061/61.4.flinker.html) >> endobj 43 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 44 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 229.4275 322.3157 241.3075 ] >> endobj 44 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/655) >> endobj xref 0 45 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000349 00000 n 0000000386 00000 n 0000000592 00000 n 0000000674 00000 n 0000004624 00000 n 0000004733 00000 n 0000004843 00000 n 0000004952 00000 n 0000008513 00000 n 0000008641 00000 n 0000008725 00000 n 0000008809 00000 n 0000017142 00000 n 0000017172 00000 n 0000017300 00000 n 0000017336 00000 n 0000017420 00000 n 0000025327 00000 n 0000025357 00000 n 0000025483 00000 n 0000025519 00000 n 0000025584 00000 n 0000033421 00000 n 0000033554 00000 n 0000040352 00000 n 0000040382 00000 n 0000040510 00000 n 0000040546 00000 n 0000040674 00000 n 0000040729 00000 n 0000040857 00000 n 0000040912 00000 n 0000041038 00000 n 0000041093 00000 n 0000041221 00000 n 0000041276 00000 n 0000041403 00000 n 0000041508 00000 n 0000041635 00000 n 0000041750 00000 n 0000041878 00000 n trailer << /Size 45 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 41973 %%EOF