%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 25 0 R 30 0 R 38 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140723184504+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140723184504+01'00') /Title (George Akropolites: The History) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4262 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(George Akropolites: The History)] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The )] TJ ET BT 55.676 287.579 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(History)] TJ ET BT 91.676 287.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( of George Akropolites describes an exceptional period in Byzantine history, between the loss of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Constantinople to the forces of the Fourth Crusade in 1204 and the reconquest of the city by Michael VIII )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Palaiologos in 1261. Ruth Macrides's English translation of the text, a long-awaited publication based on her )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1978 doctoral thesis, is sure to be invaluable to the future teaching of the later history of Byzantium and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(makes this important source readily accessible to a wider anglophone audience.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(While English translations of the 11th- and 12th-century histories of Michael Psellos, Anna Komnene, John )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Kinnamos and Niketas Choniates are available, as are the 15th-century works of Doukas and Sphrantzes and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the early books of Laonikos Chalkokondyles, the lack of access to the histories of the intervening period in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this language provides a considerable impediment to undergraduate teaching of the era. This publication )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(marks a major step in the remedying of this deficiency. In addition to the value of the translation itself, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exceptionally thorough and detailed commentary and apparatus accompanying the text firmly locate the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(work in the context of its author's career and preoccupations, and the evidence supplied by other sources )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(regarding the events and individuals it describes. They illuminate the shaping of the text by Akropolites's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(perspectives, interests, and political and personal agenda, showing how these inform both the presentation of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 75.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(its content and its omissions and evasions. The commentary amounts to a major contribution to the study of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Byzantine historiography and a historical and prosopographical companion to the period as a whole which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(656)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Tuesday, 1 April, 2008)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Editor:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ruth Macrides)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780199210671)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2007)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(70.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(400pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oxford University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oxford)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Christopher Wright)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 17 0 R 20 0 R 23 0 R ] /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 8068 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(will be of great use to specialists as well as those new to the subject. This work is of particular value given )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that in the past there has been a conspicuous shortage of searching analysis of this author and the forces )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(shaping his history, when compared to research on other Byzantine historians.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(One of the most immediate effects of the fall of Constantinople to the Latins was the emergence of multiple )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(durable successor regimes, whose ruling dynasties each at one time or another laid claim to the imperial title. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Yet this new plurality is not reflected in this period's historiographical legacy. No narratives have survived to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relate the development of the regimes based in Epiros or Trebizond from the point of view of their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(inhabitants, or to express the perspectives of their rulers. The Byzantine historians whose work supplies the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(backbone for our knowledge of the successor states were all adherents to the Nicaean empire or of its direct )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(continuation, the Byzantine empire restored to its ancient capital. Of these, only Akropolites supplies a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contemporary account spanning the period. Niketas Choniates covers only a few years after 1204 and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(George Pachymeres a few years before 1261 with some allusions to the events of the preceding decades, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(while the chronicle of Theodore Skoutariotes adapted Akropolites's account from a contrasting political and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(religious perspective. Thus, while his portrayal can be supplemented and his perspectives balanced by other )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sources, we are heavily reliant on Akropolites both for our understanding of the history of the Nicaean )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(regime in Anatolia and that of its rivals in the Balkans. His text supplies the necessary starting point for any )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(study of the Byzantine world as it emerged from the cataclysm of 1204.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Paradoxically, despite its role as the linchpin of our knowledge of this unique period, Akropolites's account )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is not especially reflective of its distinctive character, as Macrides has argued previously. )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 464.924 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 464.924 514.467 m 478.916 514.467 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 478.916 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Originating )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from Constantinople himself, writing after the reconquest of the capital and being an adherent of Michael )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(VIII, who had ousted the dynasty that had ruled the Nicaean empire and was on bad terms with the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(population of the Asian provinces on which it had been based, Akropolites produced a history of an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Anatolian regime which reveals remarkably little about Anatolia and a history of an imperial dynasty which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is geared to the needs of the usurper who had overthrown it. Unsurprisingly, the viewpoint of the Byzantine )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rulers in the Balkans also receives unsympathetic treatment in this work. Akropolites treated them, for the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(most part, as renegades against legitimate authority and rejected their claims to represent the continuation of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Byzantine empire to the extent that he even declines to regard their people as Romans. He relays to us )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the history of the regimes of Nicaea and Epiros but he does so from a perspective fixed firmly in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Byzantium of the Palaiologoi.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In recent years Akropolites has attracted the attention of a number of translators who have rendered the work )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(into Russian, German and modern Greek; this publication, however, is the only published English )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(translation. )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 90.680 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 90.680 317.139 m 104.672 317.139 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 104.672 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( The translation is founded on Heisenberg's edition of 1903, taking into account Wirth's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(emendations of 1978, and largely follows Heisenberg's organisational structure. )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 419.780 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 419.780 302.883 m 433.772 302.883 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 433.772 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Macrides has, however, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(made very occasional emendations to Heisenberg's and Wirth's readings, which are noted and justified in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(apparatus. The translation remains close to the original wording and Macrides has sought with considerable )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(success to convey directly Akropolite's style and its variations, and to avoid polishing awkwardness where it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exists in the text. This method is well suited to a text whose language and style is clear and straightforward )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by the standards of Byzantine classicising histories and is, therefore, in less need than some of interpretative )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(clarification. As well as accurately and lucidly conveying the form and content of the original, through this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(approach Macrides succeeds in reflecting the contrast between the largely plain and straightforward prose )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which characterises most of the work and the more florid passages which occasionally intrude and whose )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more elaborate rhetoric reflects their importance to Akropolites's agenda.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(What most conspicuously sets this publication apart from existing English translations of other Byzantine )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historians is the sheer scale of the accompanying commentary, founded on wide-ranging research whose )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(thoroughness is reflected in the extensive bibliography. This supporting work is delivered in three forms: the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(introduction, passages of commentary accompanying each section of the text and the apparatus of notes; )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(between them they approach four times the length of the text itself. The introduction gives a detailed and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(comprehensive account of Akropolites's career and writings and an examination of the work as a whole. This )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(includes analysis of his sources and influences; literary aspects of his work, such as its approach to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nomenclature and chronology, and its classicising elements; and the light cast on his work by the differing )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 18 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 464.9237 514.7815 478.9157 526.6615 ] >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 19 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 90.6797 317.4535 104.6717 329.3335 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 22 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 24 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 419.7797 303.1975 433.7717 315.0775 ] >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 28 0 R ] /Contents 26 0 R >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Length 7744 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(viewpoints of his historiographical successor Pachymeres and his adapter Skoutariotes. The introduction )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(also provides a series of studies on the text's presentation of particular subjects. These include Akropolites's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(treatment of the career of Alexios III Angelos, the origins of the empire of Nicaea, the Nicaean army and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(navy and the portrayal of the Turks, Latins, Bulgarians and Epirots. They amount to a valuable overview of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the picture Akropolites presents of the political landscape around him, and in the case of the studies on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(army and navy, a compendium of the precious fragments of information he offers on matters on which little )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(evidence is available. Each of the sections into which the text is divided is accompanied by a passage of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(commentary summarising its content while discussing particular points of interest. These passages also )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(supply cross-references, references, pertinent secondary works and other sources relating to the same events, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as well as highlighting those events known only from Akropolites. The notes are particularly impressive in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their historical discussion of individual points in the text, providing supplementary information and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(references, comparisons of Akropolites's account with other relevant sources and discussion of specific )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(problems or matters of interest in unusual breadth and depth, while also attending to textual ambiguities and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(terminological questions. Especially notable here is the volume of prosopographical material supplied )] TJ ET BT 34.016 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(regarding the individuals mentioned in the text. The overall effect is to leave little or nothing in the text )] TJ ET BT 34.016 582.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lacking necessary contextualisation, clarification or illumination, and Macrides is to be greatly applauded )] TJ ET BT 34.016 568.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(both for the extent of the painstaking scholarship on display and for its effective deployment.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In its characterisation of the text as a whole, the central argumentative thrust of Macrides's commentary is an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(effort to illuminate the partisan proclivities which shaped Akropolites's work, elaborating the arguments she )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(has made in previous articles. )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 179.324 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 179.324 512.211 m 193.316 512.211 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 193.316 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( The importance of such analysis is increased by the fact that his matter-of-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fact, rational and largely dispassionate approach has encouraged a widespread perception of Akropolites as a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(broadly objective and impartial witness, despite recognition of his alignment with Michael VIII. It is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Macrides's contention that the extent to which Akropolites's political and personal purposes pervade the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(work have tended to be insufficiently recognised. Chief among the factors distorting the history's portrayal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of events was Akropolites's association in the latter part of his career with Michael VIII. Unusually among )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Byzantine historians, he still held high governmental office at the time of writing, a fact which must have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(magnified the pressure on him to please the current regime. This was further intensified by the fact that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Akropolites was not only a beneficiary of the patronage of Michael's predecessors John III Vatatzes and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Theodore II Laskaris but one of the latter's closest friends and assistants. Having survived the purge which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(killed all the other members of Theodore's inner circle at the time of Michael's coup d'etat and having then )] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(managed to return to high office - apparently thanks to the fact that he was a prisoner of Michael II of Epiros )] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(at the time and that he was married to one of Michael's relatives - there was clearly a great incentive for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Akropolites to emphasise his loyalty to the new regime by distancing himself from his former benefactors )] TJ ET BT 34.016 314.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and what they stood for. Macrides suggests that the profundity of this rupture with his own past has been )] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(under-estimated because Akropolites has successfully misdirected later historians by associating himself )] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with the aristocratic milieu around Michael VIII while disparaging Theodore II's other protgs and their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 271.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lowly origins. By comparing what is known of their families and the course of his career, she convincingly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 256.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(argues that Akropolites came from the same social background as the ministers he denigrates and like them )] TJ ET BT 34.016 242.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(owed his eminence entirely to the favour of the Laskarid emperors - facts he was at pains to conceal.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In light of this characterisation of his circumstances and motives, Macrides illustrates in detail the ways in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which Akropolites skewed his portrayal in the service of the emperor and in his own interest. Michael and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his family appear in a prominent and positive fashion from an early stage in the history, with potentially )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discreditable incidents in his career, such as his trial for treason and his flight to the Turks, being turned to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his advantage and the detriment of his predecessors. She shows how this favourable portrayal and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unfavourable one of John, Theodore and their associates reinforce one another through a juxtaposition of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(qualities and behaviour of the individuals concerned. Meanwhile Akropolites's own closeness to the old )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(regime is underplayed and a transient incident of acrimony between him and Theodore given elaborate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(coverage.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Akropolites has been able to retain his reputation for objectivity because he steered clear of blatant polemic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the means by which his partisan portrayal of the past is conveyed are often discreet. Macrides is most )] TJ ET endstream endobj 27 0 obj [25 0 R /Fit] endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 29 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 179.3237 512.5255 193.3157 524.4055 ] >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 33 0 R 36 0 R ] /Contents 31 0 R >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Length 7849 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(persuasive in her enumeration of the manifold ways in which the text reveals a central preoccupation with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(elevating Michael VIII, and presents a personally flattering and politically apposite picture of Akropolites's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(own career. The view that emerges is of a work which, although it deals largely with the empire of Nicaea )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and its Laskaris-Vatatzes rulers, is in effect a prehistory for the regime of Michael VIII Palaiologos. Through )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the comparison with the contrasting portrayals presented by Skoutariotes and Pachymeres, Macrides )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(underlines the idiosyncrasies of Akropolites's version of events. Thus the commentary supplies the reader )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with the necessary context for a sensitive understanding of the text.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In addition to this compellingly argued central theme, which expands and reinforces the arguments made in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(her previous publications, Macrides's commentary also offers other important insights into the roots and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nature of Akropolites's outlook. Notably, she convincingly documents a close correspondence between his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interests and attitudes and those of his teacher Nikephoros Blemmydes, particularly in his treatment of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ecclesiastical matters. Another of the most striking elements of the commentary is the argument that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Akropolites presents the bonds of kinship as the principal causative force in political affairs, which is again )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(well supported with abundant citations from the text. It is only a pity that no more extensive treatment could )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(be given to this fascinating argument, with its resonance with wider Byzantine social, cultural and political )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(developments, and with the tension between Theodore II's governmental approach shaped by friendship and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(meritocracy and the more aristocratic ethos represented by Michael VIII in particular. While constraints of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(space clearly applied here, it could at least have been given greater prominence rather than being fitted into a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(section on the role of classicism in the work. It is to be hoped that Macrides will return to the theme at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(greater length in future publications.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Despite the excellence of the content, some criticism may be made of the organisation of the commentary. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jarringly, the passages of commentary accompanying each section of the text follow rather than preceding )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the section in question. This arrangement is baffling considering that most of these commentaries begin by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(summarising the content of the section; this would be a logical and helpful inclusion in a prefatory passage, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(but it is futile when it appears only after the reader has finished reading the section itself. As is common in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(translations, the notes to the text also follow each section and its commentary, requiring the reader to flick )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(back and forth between them and the text. While awkward, this choice is probably justified in this case, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(given the sheer extent of the notes.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Besides the inevitable occasional errors in the index and cross-references, there are some factual mistakes, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(principally in the treatment of the immediate aftermath of the Fourth Crusade. The individual mentioned by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Choniates as wielding authority in the Maiander valley and fighting against Theodore Laskaris was Manuel )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Maurozomes not Theodore Maurozomes as stated \(p. 84\). )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 314.624 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 314.624 317.139 m 328.616 317.139 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 328.616 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( The assertion that Leo Sgouros had fought )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(effectively against the Latins prior to his marriage to Eudokia Angelina, daughter of Alexios III \(p. 81\) is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unfounded: there is no indication that Sgouros had fought the Latins at all at the time of this marriage, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his subsequent efforts to halt their advance were conspicuously ineffective. )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 397.604 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 397.604 274.371 m 411.596 274.371 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 411.596 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Geoffrey of Villehardouin )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(does not describe the siege of Varna in 1201 as stated \(p. 91\) - his cited descriptions of Bulgarian siege )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(methods actually relate to the sieges of Didymoteichon and Adrianople in 1206-7. However, as all such )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(errors are minor and confined to matters peripheral to the subject, they do not seriously impair the work as a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(whole.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In addition to the commentary, the text is also accompanied by maps depicting the Balkans and Anatolia and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by family trees of the leading Byzantine families of the period. The maps are specifically and very )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(effectively geared to the purpose of acting as a companion to the text, identifying the location of all the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(settlements and regions in Anatolia, the Balkans and the Aegean mentioned by Akropolites - and those )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(alone. Similarly, the 'Macedonia' marked is not the region to which we would normally apply that term but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rather the area referred to under that name by Akropolites, that is to say the Byzantine )] TJ ET BT 449.588 121.205 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(theme)] TJ ET BT 478.244 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( actually located )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in Thrace. All known locations are clearly and accurately placed, while conjectural positions are given for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(places of uncertain identification, with due acknowledgement of that uncertainty. The depiction of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(physical landscape is also unusually thorough, with comprehensive coverage of rivers. However, the area )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(covered by the maps leaves Trebizond and Karitana just outside their boundaries and the location of these )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(two places is shown using small inset maps, an awkward device which could readily have been avoided with )] TJ ET endstream endobj 32 0 obj [30 0 R /Fit] endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 34 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 314.6237 317.4535 328.6157 329.3335 ] >> endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 35 0 obj [30 0 R /Fit] endobj 36 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 37 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 397.6037 274.6855 411.5957 286.5655 ] >> endobj 37 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 38 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 40 0 R 42 0 R 44 0 R 46 0 R 48 0 R 50 0 R 52 0 R ] /Contents 39 0 R >> endobj 39 0 obj << /Length 6312 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(only a small modification of the area covered by the main maps. The organisation of the family trees )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(likewise emphasises their relevance to the text, specifying which of the individuals shown Akropolites )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mentions by name, which of them are unnamed in his text but are identifiable from other sources, and which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of them are not present in his history at all. While generally clear and informative, there are some )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unfortunate elements of sloppiness in the presentation of these tables. Connecting lines leading nowhere )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(appear without explanation and occasionally, as in the case of the descendants of Isaac Doukas on Table 3 or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of Theodore Komenos Doukas's daughter Eirene on Table 4, it is unclear which member of a married couple )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is descended from the identified parents.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In translating this work, Macrides has enabled readers to gain easier access to the most important source on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the period; in supplementing it with a masterful and meticulous commentary, she has illuminated the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(problems and peculiarities that must be understood to achieve a proper appreciation of its value and its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(limitations. The publication as a whole is the most impressive translation of a Byzantine historian yet to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(appear in English.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(May 2008)] TJ ET BT 34.016 560.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This is a comprehensive and complimentary review and I am pleased to have received it. I thank the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 546.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reviewer for correcting the factual errors which are indeed errors.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 511.731 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 481.114 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 481.109 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(R. Macrides, 'The 13th century in Byzantine historical writing', in )] TJ ET BT 382.640 481.109 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Porphyrogenita: Essays on )] TJ ET BT 64.016 466.853 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Byzantine History, in Honour of Julian Chrysostomides)] TJ ET BT 331.016 466.853 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. C. Dendrinos, J. Harris, E. Harvalia-)] TJ ET BT 64.016 452.597 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Crook and J. Herrin \(Aldershot, 2003\), pp. 63-76 at pp. 68-9, 72-6. )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 388.304 452.597 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 388.304 451.203 m 442.292 451.203 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 438.346 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 438.341 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(E.g. )] TJ ET BT 86.348 438.341 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Georgios Akropolites \(1217-82\) -)] TJ ET BT 250.328 438.341 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Die Chronik)] TJ ET BT 309.992 438.341 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, trans. W. Blum \(Stuttgart, 1989\); )] TJ ET BT 477.992 438.341 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Georgii )] TJ ET BT 64.016 424.085 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Akropolit - Historia)] TJ ET BT 159.356 424.085 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, trans. P. I. Zavoronkov \(St. Petersburg, 2005\). )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 390.332 424.085 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 390.332 422.691 m 444.320 422.691 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 409.834 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 409.829 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Georgii Akropolitae Opera)] TJ ET BT 194.672 409.829 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. A. Heisenberg, 2 vols. \(Leipzig 1903\), reprinted with corrections by P. )] TJ ET BT 64.016 395.573 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wirth \(Stuttgart, 1978\). )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 180.344 395.573 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 180.344 394.179 m 234.332 394.179 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 381.322 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 381.317 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(R. Macrides, 'George Akropolites's rhetoric', in )] TJ ET BT 293.456 381.317 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Rhetoric in Byzantium)] TJ ET BT 400.784 381.317 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. E. Jeffreys \(Aldershot, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 367.061 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2003\), pp. 201-9; 'The historian in the history', in )] TJ ET BT 302.996 367.061 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(FILELLHN: Studies in Honour of Robert Browning)] TJ ET BT 551.012 367.061 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 352.805 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ed. C. N. Constantinides, N. M. Panagiotakes and A. D. Angelou \(Venice, 1996\) pp. 205-24 at pp. 221-)] TJ ET BT 64.016 338.549 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3; and, Macrides in Dendrinos. )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 215.660 338.549 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 215.660 337.155 m 269.648 337.155 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 324.298 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(5.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 324.293 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Niketas Choniates Historia)] TJ ET BT 194.696 324.293 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. J. A. van Dieten, \(Berlin, 1975\), pp. 626, 638. )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 441.668 324.293 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 441.668 322.899 m 495.656 322.899 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 310.042 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(6.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 310.037 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(van Dieten, pp. 608-9, 611. )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 198.332 310.037 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 198.332 308.643 m 252.320 308.643 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 283.781 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 269.525 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 264.799 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 247.019 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 247.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/656)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 245.625 m 322.316 245.625 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 220.648 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.248 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/3630)] TJ ET BT 34.016 191.848 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj 40 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 41 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 388.3037 451.5175 442.2917 463.3975 ] >> endobj 41 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 16 0 R >> endobj 42 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 43 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 390.3317 423.0055 444.3197 434.8855 ] >> endobj 43 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 19 0 R >> endobj 44 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 45 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 180.3437 394.4935 234.3317 406.3735 ] >> endobj 45 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 22 0 R >> endobj 46 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 47 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 215.6597 337.4695 269.6477 349.3495 ] >> endobj 47 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 27 0 R >> endobj 48 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 49 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 441.6677 323.2135 495.6557 335.0935 ] >> endobj 49 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 32 0 R >> endobj 50 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 51 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 198.3317 308.9575 252.3197 320.8375 ] >> endobj 51 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 35 0 R >> endobj 52 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 53 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 245.9395 322.3157 257.8195 ] >> endobj 53 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/656) >> endobj xref 0 54 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000349 00000 n 0000000386 00000 n 0000000541 00000 n 0000000623 00000 n 0000004937 00000 n 0000005046 00000 n 0000005156 00000 n 0000005265 00000 n 0000008826 00000 n 0000008954 00000 n 0000009038 00000 n 0000009136 00000 n 0000017257 00000 n 0000017287 00000 n 0000017415 00000 n 0000017451 00000 n 0000017481 00000 n 0000017608 00000 n 0000017644 00000 n 0000017674 00000 n 0000017802 00000 n 0000017838 00000 n 0000017922 00000 n 0000025719 00000 n 0000025749 00000 n 0000025877 00000 n 0000025913 00000 n 0000026004 00000 n 0000033906 00000 n 0000033936 00000 n 0000034064 00000 n 0000034100 00000 n 0000034130 00000 n 0000034258 00000 n 0000034294 00000 n 0000034420 00000 n 0000040785 00000 n 0000040913 00000 n 0000040968 00000 n 0000041096 00000 n 0000041151 00000 n 0000041279 00000 n 0000041334 00000 n 0000041462 00000 n 0000041517 00000 n 0000041645 00000 n 0000041700 00000 n 0000041828 00000 n 0000041883 00000 n 0000042011 00000 n trailer << /Size 54 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 42106 %%EOF